لغات رومانسية

(تم التحويل من اللغات الرومانسية)
Romance
التوزيع
الجغرافي:
Originally Southern Europe and parts of Northern Africa; now also most of America. Official languages of half the countries in Africa and parts of Oceania.
التبويب اللغوي: الهندو-اوروبية
اللغة الأولية: Vulgar Latin
الأقسام:
ISO 639-5: roa
لينگواسفير: 51- (phylozone)

مواضيع هندو-اوروبية

اللغات الهندو-اوروبية
الألبانية • الأرمنية • البلطيقية
الكلتية • الجرمانية • اليونانية
الهندو-إيرانية (الهندو-آرية, الإيرانية)
الإيطالية • السلاڤية  

منقرضة: الأناضولية • البلقانية القديمة (الداتشية,
الفريجية, التراقية) • الطخارية

الشعوب الهندو-اوروبية
الألبان • الأرمن
البلط • الكلت • الشعوب الجرمانية
اليونان • الهندو-آريون
الإيرانيون • اللاتين • السلاڤ

تاريخياً: الأناضوليون (الحيثيون, لويون)
الكلت (الگالاتيون, الغال) • القبائل الجرمانية
إليريون • الإيطال  • سرماتيون
سكوذيون  • التراقيون  • طخاريون
هندو-إيرانيون (القبائل الريگڤدية, القبائل الإيرانية) 

الهندو-اوروبية الأولية
اللغة • المجتمع • الديانة
 
فرضيات اورهايمات
فرضية الكورگان
الأناضول • أرمنيا • الهند • PCT
 
الدراسات الهندو-اوروبية

اللغات الرومانسية هي اللغات التي أصلها اللغة اللاتينية وتعد أحد فروع اللغات الهندوأوروبية. أغلبيتها في جنوب أوروبا وأهمها هي الإيطالية والفرنسية والإسبانية والبرتغالية والرومانية. بسبب الاستعمار الإسباني والفرنسي، دخلت هذه اللغات في أنحاء كثيرة من العالم، وخاصة قارة أمريكا وأفريقيا. يتحدث بها كلغة أم حوالي 600 مليون متحدث حول العالم.

اللغات الرومانسية مشتقة من اللاتينية العامية (أو السوقية) والتي كانت لغة جنود وعبيد الإمبراطورية الرومانية.


يوجد كذلك لغات محلية رومانسية مثل الوالون.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الاسم

Romance languages in Europe in the twenty-first century.
اللغات الرومانسية حول العالم:
الأزرق – الفرنسية; الأخضر – الإسبانية; البرتقالي – البرتغالية; الأصفر – الإيطالية; الأحمر – الرومانية

The term "Romance" comes from the Vulgar Latin adverb romanice, derived from Romanicus: for instance, in the expression romanice loqui, "to speak in Roman" (that is, the Latin vernacular), contrasted with latine loqui, "to speak in Latin" (Medieval Latin, the conservative version of the language used in writing and formal contexts or as a lingua franca), and with barbarice loqui, "to speak in Barbarian" (the non-Latin languages of the peoples living outside the Roman Empire).[1] From this adverb the noun romance originated, which applied initially to anything written romanice, or "in the Roman vernacular".

The word romance with the modern sense of romance novel or love affair has the same origin. In the medieval literature of Western Europe, serious writing was usually in Latin, while popular tales, often focusing on love, were composed in the vernacular and came to be called "romances".


عينات

Lexical and grammatical similarities among the Romance languages, and between Latin and each of them, are apparent from the following examples having the same meaning:

English: She always closes the window before she dines.

