هون الخان

(تم التحويل من Alchon Huns)
Alchon Huns
380–560
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Tamga of the Alchon Huns
Alchon territories and campaigns into Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, circa 500 CE.
Alchon territories and campaigns into Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, circa 500 CE.
العاصمةكابيسا
اللغات الشائعةبراهمي و Bactrian (written)
الدين البوذية والهندوسية
الحكومةامبراطورية رحالة
Tegin 
• 430 – 461 م
Khingila
• 461 – 493 م
مهاما
• 493 – 515
تورامانا
• 515 – 540 م
ميهيراكولا
• 540 – 570 CE
Toramana II
الحقبة التاريخيةالقدم المتأخر
• تأسست
380
• انحلت
560
Currencyدرخم هوني
Preceded by
Succeeded by
الامبراطورية الساسانية
Kidarites
Hephthalites
Gupta Empire
Nezak Huns
Aulikaras
Turk Shahi
Today part of أفغانستان
 پاكستان
 الهند

هون الخان (Alchon Huns ؛ Sanskrit: Hūṇas)، أيضاً Alkhan Huns,[1] were a group of nomads who established states in central and southern Asia. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites or "Hunas", being preceded in southern Asia by the Kidarites and the Hephthalites, and succeeded by the Nezak Huns.

The Alchons appeared in the Paropamisadae and later expanded into the Punjab and central India as far as Eran and Kausambi. Their invasion of Indian territory follows that of the Kidarites about half a century earlier.[2][3] It greatly weakened, and contributed to the fall of, the Gupta Empire. Their invasion of India follows numerous other invasions in the preceding centuries, such as those of the Indo-Greeks, the Indo-Scythians or the Kushans.[4]

We know of the names of the Alchon kings from their extensive coinage and from inscriptions in Buddhist stupas.

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التاريخ

Portrait of king Khingila, founder of the Alchon Huns, c. 430 - 490 CE.

The Alchon Huns emerged in Kapisa around 380, taking over Kabulistan from the Sassanian Persians, at the same time the Kidarites (Red Huns) ruled in Bactria and Ghandara. They are said to have taken control of Kabul in 388.[1]


Gandhara

Around 430 king Khingila, the most notable Alchon ruler, emerges and takes control of the routes accross the Hindu Kush from the Kidarites.[1] As the Alchons Huns took control, diplomatic missions were established in 457 with China.[5] In 460, the Alchons conquered Taxila. Between 460-470 CE, as they took over Gandhara and Punjab, the Huns apparently undertook the mass destruction of Buddhist monasteries and stupas at Taxila, a high center of learning, which never recovered again from these destructions. The rest of the 5th century marks a period of territorial expansion and eponymous kings (Tegins), several of which appear to have overlapped and ruled jointly.

الحرب الهونية الأولى: وسط الهند

معركة إران الأولى (510 م)

A particularly decisive encounter occurred in Malwa, where a local Gupta ruler, probably a Governor, named Bhanugupta was ruling. In the Bhanugupta Eran inscription, this local ruler reports that he participated in a great battle in 510 CE at Eran, where he suffered severe casualties.[6] According to a 6th century CE Buddhist work, the Manjusri-mula-kalpa, Bhanu Gupta lost Malwa to the Sudra Toramana, who continued his conquest to Magadha, forcing Narasimhagupta Baladitya to make a retreat to Bengal. Toramana is said to have crowned a new king in Benares, named Prakataditya, who is also presented as a son of Narasimha Gupta.[7][6]

The Eran "Varaha" boar, on which can be found an inscription mentioning the rule of Toramana.[8]
A rare gold coin of Toramana in the style of the Guptas. The obverse legend reads: "The lord of the Earth, Toramana, having conquered the Earth, wins Heaven".[9][10]


التقهقر إلى كابولستان

عملة "هجين الخان-نزاك"، من سنة 580-680. صورة جذع نصفية بنمط نزاك على الوجه؛ وتمگا الخان محاطة بإطار مزدوج على الظهر.[11]



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الدين والأخلاق

The period of Huna rule corresponds to the last stages of Greco-Buddhist art. 7th century, Ghorband District, Afghanistan.

اضطهاد البوذية

بوذا متعبد من عصر گوپتا، القرن الخامس الميلادي.


Khingila with solar symbol.
Alchon king with small male figure wearing solar nimbus.

The 12th century Kashmiri historian Kalhana too painted a dreary picture of Mihirakula's cruelty, as well as his persecution of the Buddhist faith:

"In him, the northern region brought forth, as it were, another god of death, bent in rivalry to surpass... Yama (the god of death residing in the southern regions). People knew of his approach by noticing the vultures, crows and other birds flying ahead eager to feed on those who were being slain within his army's reach. The royal Vetala (demon) was day and night surrounded by thousands of murdered human beings, even in his pleasure houses. This terrible enemy of mankind had no pity for children, no compassion for women, no respect for the aged"

— 12th century Kashmiri historian Kalhana[12]

العواقب على الهند

Find spots of epigraphic inscriptions related to local control by the Alchon Huns (خريطة الهند)[13]

تلك الغزوات، بالرغم من أنها لم تستمر إلا لبضع عقود، كان لها أثراً بعيداً على الهند، وبشكلٍ ما أنهت الحضارة الهندية الكلاسيكية.[12]


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المصادر


العملات

See also

References

  1. ^ أ ب ت The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.286
  2. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco p.119 sq
  3. ^ The Huns, Hyun Jin Kim, Routledge, 2015 p.50 sq
  4. ^ Concise Encyclopeida Of World History by Carlos Ramirez-Faria [1]
  5. ^ Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks by Jason Neelis [2]
  6. ^ أ ب The Gupta Empire, Radhakumud Mookerji, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1959 p.120
  7. ^ Early history of Jammu region, Raj Kumar, Gyan Publishing House, 2010 p.538
  8. ^ Coin Cabinet of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna [3]
  9. ^ CNG Coins [4]
  10. ^ The Identity of Prakasaditya by Pankaj Tandon, Boston University [5]
  11. ^ CNG Coins [6]
  12. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Eraly
  13. ^ Hans Bakker 24th Gonda lecture
  14. ^ For reference CNG Coins [7]
  15. ^ CNG coins [8]
  16. ^ CNG Coins [9]

وصلات خارجية