المؤيد أبو النصر شيخ المحمودي

Al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh
المؤيد سيف الدين أبو النصر شيخ المحمودي‎
Gold dinar of Shaykh al-Mahmudi.jpg
Gold dinar of Mamluk sultan Shaykh al-Mahmudi minted in Cairo between 1412 and 1421
Sultan of Egypt and Syria
العهد6 November 1412 – 13 January 1421
سبقهAbu’l-Faḍl Abbas Al-Musta'in Bi'llah
تبعهAl-Muzaffar Ahmad
وُلِدح. 1369
توفي13 يناير 1421(1421-01-13) (عن عمر خطأ في التعبير: علامة ترقيم لم نتعرف عليها «{». عاماً)
الزوج
  • Khawand Khadija
  • Khawand Zaynab
  • Khawand Sa'adat
  • Qutlubay
الأنجال

المؤيد سيف الدين ططر أبو النصر شيخ المحمودي (1412 - 1421)، هو سلطان من المماليك البرجية ، تولى عرش مصر في الفترة .

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حياته

جلب المؤيد شيخ المحمودي إلى مصر عبداً؛ بواسطة التاجر محمود اليزدي ، الذي أخذ المؤيد شيخ اسمه. واشتراه السلطان برقوق قبل أن يرتقي العرش. وعندما أصبح برقوق سلطانا ، أعتق المؤيد شيخ وجعله خاصكيا ثم ساقيا ثم حاملا للكأس.

ورقاه السلطان ناصر فرج فيما بعد لمنصب نائب الوصي على العرش لطرابلس (الشام) ، وإن كان تيمور لنك أسـره وسجنه ، إلا أنه تمكن من الهرب والعودة إلى مصر.

ثم عين نائب الوصي على العرش لدمشق ، وتطلع إلى إسقاط السلطان الناصر فرج ؛ وتمكن من قتله. وأعاد "المؤيد شيخ" الخليفة العباسي إلى السلطة ، وشاركه السلطة لشهرين ثم أسقطه في عام 815هـ (1412 م)؛ وأعلن نفسه سلطانا.

وكان "المؤيد شيخ" مشهورا في شبابه بالفروسية ولعب البولو والمبارزة. وبرغم ذلك ، فلقد ختم حياته مقعدا ؛ بسبب مرض المفاصل. [1]


عهده

Nauroz, emir of Damascus, refuses to recognize Al-Muayyad Abu an-Nasir Chaykh al-Muhammudi, and proclaims holy war on the pretext of the dismissal of the caliph. InJuly 1414, Nauroz is defeated, arrested and put to death after being besieged in Damascus. Al-Muayyad Abu an-Nasir restores the power of the Mamluks over Syria 3 . Al-Muayyad will make his devotions in Jerusalem and then return to Cairo 10 .

The situation that Al-Muayyad finds in Cairo is chaotic, the plague wreaks havoc on the population, famine reigns and the currency devalues. Al-Muayyad takes corrective action. The monetary situation is cleaned up, the incursions of the Bedouins are repressed. Agricultural production picks up and grain prices fall

الحرب في الأناضول

After restoring order, Al-Muayyad prepares to wage war in Anatolia . Tarsus had just been taken from the Ramazanids (Ramazanoğulları), titular vassals of the Mamluks, by the Karamanid Nâsıreddin Mehmed who believed himself out of reach and under the protection of the Ottomans . In 1415, Al-Muayyad returned Tarsus to the Ramazanid emir Şihabeddin Ahmed who extended his domain to the cities of Sis (now Kozan ) and Ayas 11.The Karamanid emir Nâsıreddin Mehmed is taken prisoner and brought to Cairo. During his captivity, his brother, Dâmâd Bengi Alâeddin Ali negotiated with the Mamluks an alliance against the Ottomans. In 1421, after the fall of Al-Muayyad Nâsıreddin, Mehmed was freed by the Mamluks and easily resumed his post 12 .