Latin (Ea) semper antequam cenat fenestram claudit.
Aragonese (Ella) zarra siempre a finestra antes de cenar.
Aromanian (Ea/Nâsa) încljidi/nkidi totna firida ninti di tsinâ.
Asturian (Ella) pieslla siempres la ventana enantes de cenar.
Bergamasque (Lé) la sèra sèmper sö la finèstra prima de senà.
Bolognese (Lî) la sèra sänper la fnèstra prémma ed dsnèr.
Catalan (Ella) sempre tanca la finestra abans de sopar.
Corsican (Ella/Edda) chjode sempre u purtellu nanzu di cenà.
Emilian (Lē) la sèra sèmpar sù la fnèstra prima ad snàr.
Extremaduran (Ella) afecha siempri la ventana antis de cenal.
Franco-Provençal (Le) sarre toltin/tojor la fenétra avan de goutâ/dinar/sopar.
French Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre avant de dîner/souper.
Friulan (Jê) e siere simpri il barcon prin di cenâ.
Galician (Ela) pecha/fecha sempre a fiestra/xanela antes de cear.
Italian (Ella/Lei) chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare.
Judaeo-Spanish Eya serra syempre la ventana antes de senar.
Ladin (Ëra) stlüj dagnora la finestra impröma de cenè. (badiot) (Ëila) stluj for l viere dan maië da cëina (gherdëina)
Leonese (Eilla) pecha siempre la ventana primeiru de cenare.
Ligurian (Le) a saera sempre u barcun primma de cenà.
Magoua (Elle) à fàrm toujour là fnèt àvan k'à manj.
Mauritian Creole Li touzur pou ferm lafnet avan (li) manze.
Milanese (Le) la sara semper sü la finestra prima de disnà.
Mirandese (Eilha) cerra siempre la bentana/jinela atrás de jantar.
Mozarabic Ella cloudet sempre la fainestra abante da cenare. (reconstructed)
Neapolitan Essa nzerra sempe 'a fenesta primma 'e magnà.
Norman Lli barre tréjous la crouésie devaunt de daîner.
Occitan (Ela) barra sempre/totjorn la fenèstra abans de sopar.
Picard Ale frunme tojours l’ creusèe édvint éd souper.
Piedmontese Chila a sara sèmper la fnestra dnans ëd fé sin-a/dnans ëd siné.
Portuguese Ela fecha sempre a janela antes de jantar/cear.
Romanian Ea închide totdeauna fereastra înainte de cinare.
Romansh Ella clauda/serra adina la fanestra avant ch'ella tschainia.
Sardinian Issa sèrrat sémper[2]/sémpri[3] sa bentàna innantis de chenàre[2]/cenài.[3]
Sassarese Edda sarra sempri lu balchoni primma di zinà.
Sicilian Idda chiui sempri la finestra prima di pistiari/manciari.
Spanish (Ella) siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar.
Umbrian Essa chjude sempre la finestra prima de cena'.
Venetian Eła ła sara/sera sempre ła fenestra vanti de xenàr/disnar.
Walloon Ele sere todi li finiesse divant di soper.

التاريخ

اللاتينية السوقية

المقالة الرئيسية: اللاتينية السوقية

سقوط الامبراطورية الرومانية الغربية

الرومانس المبكر

Over the course of the fourth to eighth centuries AD, Vulgar Latin, by this time highly dialectalized, broke up into discrete languages that were no longer mutually intelligible.[4]:5 Clear evidence of Latin change comes from the Reichenau Glosses, an eighth-century compilation of about 1,200 words from the fourth-century Latin Vulgate Bible (St. Jerome) that were no longer understandable along with their eighth-century equivalents in proto-Franco-Provençal. The following are some examples with reflexes in several modern, closely related Romance languages for comparison:

English Classical / 4th cent. (Vulgate) 8th cent. (Reichenau) Franco-Provençal French Romansh Italian Spanish Portuguese Romanian Catalan
once semel una vice una fês une fois (ina giada) una volta una vez uma vez (odată) una vegada,
(un cop)
children liberos infantes enfants enfants unfants bambini (niños) (crianças) (copii) infants,
(nens, etc.)
to blow flare suflare soflar souffler suflar soffiare soplar soprar suflare (bufar)
to sing canere cantare çhantar chanter chantar cantare cantar cantar cântare cantar
best optimos meliores (los) mèljörs (les) meilleurs (ils) megliers i migliori (los) mejores (os) melhores optimii/(cei mai buni) (els) millors
beautiful pulcra bella bèla belle bella bella (hermosa)/bella bela (frumoasă) (bonica),
bella
in the mouth in ore in bucca en la boçhe dans la bouche in la bucca nella bocca en la boca na boca [5] în gură [6] a la boca
winter hiems hibernus hìvern hiver inviern inverno invierno inverno iarnă hivern

الوضع المعاصر

Romance languages, twentieth century
ملف:Romance-procents.png
Number of native speakers of each Romance language, as fractions of the total 690 million

The Romance language most widely spoken natively today is Spanish (Castilian), followed by Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, and Catalan, all of which are official languages in at least one country. A few other languages have official status on a regional or otherwise limited level, for instance Friulan, Sardinian and Franco-Provençal in Italy; Romansh in Switzerland; and Galician in Spain.

