بحرية جيش التحرير الشعبي

(تم التحويل من البحرية الصينية)
بحرية جيش التحرير الشعبي<
中国人民解放军海军
People's Liberation Army Navy Jack and Ensign
شعار بحرية جيش التحرير الشعبي
تأسستسبتمبر 1950; 69 years ago (1950-09
البلد الصين
الولاءFlag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Communist Party of China[1]
الفرعجيش التحرير الشعبي
النوعبحرية
الدورقتال بحري
الحجم240,000 فرد تحت السلاح (تقدير) اعتبارا من 2018[2]
537+ ships اعتبارا من 2018 (excl. auxiliaries)[3]
594+ aircraft اعتبارا من 2018[4]
جزء منPeople's Liberation Army Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Liberation Army
(PLA Navy Headquarters directly under the Central Military Commission)
المشيةzh ("The People's Navy Marches Forward") (de facto)
Fleet2 aircraft carriers
2 landing helicopter docks
8 amphibious transport docks
32 landing ship tanks
33 landing ship medium
48 destroyers
49 frigates
71 corvettes
109 missile boats
94 submarine chasers
17 gunboats
36 mine countermeasure vessels
79 submarines
19 replenishment ships
(232 auxiliaries)
الاشتباكاتالحرب الأهلية الصينية
Battle of the Paracel Islands
الحرب الصينية الڤيتنامية
Johnson South Reef Skirmish
عمليات مكافحة القرصنة في الصومال
الموقع الإلكترونيeng.chinamil.com.cn/armed-forces/navy.htm
القادة
CommanderAdmiral Shen Jinlong
Political CommissarAdmiral Qin Shengxiang
الشارات
Flag and ensignNaval Ensign of the People's Republic of China.svg
JackPeople's Liberation Army Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
BadgeThe emblem of PLAN
الطائرات التابعة
طائرة هجوميةJH-7
قاذفة قنابلH-6
الحرب
الإلكترونية
Y-8
مقاتلةJ-8, J-10, J-11, Su-30MK2, J-15
مروحيةZ-8, Z-9, Mi-8, Z-10, Ka-28, AS365
مقاتلة اعتراضيةJ-7, J-8
طائرة دوريةY-8, Y-9
استطلاعY-9
طائرة تدريبJL-8, JL-9
طائرة شحنY-7, Y-9
Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy
صينية مبسطة 中国人民解放军海军
صينية تقليدية 中國人民解放軍海軍
البحرية الشعبية
الصينية المبسطة 人民海军
الصينية التقليدية 人民海軍
بحرية جيش التحرير الشعبي
صينية تقليدية 中國人民解放軍海軍
صينية مبسطة 中国人民解放军海军

بحرية جيش التحرير الشعبي (PLAN أو PLA Navy)، هي فرع القوات البحرية من جيش التحرير الشعبي، القوات المسلحة الصينية. The PLAN can trace its lineage to naval units fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was established in September 1950. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, the Soviet Union provided assistance to the PLAN in the form of naval advisers and export of equipment and technology.[5] Until the late 1980s, the PLAN was largely a riverine and littoral force (brown-water navy). However, by the 1990s, following the fall of the Soviet Union and a shift towards a more forward-oriented foreign and security policy, the leaders of the Chinese military were freed from worrying over land border disputes, and instead turned their attention towards the seas. This led to the development of the People's Liberation Army Navy into a green-water navy by 2009.[6] Before the 1990s the PLAN had traditionally played a subordinate role to the People's Liberation Army Ground Force.

In 2008, General Qian Lihua confirmed that China plans to operate a small fleet of aircraft carriers in the near future, but for the purpose of regional defence as opposed to "global reach".[7] As of 2013 PLA officials have also outlined plans to operate in the first and second island chains.[8] Chinese strategists term the development of the PLAN from a green-water navy into "a regional blue-water defensive and offensive navy."[9]

The People's Liberation Army Navy is composed of five branches; the Submarine Force, the Surface Force, the Coastal Defense Force, the Marine Corps and the Naval Air Force.[10] With a personnel strength of 240,000 personnel, including 15,000 marines and 26,000 naval air force personnel[4], it is the second largest navy in the world in terms of tonnage, only behind the United States Navy, and has the largest number of major combatants of any navy.


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المهام

الوحدات البحرية الرئيسية في المناطق العسكرية لجيش التحرير الشعبي في 2006 (المصدر: وزارة الدفاع الأمريكية) – انقر للتكبير.

أوقات السلم:

  • القيام بدوريات بحرية في المياه الاقليمية
  • التواجد في المياه الاقليمية وحماية المنشآت الموجودة بها
  • محاربة القرصنة، التهريب، والبحث والانقاذ
  • تحقيق الأمن في المياه الاقليمية
  • توفير الدعم اللوجستي للمقاتلات وحاميات الجزر.
  • تأمين خطوط الاتصالات البحرية.

أوقات الحرب:

  • الدفاع عن البحار الاقليمية
  • الحصار أو حماية الطرق الحيوية للسفن ونقاط الاختناق
  • القيام بالنقل التكتيكي، الدعم، والعمليات البرمائية للقوات البرية
  • الدفاع الجوي
  • عمليات مقاومة الغواصات
  • الالتحام بسفن الأعداء
  • توفير الدعم اللوجستي للمقاتلين وحاميات الجزر.


التاريخ

بحار صيني مسلح ببندقية طراز 56 عام 1986.


الخمسينيات والستينيات

السبعينيات والثمانيينات

البحارة الصينيون في چینگداو، المقر الرئيسي لأسطول البحر الشمالي في عرض عسكري مع Type-56 carbines.


A starboard view of the PLA Navy Han class nuclear-powered attack submarine No. 405 under way. 1 أبريل 1993.



القرن 21

Starboard bow view of a guided-missile destroyer and naval auxiliary vessel seaming together in formation on a calm sea.
سفينتا البحرية الصينية چینگداو و تاي‌تسانگ أثناء دورانهما حول العالم، سنة 2002
في ربيع 2020، كانت توجد ستة أنفاق أنشأتها بحرية جيش التحرير الشعبي، لحماية الغواصات. الأنفاق محفورة في نتوءات صخرية مطلة على المحيط.[11]



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الوضع الحالي

China’s Critical Sea Lines of Communication. In 2004, over 80 percent of Chinese crude oil imports transited the Straits of Malacca, with less than 2 percent transiting the Straits of Lombok.

الاستراتيجية، الخطط والأولويات

احتفالات البحرية الصينية بعيدها ال60 في عام 2009.


عمليات مكافحة القرصنة 2008

الثورة الليبية 2011

التنظيم

Major naval units in the PLA military regions in 2006

The PLAN is organized into several departments for purposes of command, control and coordination. Main operating forces are organized into fleets, each with its own headquarters, a commander (a Rear Admiral or Vice Admiral) and a Political Commisar. All PLAN headquarters are subordinate to the PLA Joint Staff Department and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission.


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الأساطيل

The People's Liberation Army Navy is divided into three fleets:[12]

Each fleet consists of surface forces (destroyers, frigates, amphibious vessels etc.), submarine forces, coastal defence units, and aircraft.

الأفرع

PLAN Submarine Force

The People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force is one of five branches in the navy and consists of all submarines both nuclear-powered and conventionally-powered in service with the PLAN. They are organised into flotillas spread across the three main fleets.[13]

The PRC is the last of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council which has not conducted an operational ballistic missile submarine patrol, because of institutional problems.[14] It operates a fleet of 68 submarines.

PLAN Surface Force

Sailors from the U.S. Navy talk with Chinese Navy sailors from the guided-missile destroyer 153 Xi'an after the Rim of the Pacific 2016 exercise

The People's Liberation Army Surface Force is one of five branches in the navy and consists of all surface warfare ships in service with the PLAN. They are organised into flotillas spread across the three main fleets.[15]

PLAN Coastal Defence Force

The PLAN Coastal Defence Force is a land-based fighting force and branch of the PLAN[16] with a strength of around 25,000 personnel. Also known as the coastal defense troops, they serve to defend China's coastal areas from invasion via amphibious landings or air-attack. Throughout the 1960s to 1980s, the Coastal Defense Force was focused on defending China's coast from a possible Soviet sea-borne invasion. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the threat of an amphibious invasion of China has diminished and therefore the branch is often considered to no-longer to be a vital component of the PLAN, especially as the surface warships of the PLAN continue to improve in terms of anti-ship and air-defence capabilities.

Today the primary weapons of the coastal defense troops are the HY-2, YJ-82, and C-602 anti-ship missiles.

PLAN Marine Corps

PLAN Marines of the 1st Marine Brigade and members of the USMC fire the Type 95 Assault Rifle during an exchange exercise.
A PLAN marine with a boarding team assigned to the guided missile destroyer Haikou during a maritime operations exercise in RIMPAC 2014.

The PLAN Marine Corps was originally established in the 1950s and then re-established in 1979 under PLAN organisation. It consists of around 12,000 marines organised into two 6000-man brigades and is based in the South China Sea with the South Sea Fleet. The Marine Corps are considered elite troops, and are rapid mobilization forces trained primarily in amphibious warfare and as Paratroopers to establish a beachhead or act as a fighting spearhead during operations against enemy targets. The marines are equipped with the standard Type 95 Assault Rifle as well as other small arms and personnel equipment, and a blue/littoral camouflage uniform as standard. The marines are also equipped with armoured fighting vehicles (including amphibious light tanks such as the Type 63), artillery, and anti-aircraft artillery systems and short range surface-to-air missiles.

With the PLAN's accelerating efforts to expand its capabilities beyond territorial waters, it would be likely for the Marine Corps to play a greater role in terms of being an offshore expeditionary force similar to the USMC and Royal Marines.

PLA Naval Air Force

The People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force is the "air force" of the PLAN and has a strength of around 25,000 personnel and 690 aircraft. It operates similar aircraft to the People's Liberation Army Air Force, including fighter aircraft, bombers, strike aircraft, tankers, reconnaissance aircraft, electronic warfare aircraft, maritime patrol aircraft, transport aircraft, and helicopters of various roles. The PLA Naval Air Force has traditionally received older aircraft than the PLAAF and has taken less ambitious steps towards mass modernization. Advancements in new technologies, weaponry and aircraft acquisition were made after 2000. With the introduction of China's first aircraft carrier, Liaoning the Naval Air Force is for the first time conducting aircraft carrier operations.[17] Naval Air Bases includes:

Relationship with other maritime organizations of China

The PLAN is complemented by paramilitary maritime services such as the China Coast Guard. The Chinese Coast Guard was previously not under an independent command, considered part of the armed police, under the local (provincial) border defense force command, prior to its reorganization and consolidation as an unified service. It was formed from the integration of several formerly separate services (such as China Marine Surveillance (CMS), Hai Guang, People's Armed Police and sea militia). The CMS performed mostly coastal and ocean search and rescue or patrols. The CMS received quite a few large patrol ships that significantly enhanced their operations, while Hai Guang, militia, police and other services operated hundreds of small patrol craft. For maritime patrol services, these craft are usually quite well armed with machine guns and 37mm antiaircraft guns. In addition, these services operated their own small aviation units to assist their maritime patrol capabilities, with Hai Guang and CMS operating a handful of Harbin Z-9 helicopters, and a maritime patrol aircraft based on the Harbin Y-12 STOL transport.

Every coastal province has 1 to 3 Coast Guard squadrons:

  • 3 Squadrons: Fujian, Guangdong
  • 2 Squadrons: Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Hainan, Guangxi
  • 1 Squadron: Heibei, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Shanghai


الرتب

The ranks in the People's Liberation Army Navy are similar to those of the People's Liberation Army Ground Force. The current system of officer ranks and insignia dates from 1988 and is a revision of the ranks and insignia used from 1955 to 1965. The rank of Hai Jun Yi Ji Shang Jiang (First Class Admiral) was never held and was abolished in 1994. With the official introduction of the Type 07 uniforms all officer insignia are on either shoulders or sleeves depending on the type of uniform used. The current system of enlisted ranks and insignia dates from 1998.

التعبئة

PLAN Type 052C air defence destroyer
The latest Yuan-class SSK
Type Nr.
Planned/
Building
Nr.
Active
Nr. in
Reserve
Submarines
Nuclear Ballistic Missile Submarines 3 4
Nuclear Attack Submarines 4-6 5 2
Conventional Ballistic Missile Submarines 0 1
Conventional Attack Submarines 1 47
Total Submarines 8-10 57 2
Principal Surface Combatants
Aircraft Carriers 3 0
Destroyers 26
Frigates 1 51
Total Principal Surface Combatants 4 77
Coastal Warfare Vessels
Missile Boats 132 110-120
Torpedo Boats 20 150
Gun Boats 160 100
Submarine Chasers 75 20
Total Coastal Warfare Vessels ~387 ~380-390
Amphibious Warfare Vessels
Landing Platforms 1 1
Landing Ships 83
Landing Craft 370-480
Total Amphibious Warfare Vessels 1 ~454-564
Mine Warfare Vessels
Mine Warfare Ships 27 42
Mine Warfare Drones 4 26
Total Mine Warfare Vessels 31 68
Total Auxiliary/Support Vessels ~153
Total All Vessels 12+ ~1159-1269 450+
Total Combat Vessels 12+ ~632 420+

Note: "Total Combat Vessels" counts only submarines, principal surface combatants, coastal warfare vessels, mine warfare ships, landing platforms and ships. These are vessels that would normally be commissioned and excludes landing craft, mine warfare drones and auxiliary/support vessels. All numbers are approximate.

السفن

الغواصات

السلاح

الطائرات

الطيران البحري

الطائرة المنشأ النوع الطراز في الخدمة هوامش
طائرة ثابتة الأجنحة
Shenyang J-11BH/S الصين مقاتلة ج-11 24 Chinese developed fighter with airframe based on the Su-27
Chengdu J-10 الصين مقاتلة J-10, J-10AS, J-10SH[18] 20
Xian JH-7A Flounder الصين غارة بحرية JH-7A 35[18]
Shenyang J-8II Finback الصين مقاتلة ج-8 48[18]
Chengdu J-7D/E Fishbed الصين اعتراضية J-7 30[18]
Sukhoi Su-30 MK2 Flanker روسيا
الصين
مقاتلة Su-30MKK2/33 24[18]
Nanchang Q-5 Fantan الصين قصف خفيف أ-5 30
Xian H-6 الصين قصف استراتيجي H-6D 16[18]
Shaanxi Y-8MPA الصين دورية Y-8 MPA 6[18] An-12 licensed copy
Shaanxi Y-8 الصين AEW Y-8 ELINT[18] 2
Harbin SH-5 الصين ASW SH-5 3
Shenyang JianJiao JJ-6 Farmer الصين تدريب JJ-6 30[18]
Xian Y-7 الصين نقل متوسط Y-7 10 a variant of Antonov An-24 Coke
Shijiazhuang Y-5 الصين light utility aircraft Y-5 3
JF-15 الصين Multirole combat aircraft JF15 50 ordered[18]
Hongdu JL-8 الصين تدريب نفاث/ هجوم خفيف JL-8 12[18]
Guizhou JL-9 الصين تدريب نفاث/ هجوم JL-9 12[18]
مروحيات
Chenghe Z-8 الصين AEW Z-8 26[18] Aérospatiale SA 321 Super Frelon variant
Harbin Z-9 الصين ASW/SAR Z-9 21 Z-9C
Mil Mi-8 Hip الاتحاد السوڤيتي مروحية نقل متوسطة مي-8 8
Kamov Ka-28 Helix الاتحاد السوڤيتي ASW Ka-28 12 6 ordered [18]
Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin مروحية مهاجة AS365N 3[18]

الأسطول

الحدود الجغرافية لسلسلة الجزر الأولى والثانية.
تم تعديل حاملة الطائرات السابقة ڤارياگ لاستخدامها في بحرية جيش التحرير الشعبي.
This new display at the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution, was newly installed for the PLA's 90th anniversary. While it has speculative features like four catapults, J-20 fighters and stealthy UCAVs, the nuclear powered Type 003 supercarrier probably won't enter service until after 2030.
"سور الصين العظيم في قاع البحر" بمجسات وطوربيدات وغواصات غير مأهولة.


انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ "The PLA Oath" (PDF). February 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2015. I am a member of the People's Liberation Army. I promise that I will follow the leadership of the Communist Party of China...
  2. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies: The Military Balance 2018, p. 250.
  3. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies: The Military Balance 2018, p. 252-253.
  4. ^ أ ب International Institute for Strategic Studies: The Military Balance 2018, p. 254.
  5. ^ Pike, John. "People's Liberation Army Navy – History". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  6. ^ The View from the West: Chinese Naval Power in the 21st Century, by Christian Bedford
  7. ^ "BBC NEWS – Asia-Pacific – China has aircraft carrier hopes". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  8. ^ "China to conduct naval drills in Pacific amid tension". Reuters. 30 January 2013.
  9. ^ Ronald O'Rourke, "China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress", 10 December 2012, page 7
  10. ^ Pike, John. "People's Liberation Navy Organizational Structure". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  11. ^ H I Sutton (2020-05-05). "Chinese Navy Submarines Are Protected By Underground Tunnels". فوربس (مجلة).
  12. ^ Pike, John. "People's Liberation Army Navy". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  13. ^ Pike, John. "People's Liberation Navy Submarine Forces". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  14. ^ Easton, Ian (31 January 2014). "China's Deceptively Weak (and Dangerous) Military". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  15. ^ Pike, John. "People's Liberation Army Navy – Surface Forces". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  16. ^ Pike, John. "People's Liberation Navy Coastal Defense Org. Structure". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  17. ^ China's first aircraft carrier enters service Archived 12 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض AsianMilitaryReview.com. AsianMilitaryReview.com (1 February 2012). Retrieved on 7 May 2012.

This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain.


المراجع

وصلات خارجية