العلاقات الأمريكية الكندية

العلاقات الأمريكية الكندية

كندا

الولايات المتحدة
البعثات الدبلوماسية
السفارة الكندية، واشنطن دي سيالسفارة الأمريكية، أوتوا
المبعوث
السفير كرستين هيلمانرتشارد م. ميلز الأصغر (القائم بالأعمال)[1]
رئيس الوزراء الكندي جستن ترودو والرئيس الأمريكي دونالد ترمپ وممثلي البلدين في لندن، 2019.

العلاقات الأمريكية الكندية، هي العلاقات الثنائية بين البلدين المتجاورين الولايات المتحدة وكندا.

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مقارنة بين البلدين

 كندا  الولايات المتحدة
العلم كندا الولايات المتحدة
الدرع Greater coat of arms of the United States.svg
السكان 38,129,532 (أكتوبر 2020) (رقم 38)[2] 336,132,598 (أكتوبر 2020) (رقم 3)[3]
المساحة 9,984,670 كم2 [4] 9,857,999 كم2 [5]
الكثافة السكانية 3.41/كم2 35/كم2
المنطقة الزمنية 6 9
العاصمة أوتاوا واشنطن دي سي
أكبر مدينة Toronto – 2,954,024 (6,197,000 Metro) New York City – 8,491,079 (20,092,883 Metro)
المدن الرئيسية[6][7][8] Toronto
Montréal
Calgary
Vancouver
Edmonton
Winnipeg
Québec City
Halifax
New York City
Los Angeles
Chicago
Atlanta
Dallas–Fort Worth
Houston
Philadelphia
San Francisco
Miami
Seattle
Boston
الحكومة Federal parliamentary democratic
constitutional monarchy
Federal presidential
constitutional republic
القائد الأول Sir John A. Macdonald جورج واشنطن
القادة الحاليون President Donald Trump
الحزب الحاكم Liberal Party Republican Party
اللغات الرسمية English and French None at federal level, but English de facto
الديانات الرئيسية2020 69.3% Christianity, 24.9% Unaffiliated, 1.2% Islam, 1.0% Hinduism, 1.4% Sikhism, 0.6% Buddhism, 3.6% Judaism 70.6% Christianity, 22.8% non-Religious, 1.9% Judaism, 0.9% Islam, 0.7% Buddhism, 0.7% Hinduism[9]
الجماعات العرقية 74.3% European
14.5% Asian
5.1% Indigenous
3.4% Caribbean and Latin American
2.9% African
0.2% Oceanian
72.4% European American
12.6% African American
4.8% Asian American
0.9% American Indian and Alaska Native
0.2% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander
6.2% Other
2.9% two or more races[10]
مؤشر التنمية البشرية (2018) 0.922 (very high) 0.920 (very high)
ن.م.إ. (الاسمي) (2014)[11] $1.793 trillion ($50,577 per capita) $17.416 trillion ($54,390 per capita)
ن.م.إ. (ق.ش.م.) (2014)[11] $1.578 trillion ($44,519 per capita) $17.416 trillion ($54,390 per capita)
الإنفاق العسكري (2019) $21 billion[12] $716 billion[12]

قادة البلدين منذ عام 1950

Harry S. TrumanDwight D. EisenhowerJohn F. KennedyLyndon B. JohnsonRichard NixonGerald FordJimmy CarterRonald ReaganGeorge H. W. BushBill ClintonGeorge W. BushBarack ObamaDonald TrumpLouis St. LaurentJohn DiefenbakerLester PearsonPierre TrudeauJoe ClarkPierre TrudeauJohn TurnerBrian MulroneyKim CampbellJean ChrétienPaul MartinStephen HarperJustin TrudeauUnited StatesCanada


التاريخ

الحروب الاستعمارية


اختلاط الشعوب


الحرب الثورية الأمريكية


حرب 1812



رد الفعل المحافظ

الحرب الأهلية

غارات فنيان

مطالبات ألاباما

An editorial cartoon on Canada–United States relations, 1886. It reads: Mrs. Britannia.—"Is it possible, my dear, that you have ever given your cousin Jonathan any encouragement?" Miss Canada.—"Encouragement! Certainly not, Mamma. I have told him that we can never be united."