Romance languages in the World

French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Romanian are also official languages of the European Union. Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, and Catalan are the official languages of the Latin Union; and French and Spanish are two of the six official languages of the United Nations.

التصنيف واللغات المتعلقة

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones.
Eastern and Western Romance areas split by the La Spezia–Rimini Line
المقالة الرئيسية: تصنيف اللغات الرومانسية

The classification of the Romance languages is inherently difficult, since most of the linguistic area can be considered a dialect continuum, and in some cases political biases can come into play. Along with Latin (which is not included among the Romance languages) and a few extinct languages of ancient Italy, they make up the Italic branch of the Indo-European family.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Latin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Classical Latin
 
 
 
Vulgar Latin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continental Romance
 
 
 
 
 
Sardinian language
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Italo-Western Romance
 
 
 
 
 
Eastern Romance
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Western Romance
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Italian
 
Balkan Romance
 
Dalmatian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ibero-Romance
 
 
 
 
 
Gallo-Romance
 
Italian
 
Proto-Romanian
 
Albanian words
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Portuguese
 
Spanish
 
Occitano-Romance
 
French
 
Romanian
 
Aromanian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Catalan
 
Occitan
 
 
 
 

التقسيمات المقترحة

Extent of variation in development (very conservative to very innovatory)
Form
("to sing")
Latin Nuorese
Sardinian
Spanish Brazilian
Portuguese
Central
Catalan
Romanian French
Infinitive cantāre [kanˈtare] [kanˈtar] [kɐ̃ˈtah] 1 [kənˈta] [kɨnˈta(re)] [ʃɑ̃ˈte]
Past Part. cantātum [kanˈtatu] [kanˈtaðo] [kɐ̃ˈtadu] [kənˈtat] [kɨnˈtat] [ʃɑ̃ˈte]
Gerund cantandō [kanˈtande] [kanˈtando] [kɐ̃ˈtɐ̃ndu] [kənˈtan] [kɨnˈtɨnd] [ʃɑ̃ˈtɑ̃]
1sg. indic. cantō [ˈkanto] [ˈkanto] [ˈkɐ̃tu] [ˈkantu] [ˈkɨnt] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
2sg. indic. cantās [ˈkantaza] [ˈkantas] [ˈkɐ̃tɐs] [ˈkantəs] [ˈkɨntsʲ] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
3sg. indic. cantat [ˈkantata] [ˈkanta] [ˈkɐ̃tɐ] [ˈkantə] [ˈkɨntə] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
1pl. indic. cantāmus [kanˈtamuzu] [kanˈtamos] [kɐ̃ˈtɐ̃mus] [kənˈtɛm] [kɨnˈtəm] [ʃɑ̃ˈtɔ̃]
2pl. indic. cantātis [kanˈtateze] [kanˈtais] [kɐ̃ˈtajs] [kənˈtɛw] [kɨnˈtatsʲ] [ʃɑ̃ˈte]
3pl. indic. cantant [ˈkantana] [ˈkantan] [ˈkɐ̃tɐ̃w̃] [ˈkantən] [ˈkɨntə] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
1sg. subj. cantem [ˈkante] [ˈkante] [ˈkɐ̃tʃi] [ˈkanti] [ˈkɨnt] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
2sg. subj. cantēs [ˈkanteze] [ˈkantes] [ˈkɐ̃tʃis] [ˈkantis] [ˈkɨntsʲ] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
3sg. subj. cantet [ˈkantete] [ˈkante] [ˈkɐ̃tʃi] [ˈkanti] [ˈkɨnte] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
1pl. subj. cantēmus [kanˈtemuzu] [kanˈtemos] [kɐ̃ˈtẽmus] [kənˈtɛm] [kɨnˈtəm] [ʃɑ̃ˈtjɔ̃]
2pl. subj. cantētis [kanˈtedeze] [kanˈteis] [kɐ̃ˈtejs] [kənˈtɛw] [kɨnˈtatsʲ] [ʃɑ̃ˈtje]
3pl. subj. cantent [ˈkantene] [ˈkanten] [ˈkɐ̃tẽj̃] [ˈkantin] [ˈkɨnte] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
2sg. impv. cantā [ˈkanta] [ˈkanta] [ˈkɐ̃tɐ] [ˈkantə] [ˈkɨntə] [ˈʃɑ̃t]
2pl. impv. cantāte [kanˈtate] [kanˈtað] [kɐ̃ˈtaj] [kənˈtɛw] [kɨnˈtatsʲ] [ʃɑ̃ˈte]
1 Also [ɾ̥ ɻ̝̊ x χ ħ] are all possible allophones of [h] in this position.


Verbal morphology

انظر أيضاً: Romance verbs
Correspondence between Latin and Romance tenses
Latin Portuguese Spanish Catalan Occitan French Rhaeto-Romance Italian Romanian Sardinian
Present indicative Present indicative
Present subjunctive Present indicative
Imperfect indicative Imperfect indicative
Imperfect subjunctive Personal infinitive Imperfect subjunctive /
Personal infinitive
Future indicative eres ("you are") future of "to be"
in Old French
Perfect indicative Preterite Simple preterite (literary except in Valencian) Preterite Simple past (literary) Preterite (Tuscan Standard Italian);[7]
Literary Remote Past
(Regional Standard Italian in North); Preterite/Perfect
(Regional Standard Italian in South)
Simple past (literary except in the Oltenian dialect) In Old Sardinian;
only traces in modern lang
Perfect subjunctive
Pluperfect indicative Literary pluperfect Imperfect subjunctive (-ra form) Second conditional
in Old Occitan
Second preterite
in very early Old French
(Sequence of Saint Eulalia)[8]
Pluperfect subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Pluperfect indicative
Future perfect Future subjunctive
(very much alive)
Future subjunctive
(moribund)
possible traces of
future subjunctive
in Old Occitan[9]
possible traces of
future subjunctive
in Old Italian
New future infinitive+habeo voleo+infinitive voleo+infinitive
New conditional infinitive+habebam infinitive+habuisset infinitive+habuit habeo+infinitive
(split apart from
infinitive+habeo
in eighteenth-century Romanian)
Preterite vs. present perfect
(in speech)
preterite only
(present perfect exists,
but has different meaning)
both both (but usually an analytic preterite
vado+infinitive is used)
? present perfect only present perfect only both (Tuscan Standard Italian);[7]
present perfect only
(Regional Standard Italian in North);
preference for preterite
(Regional Standard Italian in South)
present perfect only present perfect only

Verbs have many conjugations, including in most languages:

  • A present tense, a preterite, an imperfect, a pluperfect, a future tense and a future perfect in the indicative mood, for statements of fact.
  • Present and preterite subjunctive tenses, for hypothetical or uncertain conditions. Several languages (for example, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish) have also imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives, although it is not unusual to have just one subjunctive equivalent for preterit and imperfect (e.g. no unique subjunctive equivalent in Italian of the so-called passato remoto). Portuguese, and until recently Spanish, also have future and future perfect subjunctives, which have no equivalent in Latin.
  • An imperative mood, for direct commands.
  • Three non-finite forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle.
  • Distinct active and passive voices, as well as an impersonal passive voice.
  • Note that, although these categories are largely inherited from Classical Latin, many of the forms are either newly constructed or inherited from different categories (e.g. the Romance imperfect subjunctive most commonly is derived from the Latin pluperfect subjunctive, while the Romance pluperfect subjunctive is derived from a new present perfect tense with the auxiliary verb placed in the imperfect subjunctive).

Several tenses and aspects, especially of the indicative mood, have been preserved with little change in most languages, as shown in the following table for the Latin verb dīcere (to say), and its descendants.

Infinitive Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Present Preterite Imperfect Present Present
Latin dīcere dīcit dīxit dicēbat dīcat/dīcet dīc
Aragonese dicir diz dició deciba/diciba diga diz
Asturian dicir diz dixo dicía diga di
Catalan dir diu/dit digué/va dir/dit deia digui/diga digues
Corsican dice/dici disse/dissi dicia dica/dichi
Emilian dîr dîs l'à détt / dgé dgeva dégga
Franco-Provençal dire di djéve dijisse/dzéze dète
French dire1 dit dit disait dise dis
Galician dicir di dixo dicía diga di
Italian di(ce)re dice disse diceva dica
Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) dezir dize disho dezía diga dezí
Leonese dicire diz dixu dicía diga di
Milanese dis ha dit diseva diga
Mirandese dir diś à dit dgiva diga
Neapolitan dicere dice dicette diceva diche dije
Occitan díser/dire ditz diguèt disiá diga diga
Picard dire dit disoait diche
Piedmontese dis dìsser2, l'ha dit disìa disa dis
Portuguese dizer diz disse dizia diga diz3
Romanian a zice, zicere4 zice zise zicea zică zi
Romansh dir di ha ditg discheva5 dia di
Sardinian nàrrer6 nàrat at naràdu naraìat/nàbat nérzat/nìet nàra
Sicilian dìciri dici dissi dicìa dica7 dici
Spanish decir dice dijo decía diga di
Venetian dir dise disea diga dì/disi
Walloon dire dit a dit dijheut dixhe di
Basic meaning to say he says he said he was saying he says say [thou]
1The spelling is conservative. Note the pronunciations: dire /diʁ/, dit /di/, disait /dizɛ/, dise /diz/, dis /di/.
2Until the eighteenth century.
3With the disused variant dize.
4long infinitive
5In modern times, scheva.
6Derived from the unrelated Latin verb narrāre "to tell (a story)". Note also the pronunciations: narrer /ˈnarrere/, narat /ˈnarada/, at naradu /a nnaˈradu/, naraiat /narˈaiada/, nabat /ˈnabata/, nerzat /ˈnertsada/, niet /ˈniete/, nara /ˈnara/.
7Sicilian now uses imperfect subjunctive dicissi in place of present subjunctive.

مقارنة معجمية

English Latin Sardinian
(Nuorese)[10]
Romanian Sicilian[11][12][13] Italian Venetian Emilian Lombard Piedmontese[14] Friulian[15] Romansh French Occitan[16] Catalan Aragonese[17] Spanish Asturian[18] Portuguese
man homō, hominem ómine om omu uomo om(en)o òm(en) òm om um homme
/ɔm/
òme home ombre, ome hombre home homem
woman, wife mulier, mulierem muzère muiere mugghieri moglie mojer mojé muîr muglier OF moillier OOc mólher (nom.) /
molhér (obj.)
muller muller mujer muyer mulher
son fīlium fìzu fiu figghiu figlio fiol fieul fi figl, fegl fils /fis/ filh fill fillo hijo fíu filho
water aquam àbba apǎ acqua acqua acua aqua âcua eva aghe aua eau /o/ aiga aigua aigua, augua agua agua água
fire focum fócu foc focu fuoco fogo foeugh fûg feu fûc fieu feu /fø/ fuòc foc fuego fuego fueu fogo
rain pluviam próida ploaie chiuvuta[19] pioggia pióva pioeuva piôva pieuva ploe plievgia pluie /plɥi/ pluèja pluja plebia lluvia lluvia chuva
land terram tèrra ţară terra terra tera tera tèra tiere terra/tiara terre /tɛʁ/ tèrra terra tierra tierra tierra terra
sky caelum chélu cer celu cielo çiél cel cîl tschiel ciel /sjɛl/ cèl cel zielo cielo cielu céu
high altum àrtu înaltu autu alto alto alt èlt àut alt aut haut[20] /o/ n-aut alt alto alto altu alto
new novum nóbu nou novu nuovo nóvo noeuv nôv neuv gnove nov neuf /nœf/ nòu nou nuebo nuevo nuevu novo
horse caballum càdhu cal cavaddu cavallo cavało cavall cavâl caval ĉhaval chaval cheval
/ʃ(ǝ)val/
caval cavall caballo caballo caballu cavalo
dog canem cane câine cani cane can can cjan chaun chien
/ʃjɛ̃/
can ca can can can cão
do facere fàchere face(re) fari fare far fèr far faire /fɛʁ/ far/fàser fer fer hacer facer fazer
milk lactem làte lapte latti latte late latt lât làit lat latg lait /lɛ/ lach llet leit leche lleche leite
eye oculum > *oclum ócru ochi occhiu occhio ocio eucc, euj voli egl oeil /œj/ uèlh ull güello ojo güeyu olho
ear auriculam > *oriclam orícra ureche ricchi orecchio orécia orija orele ureglia oreille
/ɔʁɛj/
aurelha orella orella oreja oreya orelha
tongue/
language
linguam límba limbǎ lingua lingua léngua lengua langua lenga lenghe lingua langue /lɑ̃g/ lenga llengua luenga lengua llingua língua
hand manum manu mână manu mano man man man maun main /mɛ̃/ man man mano mano mão [mɐ̃w̃]
skin pellem pèdhe piele peddi pelle pełe pell pèl pel piel pel peau /po/ pèl pell piel piel piel pele
I ego dègo eu ju/jè io (mi)[21] (mì)[21] (mé)[21] i(/mi)[21] jo jau je /ʒǝ/ ieu/jo jo yo yo yo eu
our nostrum nóstru nostru nostru nostro nostro noster nòster nòst nestri noss notre /nɔtʁ/ nòstre nostre nuestro nuestro nuesu,[22] nuestru nosso[22]
three trēs tres trei tri tre tre trii trî (m)/
trai (f)
trè tre trais trois /tʁwa/ tres tres tres tres trés três
four quattuor >
*quattro
bàttoro patru quattru quattro cuatro quatr cuatri quat(t)er quatre /katʁ/ quatre quatre cuatre, cuatro cuatro cuatro quatro
five quīnque >
*cīnque
chímbe cinci cincu cinque çincue sinch cinc tschintg cinq /sɛ̃k/ cinc cinc zinco, zingo cinco cinco, cincu cinco
six sex ses şase sie sei sìe ses sîs sis six /sis/ sièis sis seis/sais seis seis seis
seven septem sète şapte setti siete sete set siet se(a)t, siat sept /sɛt/ sèt set siet(e) siete siete sete
eight octō òto opt ottu otto oto eut vot ot(g), och huit /ɥit/ uèch vuit güeito, ueito ocho ocho oito
nine novem nòbe nouă novi nove nove neuv nûv no(u)v neuf /nœf/ nòu nou nueu nueve nueve nove
ten decem dèche zece deci dieci diéxe des dîs diesch dix /dis/ dètz deu diez diez diez dez
English Latin Sardinian Romanian Sicilian Italian Venetian Lombard Emilian Piedmontese Friulian Romansh French Occitan Catalan Aragonese Spanish Asturian Portuguese

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Ilari, Rodolfo (2002). Lingüística Românica. Ática. p. 50. ISBN 85-08-04250-7. 
  2. ^ أ ب Logudorese (north) Sardinian
  3. ^ أ ب Campidanese (south) Sardinian
  4. ^ Price, Glanville (1984). The French language: past and present. London: Grant and Cutler Ltd. 
  5. ^ "Na" is a contraction of "em" (in) + "a" (the), the form "em a" is never used, it is always replaced by "na". The same happens with other prepositions: "de" (of) + o/a/os/as (singular and plural forms for "the" in masculine and feminine) = do, da, dos, das; etc.
  6. ^ Related terms are îmbuca(verb) meaning to put in mounth and cavitatea bucala scientific term for mouth
  7. ^ أ ب Accademia della Crusca On the use of the passato remoto (in Italian)[dead link]
  8. ^ Cf. auret "she had" < Latin habuerat, voldrent "they wanted" < Latin voluerant. Not clearly distinct in meaning from the first (normal) preterite, cf. the parallel lines por o fut presentede "for this reason she was presented" (fut = first preterite, from Latin fuit) vs. por o's furet morte "for these reasons she was killed" (furet = second preterite, from Latin fuerat) in the same poem.
  9. ^ Paden, William D. 1998. An Introduction to Old Occitan. Modern Language Association of America. ISBN 0-87352-293-1. (NEED PAGE NUMBER)
  10. ^ "Ditzionàriu Online". Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  11. ^ "Sicilian–English Dictionary". Italian.about.com. 2010-06-15. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  12. ^ "Dictionary Sicilian – Italian". Utenti.lycos.it. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  13. ^ "Indo-European Languages". Retrieved 2013-09-18. 
  14. ^ "Grand Dissionari Piemontèis / Grande Dizionario Piemontese". Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  15. ^ "Dictionary English–Friulian Friulian–English". Sangiorgioinsieme.it. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  16. ^ Beaumont (2008-12-16). "Occitan–English Dictionary". Freelang.net. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  17. ^ "English Aragonese Dictionary Online". Glosbe. Retrieved 2013-09-18. 
  18. ^ "English Asturian Dictionary Online". Glosbe. Retrieved 2013-09-18. 
  19. ^ Developed from *pluviūtam.
  20. ^ Initial h- due to contamination of Germanic *hauh "high". Although no longer pronounced, it reveals its former presence by inhibiting elision of a preceding schwa, e.g. le haut "the high" vs. l'eau "the water".
  21. ^ أ ب ت ث Cognate with Latin , not ego. Note that this parallels the state of affairs in Celtic, where the cognate of ego is not attested anywhere, and the use of the accusative form cognate to has been extended to cover the nominative, as well.
  22. ^ أ ب Developed from an assimilated form *nossum rather than from nostrum.

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