الحرس الپريتوري

الحرس الپريتوري لأغسطس، القرن 1 ق.م. نقش رخامي رخامي bas-relief.

الحرس الپريتوري Praetorian Guard (باللاتينية: Praetoriani)، كان قوة الحرس الشخصي تستخدم لحراسة الأباطرة الرومان. استخدم اللقب أثناء الجمهورية الرومانية لوصف الجنرالات الرومان، على الأقل منذ ظهور عائلة سكيپيو حوالي 275 ق.م. أصدر الإمبراطور قسطنطين الأول أمره بحل الحرس الپريتوري في القرن 4.

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التاريخ

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هذا المقال هو جزء من سلسلة عن:

عسكرية روما القديمة (بوابة)
800 ق.م. – 476 م

التاريخ الهيكلي
الجيش الروماني (أنواع الوحدات والرتب,
الفيالق, الردائف, الجنرالات)
البحرية الرومانية (الأساطيل, أدميرالات)
تاريخ الحملات
قوائم الحروب والمعارك
أوسمة وتكديرات
التاريخ التكنولوجي
الهندسة العسكرية (كاسترا,
معدات الحصار, الأقواس, الطرق)
المعدات الشخصية
التاريخ السياسي
الاستراتيجية والتكتيك
تكتيكات المشاة
الجبهات والتحصينات (سور فاصل,
حائط هادريان)


التشكيل الأصلي للحرس

المشاركة في الحروب

الدور السياسي

Proclaiming Claudius Emperor, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, oil on canvas, c. 1867. According to one version of the story of Claudius' ascension to the role of Emperor, members of the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the aftermath of the murder of Caligula in 41, and proclaimed him emperor.


سنوات الشفق

ذكراه

العلاقة بين الإمبراطور وحرسه

الإمبراطور السنة العلاقة مع الحرس
أغسطس 27 ق.م–م14 أسس الحرس الپريتوري، حاز على ولائهم الكامل.
تيبريوس 14–37 Made Sejanus the sole Guard prefect (as opposed to having the usual two) allowed him to concentrate the guard in a single camp. Tiberius later had him executed and replaced with Macro.
كاليگولا 37–41 Accession smoothed by popularity with Macro, the Praetorian Prefect he later had executed. Murdered by the Guard.
كلاوديوس الأول 41–54 Proclaimed emperor by the Guard and defended by them when in difficulty (e.g., Messalina and Gaius Silius' attempted coup). Began the process of formalised accession donatives on a large scale and his coinage reflects the fact with coin captioned imper.recep i.e. "position of emperor received from" with a picture of the Praetorian camp on.
نيرون 54–68 Eventually deserted by the Guard[1]
گالبا 68–69 Murdered by the Guard whose accession donative, promised on his behalf by Tigellinus and Otho, he refused to pay.
أوثو 69 Elevated by the Guard who fought ferociously for him at Cremona before he committed suicide.
فيتليوس 69 Deposed by the Guard then executed.
ڤسپاسيان 69–79 Reduced the size of the Guard after victory in 69[2]
تيتوس 79–81 Served as Praetorian prefect, then as emperor.
دوميتيان 81–96 His election was supported by the Guard who remained fiercely loyal to him, especially as he increased the army's pay. Killed by influential palace freedmen.
نرڤا 96–98 Forced by a rebelling guard to adopt Marcus Ulpius Traianus as his successor.
تراجان 98–117 Had the Guard officers who led the rebellion against Nerva executed upon his succession.
هادريان 117–138 Founded the Frumentarii.
أنطونينوس پيوس 138–161
ماركوس أورليوس 161–180 Commanded the Guard in his war against the Germanian Tribes.
لوكيوس ڤيرس 161–169
كمودس 180–192 Retained the loyalty of the Guard.
Pertinax 193 Assassinated by the Guard.
Didius Julianus 193 Scandalously 'purchased' the Empire from the Guard and was soon deserted by them.
Septimius Severus 193–211 Disbanded the Guard and created a new one from the Danubian Legions.
Caracalla 211–217 Murdered in a plot by the Praetorian Prefect Macrinus.
Macrinus 217–218
Elagabalus 218–222 Murdered in the Castra Praetoria by the Guard.
Alexander Severus 222–235 Elevated by the Guard.
Maximinus Thrax 235–238
Gordian I 238
Gordian II 238
Balbinus 238 Murdered by the Guard.
Pupienus 238 Murdered by the Guard.
Gordian III 238–244 Proclaimed emperor by the Guard but killed by his Prefect, Philip the Arab.
Philip the Arab 244–249
Decius 249–251
Herennius Etruscus 251
Hostilian 251
Trebonianus Gallus 251–253
Aemilianus 253
Publius Licinius Valerianus 253–260
Gallienus 260-268
Claudius II 268–270
Quintillus 270
Aurelian 270–275 The Praetorians accompanied Aurelian on an expedition against Palmyra. Subsequently he was murdered by the Guard
Marcus Claudius Tacitus 275–276
Florianus 276
Marcus Aurelius Probus 276–282 Murdered by Praetorian troops after a revolt.
Carus 282–283
Carinus 283–285
Numerian 283–284
Diocletian 284–305 Dismantled the political power of the Praetorians through sweeping reforms of the Imperial system. Reported to have reduced the size of the Guard.
Maximian 286–305, 307–308 Praetorians accompanied Maximian to Africa in 297.
Galerius 305–311
Constantius Chlorus 305–306
Flavius Valerius Severus 306–307
Maxentius 306–312 Last emperor to command the guard.
قسطنطين الأول 306–337 Disbanded the Guard and destroyed the Castra Praetoria.

التنظيم وظروف الخدمة

الخيالة الملكية

الرتب والقيادات

رتب وقيادات الحرس الپريتوري
Milites Regular soldiers of the guard.
Immunes Guardsmen with secondary specialist roles that exempted them from other less than desired duties. After five years these soldiers were allowed to serve in the Equites singulares (cavalry branch).
Evocati Augusti After 16 years of service guardsmen could retire with a sizeable cash payment. Guardsmen who chose to stay in service after the 16 year period were called Evocati and gained privileges.
Centuriones Praetorian Centurions commanded centuries of guardsmen while the most senior centurions commanded entire cohorts.
Tribuni These officers acted as staff officers and as deputies to the Praetorian Prefects.
Praefectus The highest rank in the Praetorian Guard, head of the Praetorian Guard.


في الثقافة العامة

انظر أيضاً

هوامش

  1. ^ Suetonius, Nero 47.1-2; Dio 63.26.2b.
  2. ^ Bingham, p. 122 and n. 13.

المصادر