In 1418 , danger came from the Turkmen Qara Qoyunlu ( White Sheep ). Tarsus is retaken. Al-Muayyad sends his son Ibrahim to take back what has been lost. The Karamanid principality is invaded, Ibrahim takes Kayseri , Konya and Karaman ( Laranda ) their capital. Ibrahim returns to Cairo in triumph with an enormous booty. The Mamluks are however unable to maintain their domination over these territories of Anatolia which will become the territory of the Ottomans

الحرب على قبرص

Already in 1365 , the king of Cyprus Pierre I of Cyprus and Philippe de Mézières had appealed to the West for a new crusade. They landed in Alexandria , which they burned and looted .

In 1403 Marshal Boucicaut together with the King of Cyprus Janus de Lusignan organized further expeditions against Alexandria and against Beirut . These expeditions were failures. Despite a peace treaty, Cypriot incursions continued. In 1410 , An-Nâsir Faraj retaliated with a landing in Cyprus. In 1413 , the Cypriots attempted a landing at Damour . Al-Muayyad retaliates by organizing a landing on the island. Janus signed the peace which still did not prevent the Catalan pirates from leaving Cyprus for their raids on the coasts of Egypt and Syria 14 .

This war did not end until 1426 , with Barsbay 's invasion of Cyprus and the captivity of Janus.

العائلة

Shaykh's first wife was Khawand Khadija, whom he married before his accession to the throne.[2] Another wife was Khawand Zaynab, the daughter of Sultan Barquq.[3][2] She died in February–March 1423,[3][4] and was buried in the mausoleum of her father.[4] Another wife was Khawand Sa'adat.[5] She was the daughter of Sirgitmish, and was the mother of his son Sultan Al-Muzaffar Ahmad.[2] After Shaykh's death, she married Sultan Sayf ad-Din Tatar. She died in 1430.[3] One of his concubines was Qutlubay, a Circassian. She was the mother of his son Sidi Ibrahim. After Shaykh's death she married Amir Inal al-Jakami.[6] Ibrahim married Satita, daughter of Sultan An-Nasir Faraj.[3] His only daughter was Khawand Asiya. She died in 1486.[7]

العمارة

Muayyad Maristan facade
Minarets of Sultan al-Muayyad Mosque on Zewela Gate - old Cairo

He has built the Mosque of Sultan al-Muayyad and Maristan of al-Mu'ayyad.[بحاجة لمصدر]

انظر أيضا

المصادر

  1. ^ مصر الخالدة
  2. ^ أ ب ت Akkuş Yiğit, Fatma (20 April 2016). "Memlûk Sarayında Tek Eşlilik ve Çok Eşlilik Üzerine Bir İnceleme" (PDF). Journal of International Social Research. The Journal of International Social Research. 9 (43): 560. doi:10.17719/jisr.20164317631. ISSN 1307-9581.
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث D'hulster, Kristof; Steenbergen, Jo Van. "Family Matters: The Family-In-Law Impulse in Mamluk Marriage Policy". Annales Islamologiques. 47: 61–82. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  4. ^ أ ب Karam, Amina (22 May 2019). "Women, Architecture and Representation in Mamluk Cairo". AUC DAR Home. p. 86. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  5. ^ Taghrībirdī, A.M.Y.I.; Popper, W. (1954). History of Egypt, 1382-1469 A.D.: 1412-1422 A.D. History of Egypt, 1382-1469 A.D. University of California Press. p. 142.
  6. ^ Taghrībirdī, A.M.Y.I.; Popper, W. (1976). History of Egypt, 1382-1469 A.D.: 1412-1422 A.D. History of Egypt, 1382-1469 A.D. AMS Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-404-58800-7.
  7. ^ Ghersetti, A. (2016). Al-Suyūṭī, a Polymath of the Mamlūk Period: Proceedings of the themed day of the First Conference of the School of Mamlūk Studies (Ca' Foscari University, Venice, June 23, 2014). Islamic History and Civilization. Brill. p. 56. ISBN 978-90-04-33452-6.
ألقاب ملكية
سبقه
المستعين بالله
سلطان مصر المملوكي
6 November 1412 – 13 January 1421
تبعه
المظفر أحمد
الكلمات الدالة: