العلاقات الألمانية الفرنسية

(تم التحويل من France–Germany relations)
العلاقات الألمانية الفرنسية
Map indicating locations of Germany and France

ألمانيا

فرنسا
الذكرى 50 للتصالح، 8 يوليو 2012: أنگلا مركل (يسار)، المستشارة الفدرالية لألمانيا، وفرانسوا اولاند (يمين)، رئيس الجمهورية الفرنسية.

العلاقات الألمانية الفرنسية، هي العلاقات الثنائية بين ألمانيا وفرنسا


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مقارنة بين البلدين

فرنسا فرنسا ألمانيا ألمانيا
السكان 67,087,000 82,066,000
المساحة 674,843  km2 (260,558 sq mi) 357,021  km2 (137,847 sq mi)
الكثافة السكانية 116/km2 (301/sq mi) 229/km2 (593/sq mi)
العاصمة پاريس برلين
أكبر مدينة پاريس – 2,234,105 (12,161,542 Metro) برلين – 3,510,032 (5,964,002 Metro)
الحكومة Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
اللغة الرسمية French (de facto and de jure) German (de facto and de jure)
الديانات الرئيسية 58% Christianity, 31% non-religious, 7% Islam,
1% Judaism, 1% Buddhism, 2% other
58% Christianity, 37% non-religious, 4% Islam, 1% other[1]
الجماعات العرقية 86% French, 7% other European, 7% North African, other Sub-Saharan African,
Indochinese, Asian, Latin American and Pacific Islander.
80% Germans, 5% Turks, 5% other Europeans, 10% other
GDP (PPP) $2.590 trillion, $43,550 per capita $3.615 trillion, $50,206 per capita
GDP (nominal) $2.846 trillion, $39,932 per capita $3.730 trillion, $44,769 per capita
السكان المغتربون 110,881 French citizens lived in Germany on Dec. 31, 2012[2] 130,742[3] German citizens lived in France in 2012[4]
الإنفاق العسكري 62.5 بليون دولار 46.7 بليون دولار


التاريخ

العلاقات المبكرة

The Carolingian Empire, as divided in 843


فرنسا وهابسبورگ


فرنسا وپروسيا

The Prussian troops victorious at the battle of Rossbach. Johann Christoph Frisch, 1799.
The French troops entering Berlin after the battle of Jena. Charles Meynier, 1810.


تأثير الثورة الفرنسية وناپليون

فرنسا وباڤاريا

القرن التاسع عشر

Proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles Palace, 18 January 1871, by Anton von Werner.
John Tenniel: Au Revoir!, Punch 6 August 1881
A painting by Neuville from 1887 depicting French students being taught about the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, taken by Germany in 1871.


الحرب العالمية الأولى

A French propaganda poster from 1917 portrays Prussia as an octopus stretching out its tentacles vying for control. It is captioned with an 18th-century quote: "Even in 1788, Mirabeau was saying that War is the National Industry of Prussia."
French Army troops gathering before their departure from Rhineland, occupied Mainz, 1930
German Wehrmacht soldiers in front of the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, occupied Paris, 1940
French forces in front of the Reichstag, occupied Berlin, 1946.



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ع. 1920


معاهدات لوكارنو 1925

ع. 1930

الحرب العالمية الثانية

فرنسا، ألمانيا، والاتحاد الأوروپي

الصداقة

Guests arriving for the initiation of a new German Embassy building in Paris, 1968



التحالفات

التحالفات السياسية

التحالفات الاقتصادية

Sculpture of Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle.


التحالفات الثقافية

التحالفات العسكرية

انظر أيضاً


المصادر

  1. ^ Religionszugehörigkeit, Deutschland Archived 2015-12-25 at the Wayback Machine., fowid.de (in German)
  2. ^ Les Français établis hors de France - Population française inscrite au 31 décembre 2012 Archived 2013-02-01 at the Wayback Machine., France Diplomatie
  3. ^ "Présentation de l'Allemagne".
  4. ^ Répartition des étrangers par nationalité, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (Insee)


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قراءات إضافية

  • Keiger, J.F.V. France and the World since 1870 (2001), a wide ranging survey to the 1990s
  • Krotz, Ulrich. History and foreign policy in France and Germany (Springer, 2015).

حتى 1945

  • Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958), 736pp; basic survey
  • Brandenburg, Erich. (1927) From Bismarck to the World War: A History of German Foreign Policy 1870–1914 (1927) online.
  • Burrin, Philippe. France Under the Germans, Collaboration and Compromise. (1996) 1940-44.
  • Bury, J.P.T. "Diplomatic History 1900–1912, in C. L. Mowat, ed. The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. XII: The Shifting Balance of World Forces 1898-1945 (2nd ed. 1968) online pp 112-139.
  • Carroll, E. Malcolm, French Public Opinion and Foreign Affairs 1870–1914 (1931). online.
  • Carroll, E. Malcolm. Germany and the great powers, 1866–1914: A study in public opinion and foreign policy (1938) online; online at Questia also online review
  • Clark, Christopher. The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (2013)
  • Gooch, G.P. History of modern Europe, 1878–1919 (2nd ed. 1956) pp 386-413. online, diplomatic history
  • Gordon, Bertram, ed. Historical Dictionary of World War II France. The Occupation, Vichy and the Resistance, 1938-1946. (1998).
  • Hensel, Paul R. "The Evolution of the Franco-German Rivalry" pp 86–124 in William R. Thompson, ed. Great power rivalries (1999) online
  • Hewitson, Mark. "Germany and France before the First World War: a reassessment of Wilhelmine foreign policy." English Historical Review 115.462 (2000): 570-606; argues Germany had a growing sense of military superiority.
  • Jackson, Julian. France, The Dark Years, 1940-1944 (2001), a major scholarly survey.
  • Keiger, John F.V. France and the origins of the First World War (1983), a major scholarly survey.
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events online
  • Langer, William. European Alliances and Alignments 1870–1890 (1950); advanced history online
  • Langer, William. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890–1902 (1950); advanced history online
  • MacMillan, Margaret. The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 (2013), , diplomatic history
  • Paxton, Robert. Vichy France, Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944 (1972).
  • Rich, Norman. Great Power Diplomacy: 1814–1914 (1991), comprehensive survey
  • Rich, Norman. Great Power Diplomacy since 1914 (2003) comprehensive survey
  • Scheck, Raffael. “Lecture Notes, Germany and Europe, 1871–1945” (2008) full text online, a brief textbook by a leading scholar
  • Schuman, Frederick L. War and Diplomacy in the French Republic (1931) online
  • Steiner, Zara S. The lights that failed: European international history, 1919–1933 (2007), 940pp detailed coverage; online
  • Steiner, Zara. The Triumph of the Dark: European International History, 1933–1939 (2011) detailed coverage 1236pp
  • Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918 (1954) 638pp; advanced history and analysis of major diplomacy.
  • Watt, D.C. "Diplomatic History 1930–1939" in C. L. Mowat, ed. The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. XII: The Shifting Balance of World Forces 1898-1945 (2nd ed. 1968) online pp 684-734.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard.The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Diplomatic Revolution in Europe, 1933-36 (v. 1) (1971); The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Starting World War II, 1937–1939 (vol 2) (University of Chicago Press, 1980) ISBN 0-226-88511-9.
  • Wetzel, David. A Duel of Giants: Bismarck, Napoleon III, and the Origins of the Franco-Prussian War (2003)
  • Young, Robert France and the Origins of the Second World War (1996)
  • Scheck, Raffael. "The Prisoner of War Question and the Beginnings of Collaboration: The Franco-German Agreement of 16 November 1940." Journal of Contemporary History 45#2 (2010): 364-388. online

بعد 1945

  • Baun, Michael J. "The Maastricht Treaty as High Politics: Germany, France, and European Integration." Political Science Quarterly (1996): 110#4 pp. 605-624 in JSTOR
  • Friend, Julius W. The Linchpin: French-German Relations, 1950–1990 (1991) online
  • Friend, Julius W. Unequal Partners: French-German Relations, 1989–2000. (Greenwood 2001)
  • Fryer, W. R. "The Republic and the Iron Chancellor: The Pattern of Franco-German Relations, 1871–1890," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (1979), Vol. 29, pp 169-185.
  • Gillingham, John. Coal, steel, and the rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955: the Germans and French from Ruhr conflict to Economic Community (Cambridge UP, 2004).
  • Gordon, Philip H. France, Germany and the Western Alliance. (Westview 1995) ISBN 0-8133-2555-2.
  • Gunther, Scott. "A New Identity for Old Europe: How and Why the French Imagined Françallemagne in Recent Years." French Politics, Culture & Society (2011) 29#1
  • Krotz, Ulrich. "Three eras and possible futures: a long-term view on the Franco-German relationship a century after the First World War," International Affairs (March 2014) 20#2 pp 337-350
  • Krotz, Ulrich, and Joachim Schild. Shaping Europe: France, Germany, and Embedded Bilateralism from the Elysée Treaty to Twenty-First Century Politics (Oxford University Press, 2013)
  • Krotz, Ulrich. "Regularized intergovernmentalism: France–Germany and beyond (1963–2009)." Foreign Policy Analysis (2010) 6#2 pp: 147-185.
  • Krotz, Ulrich. Structure as Process: The Regularized Intergovernmentalism of Franco-German Bilateralism (Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard University, 2002) online
  • Krotz, Ulrich. "Social Content of the International Sphere: Symbols and Meaning in Franco-German Relations" (Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, 2002.) online
  • Kulski, W.W. DeGaulle And The World: The Foreign Policy Of The Fifth French Republic (1966)
  • Rich, Norman. Great Power Diplomacy since 1914 (2003) comprehensive survey
  • Schild, Joachim. "Leadership in Hard Times: Germany, France, and the Management of the Eurozone Crisis." German Politics & Society (2013) 31#1 pp: 24-47.
  • Sutton, Michael. France and the construction of Europe, 1944–2007: the geopolitical imperative (Berghahn Books, 2011)
  • Tint, Herbert. French Foreign Policy since the Second World War (1972) online free to borrow pp 28-165.

وصلات خارجية