عهد أشولي

(تم التحويل من Acheulean)
هذا العهد هو جزء من
حقبة پلايستوسين Pleistocene.
پلايستوسين Pleistocene
Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
Olduwan culture
عهد أشولي Acheulean
Clactonian culture
Middle Paleolithic
عهد موستيري Mousterian
Aterian culture
Upper Paleolithic
Châtelperronian culture
العهد الأوريگناسي Aurignacian
Gravettian culture
عهد سُّولَترْي Solutrean
عهد مجدلي Magdalenian
هولوسين Holocene
العصر الحجري الوسيط أو Epipaleolithic
ثقافة كبارة
ثقافة النطوفيين
العصر الحجري الحديث
ثقافة حلف
Hassuna culture
فترة العبيد
اوروك Uruk
العصر النحاسي
بعض من الآلات الحجرية المستخدمة في العصر الأشولي

العهد الأشولي Acheulean ويقع تاريخه حول 000ر75 ق.م ولقد تخلفت عنه آثار كثيرة في أوربا وجرينلند والولايات المتحدة والمكسيك وأفريقيا والشرق الأدنى والهند والصين ؛ وهذه المرحلة لم تُصلح من المدية الحجرية إصلاحاً يجعلها أكثر تناسقاً وأحَدَّ طرفا فحسب ، بل أنتجت إلى جانب ذلك أنواعاً كثيرة من الآلات الخاصة كالمطارق والسندانات والكاشطات والصفائح ورءوس السهام وسنان الرماح والمدى ، وفي هذه المرحلة تستطيع أن ترى صورة تدل على مرحلة نشيطة للصناعة البشرية.

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تحديد عمر الأشولي

An Acheulean handaxe from Zamora


الأدوات الحجرية الأشولية

Acheulean hand-axes from كنت. The types shown are (clockwise from top) cordate, ficron and ovate.

المراحل

In the four divisions of prehistoric stone-working,[1] Acheulean artefacts are classified as Mode 2, meaning they are more advanced than the (usually earlier) Mode 1 tools of the Clactonian or Oldowan/Abbevillian industries but lacking the sophistication of the (usually later) Mode 3 Middle Palaeolithic technology, كان مثال عليها الصناعة الموسترية.

An Acheulean hand-axe found at أمو كبيش في إثيوپيا.
A large and carefully crafted handaxe such as this may have served a social as well as functional purpose

انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  • Pappu, Raghunath (2001). Acheulean Culture in Peninsular India: An Ecological Perspective. New Delhi: D K Printworld. ISBN 81-246-0168-2. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |coauthors= and |month= (help)
  • Adkins, L (1998). The Handbook of British Archaeology. London: Constable. ISBN 0-09-478330-6. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |month= (help)
  • Butler, C (2005). Prehistoric Flintwork. Tempus, Stroud. ISBN 0-7524-3340-7. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |coauthors= and |month= (help)
  • Darvill, T (ed.) (2003). Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280005-1. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |coauthors= and |month= (help)CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Milliken, S (2001). A Very Remote Period Indeed. Papers on the Palaeolithic presented to Derek Roe. Oxford: Oxbow. ISBN 1-84217-056-2. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |month= (help)
  • Renfrew, C (1991). Archaeology, Theories Methods and Practice. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27605-6. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |month= (help)
  • Scarre, C (ed.) (2005). The Human Past. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28531-4. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |coauthors= and |month= (help)CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Wood, B (2005). Human Evolution A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280360-3. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |coauthors= and |month= (help)
  1. ^ Bar-Yosef, O and Belfer-Cohen, A, 2001, From Africa to Eurasia — Early Dispersals, Quaternary International 75, 19–28, Abstract
  2. ^ Scarre, C, 2005, p110
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  4. ^ Roche H and Kibunjia, M, 1994, Les sites archaéologiques plio-pléistocènes de la formation de Nachukui, West Turkana, Kenya: bilan synthétique 1997–2001, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 318 (Série II), 1145–51, qtd in Scarre, 2005
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  14. ^ Gamble, C and Steele, J, 1999, Hominid ranging patterns and dietary strategies in Ullrich, H (ed.), Hominid evolution: lifestyles and survival strategies, pp 396–409, Gelsenkirchen: Edition Archaea.
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  19. ^ Kohn, M and Mithen, S, 1999, Handaxes: products of sexual selection?, Antiquity 73, 518–26 Abstract
  20. ^ Todd, L, Glantz, M and Kappelman, J, Chilga Kernet: an Acheulean landscape on Ethiopia's western plateau Antiquity 76, 293 pp 611–612 Abstract
  21. ^ Hyeong Woo Lee, The Palaeolithic industries of Korea: chronology and related new findspots in Milliken, S and Cook, J (eds), 2001
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  23. ^ Clarke, JD et al., 2003, Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, Nature 423, 747–52, Abstract
  24. ^ Isaac, GL, 1976, Stages of cultural elaboration in the Pleistocene: possible archaeological indicators of the development of language capabilities, in Origins and Evolution of Languages and Speech (SR Harbard et al. eds.), 276–88, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280, qtd in Renfrew and Bahn, 1991
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  27. ^ Goren-Inbar, N and Peltz, S, 1995, Additional remarks on the Berekhat Ram figure, Rock Art Research 12, 131–132, qtd in Scarre, 2005
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  29. ^ Tryon, CA and McBrearty, S, 2002, Tephrostatigraphy and the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya, Journal of Human Evolution 42, 211–35, qtd in Scarre, 2005 Abstract
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  31. ^ Scarre, 2005, chapter 3 , p118 "However, objects whose artistic meaning is unequivocal become commonplace only after 50,000 years ago, when they are associated with the origins and spread of fully modern humans from Africa.
  32. ^ ...the most conservative conclusion today is that Acheulean people and their contemporaries definitely hunted big animals, though their success rate is not clear ibid, p 120.
  33. ^ De Lumley, 1975, Cultural evolution in France in its palaeoecological setting during the middle Pleistocene, in After the Australopithecines, Butzer, KW and Issac, G Ll. (eds) 745–808. The Hague:Mouton, qtd in Scarre, 2005


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وصلات خارجية

المصادر

ول ديورانت. قصة الحضارة. ترجمة بقيادة زكي نجيب محمود. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)