Dominion of Canada


Emigration to and from the United States of America


Alaska boundary


Reciprocal trade with U.S. defeated

A 1911 Conservative campaign poster warns that the big American companies ("trusts") will hog all the benefits of reciprocity as proposed by Liberals, leaving little left over for Canadian interests


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Canadian autonomy

World War II

A Canadian Mountie and a Vermont State Trooper on their respective sides of the Canada–United States (QuebecVermont) border in 1941


Newfoundland

Cold War

Vietnam War resisters

Nixon Shock 1971

Richard Nixon addresses a joint session of the Parliament of Canada, 1972


1990s

Anti-Americanism


Relations between political executives

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (left) and President Barack Obama (right) meet in Washington in March 2016


President Donald Trump and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau at the 45th G7 summit in Biarritz in August 2019


Military and security

North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), long headquartered in the Cheyenne Mountain Complex in Colorado, exemplifies military co-operation between Canada and the U.S.
Banners on the Canadian embassy in Washington saying "Friends, Neighbours, Partners, Allies"


War in Afghanistan


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2003 Invasion of Iraq

Protesters throwing shoes at Bush posters in front of U.S. consulate in Montreal on December 20, 2008

Responding to ISIS/Daesh

Trade


Environmental issues

A Canadian BC Parks Ranger (left) and a U.S. National Park Service Ranger (right) work to remove a bear from a campground along the international boundary in British Columbia and Washington state



Newfoundland fisheries dispute

Illicit drugs


Diplomacy

An RCMP Arrival Guard waits for Air Force One in Ottawa.

Views of presidents and prime ministers


Canadian public opinion on U.S. presidents

Anti-Trump rally organized in Vancouver


Territorial disputes

These include maritime boundary disputes:

Territorial land disputes:

and disputes over the international status of the:

Arctic disputes

Common memberships

قالب:UKUSA Canada and the United States both hold membership in a number of multinational organizations such as:

Diplomatic missions

Canadian missions in the United States

Embassy of Canada in Washington, D.C.


U.S. missions in Canada

See also

مرئيات

نائبة رئيس الوزراء الكندي كريستيا فريلاند تُعلن البرنامج الكندي رداً
على الرسوم الجمركية التي فرضها الرئيس الأمريكي دونالد ترمپ،
7 أغسطس 2020.

الهوامش


المصادر

  1. ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 116th Congress - 1st Session". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
  2. ^ The Daily — Population size and growth in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census
  3. ^ "U.S. & World Population Clocks". Us Census Bureau. May 2012. Archived from the original on February 23, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
  4. ^ "Canada". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 23, 2016. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  5. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 23, 2016. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  6. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  7. ^ "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2011 Census". Statistics Canada.
  8. ^ "Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2018. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  9. ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. May 12, 2015. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  10. ^ "2010 Census Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
  11. ^ أ ب "GDP 2014".
  12. ^ أ ب "Comparison Results of World Military Strengths". www.globalfirepower.com (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2019-11-26.

قراءات إضافية

  • Anderson, Greg; Sands, Christopher (2011). Forgotten Partnership Redux: Canada-U.S. Relations in the 21st Century. Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-60497-762-2. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  • Azzi, Stephen. Reconcilable Differences: A History of Canada-US Relations (Oxford University Press, 2014)
  • Behiels, Michael D. and Reginald C. Stuart, eds. Transnationalism: Canada-United States History into the Twenty-First Century (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010) 312 pp. online 2012 review
  • Bothwell, Robert. Your Country, My Country: A Unified History of the United States and Canada (2015), 400 pages; traces relations, shared values, and differences across the centuries
  • Ciuriak, Dan, How U.S. Trade Policy Has Changed Under President Donald Trump – Perceptions From Canada (SSRN, March 29, 2019). online or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3362910
  • Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism and the Canadian State (University of Toronto Press, 2002)
  • Doran, Charles F., and James Patrick Sewell, "Anti-Americanism in Canada," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 497, Anti-Americanism: Origins and Context (May 1988), pp. 105–119 in JSTOR
  • Dyment, David "Doing the Continental: A New Canadian-American Relationship" (Dundurn Press, 2010)
  • Engler, YvesThe Black Book of Canadian Foreign Policy. Co-published: RED Publishing, Fernwood Publishing. April 2009. ISBN 978-1-55266-314-1.
  • Ek, Carl, and Ian F. Fergusson. Canada-U.S. Relations (Congressional Research Service, 2010) 2010 Report, by an agency of the U.S. Congress
  • Georges, Patrick. "Canada’s Trade Policy Options under Donald Trump: NAFTA’s rules of origin, Canada US security perimeter, and Canada’s geographical trade diversification opportunities." (Working Paper #1707E Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, 2017). online
  • Granatstein, J. L. Yankee Go Home: Canadians and Anti-Americanism (1997)
  • Granatstein, J. L. and Norman Hillmer, For Better or for Worse: Canada and the United States to the 1990s (1991)
  • Gravelle, Timothy B. "Partisanship, Border Proximity, and Canadian Attitudes toward North American Integration." International Journal of Public Opinion Research (2014) 26#4 pp: 453–474.
  • Gravelle, Timothy B. "Love Thy Neighbo (u) r? Political Attitudes, Proximity and the Mutual Perceptions of the Canadian and American Publics." Canadian Journal of Political Science (2014) 47#1 pp: 135–157.
  • Greaves, Wilfrid. "Democracy, Donald Trump, and the Canada-US Security Environment." (NAADSN – North American and Arctic Defense Security Network, 2020). online
  • Hacker, Louis M. (March 1924). "Western Land Hunger and the War of 1812: A Conjecture". Mississippi Valley Historical Review. X (4): 365–395. doi:10.2307/1892931. JSTOR 1892931.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hale, Geoffrey. So Near Yet So Far: The Public and Hidden Worlds of Canada-US Relations (University of British Columbia Press, 2012); 352 pages focus on 2001–2011
  • Holland, Kenneth. "The Canada–United States defence relationship: a partnership for the twenty-first century." Canadian Foreign Policy Journal ahead-of-print (2015): 1–6. online
  • Holmes, Ken. "The Canadian Cognitive Bias and its Influence on Canada/US Relations." International Social Science Review (2015) 90#1 online.
  • Holmes, John W. "Impact of Domestic Political Factors on Canadian-American Relations: Canada," International Organization, Vol. 28, No. 4, Canada and the United States: Transnational and Transgovernmental Relations (Autumn, 1974), pp. 611–635 in JSTOR
  • Innes, Hugh, ed. Americanization: Issues for the Seventies (McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972). ISBN 0-07-092943-2; re 1970s
  • Lennox, Patrick. At Home and Abroad: The Canada-U.S. Relationship and Canada's Place in the World (University of British Columbia Press; 2010) 192 pages; the post–World War II period.
  • Little, John Michael. "Canada Discovered: Continentalist Perceptions of the Roosevelt Administration, 1939–1945," PhD dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978, Vol. 38 Issue 9, p5696-5697
  • Lumsden, Ian, ed. The Americanization of Canada, ed. ... for the University League for Social Reform (U of Toronto Press, 1970). ISBN 0-8020-6111-7
  • McKercher, Asa. Camelot and Canada: Canadian-American Relations in the Kennedy Era (Oxford UP, 2016). xii, 298 pp.
  • Graeme S. Mount and Edelgard Mahant, An Introduction to Canadian-American Relations (1984, updated 1989)
  • Molloy, Patricia. Canada/US and Other Unfriendly Relations: Before and After 9/11 (Palgrave Macmillan; 2012) 192 pages; essays on various "myths"
  • Mount, Graeme S. and Edelgard Mahant, Invisible and Inaudible in Washington: American Policies toward Canada during the Cold War (1999)
  • Muirhead, Bruce. "From Special Relationship to Third Option: Canada, the U.S., and the Nixon Shock," American Review of Canadian Studies, Vol. 34, 2004 online edition
  • Myers, Phillip E. Dissolving Tensions: Rapprochement and Resolution in British-American-Canadian Relations in the Treaty of Washington Era, 1865–1914 (Kent State UP, 2015). x, 326 pp.
  • Pacheco, Daniela Pereira. "Politics on Twitter: a comparison between Donald Trump and Justin Trudeau." (ICSCP 2020). online
  • Pederson, William D. ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt (2011) online pp 517–41, covers FDR's policies
  • Stagg, J.C.A. (2012). The War of 1812: Conflict for a Continent. Cambridge Essential Histories. ISBN 978-0-521-72686-3.
  • Stoett, Peter J. "Fairweather Friends? Canada–United States Environmental Relations in the Days of Trump and the Era of Climate Change." in Canada–US Relations (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2019) pp. 105-123.
  • Stuart, Reginald C. Dispersed Relations: Americans and Canadians in Upper North America (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Tagg, James.. "'And, We Burned down the White House, Too': American History, Canadian Undergraduates, and Nationalism," The History Teacher, 37#3 (May 2004), pp. 309–334 in JSTOR
  • Tansill, C. C. Canadian-American Relations, 1875–1911 (1943)
  • Thompson, John Herd, and Stephen J. Randall. Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies (4th ed. McGill-Queen's UP, 2008), 387pp, the standard scholarly survey

مراجع أساسية

  • Gallagher, Connell. "The Senator George D. Aiken Papers: Sources for the Study of Canadian-American Relations, 1930–1974." Archivaria 1#21 (1985) pp 176–79 online.

وصلات خارجية