مولداڤيا

(تم التحويل من مولدافيا)
هذا المقال هو عن the historical principality. إذا كنت تريد the modern state، انظر Moldova. إذا كنت تريد other uses، انظر Moldavia (disambiguation).
Principality of Moldavia
Moldova (Țara Moldovei)  (language?)
1346–1859
Flag of Moldavia
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Moldavia under Stephen the Great, 1483
Moldavia under Stephen the Great, 1483
العاصمة Baia, Siret 1343–1388
Suceava 1388–1564
Iași (Jassy) from 1564
اللغات الشائعة Romanian (Old Romanian),[1][2] Old Church Slavonic (in early official use)
الدين

Eastern Orthodox

الحكومة Principality
Princes of Moldavia (Voivodes, Hospodars)  
• 1346–1353 (first)
Dragoș
• 1859–1862 (last)
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
التاريخ  
• Foundation of the Moldavian mark
1346
5 February [ن.ق. 24 January] 1859 1859
Currency Taler
Succeeded by
United Principalities
Duchy of Bukovina
Bessarabia Governorate
Today part of
جزء من سلسلة عن
تاريخ رومانيا
درع رومانيا
قبل التاريخ
داتشيا
الحروب الداتشية
داتشيا الرومانية
تراقو-رومان
العصور الوسطى المبكرة
أصل الرومانيين
العصور الوسطى
تاريخ ترانسلڤانيا
إمارة ترانسلڤانيا
تأسيس ولاخيا
تأسيس مولداڤيا
العصور الحديثة المبكرة
فناريوتس
الإمارات الدانوبية
الصحوة الوطنية
Organic Statute
الثورة المولداڤية 1848
الثورة الولاخية 1848
الإمارتان المتحدتان
حرب الاستقلال
مملكة رومانيا
الحرب العالمية الأولى
رومانيا العظمى
الحرب العالمية الثانية
الاحتلال السوڤيتي لبسرابيا وبكوڤينا الشمالية
Nuvola Romanian flag.svg بوابة رومانيا

قالب:History of Moldova

Moldavia (بالرومانية: Moldova تُنطق [molˈdova] ( استمع) or Țara Moldovei, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цара Молдовєі) is a historical region, and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak) and all of Bukovina.

The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, while the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Name and etymology

مقال رئيسي: Etymology of Moldova


التاريخ

Prehistory and antiquity

Early Middle Ages

High Middle Ages

مقال رئيسي: Foundation of Moldavia
Suceava Seat Fortress


Late Middle Ages

مقال رئيسي: Stephen the Great
Battle of Baia (1467) between the Moldavian Prince, Stephen the Great and Hungarian King, Matthias Corvinus


Early Modern Era and Renaissance

مقال رئيسي: Early Modern Romania
Hotin Fortress on the Dniester River, bordering the northern frontier


Moldavia through the ages


Phanariots (1711–1822)

ملف:Principati1786.jpg
The Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1782, Italian map by G. Pittori, since the geographer Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni.


Fragmentation

Principality of Moldavia, 1793-1812, highlighted in orange

In 1775, Moldavia lost to the Habsburg Empire its northwestern part, which became known as Bukovina. For Moldavia, it meant both an important territorial loss and a major blow to the cattle trade (as the region stood on the trade route to Central Europe).


Organic Statute, 1848 revolution


ملف:Obeliscul leilor, Grădina Copou.jpg
Iași, Obelisk of Lions (1834), dedicated to the Organic Statute

Slavery

Slavery (بالرومانية: robie) was part of the social order from before the founding of the Principality of Moldavia, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s. Most of the slaves were of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity. There were also slaves of Tatar ethnicity, probably prisoners captured from the wars with the Nogai and Crimean Tatars. The institution of slavery was first attested in a 1470 Moldavian document, through which Prince Stephen the Great frees Oană, a Tatar slave who had fled to Jagiellon Poland.[3]

Union with Wallachia

ملف:Rom1856-1859.png
Moldavia (in orange) after 1856

Military forces

مقال رئيسي: Moldavian military forces
Moldavian troops in battle, as illustrated in Johannes de Thurocz (1488 edition); the Moldavian flag is displayed


ملف:Moldavian battle flag.jpg
Battle flag of Stephen the Great


Flags and historical coats of arms

للمزيد من المعلومات: Flag and coat of arms of Moldavia

Geography

انظر أيضاً: Moldavian Plateau
ملف:PhysicalAncientMoldavia.jpg
Physical map of Moldavia


Administrative divisions

Population

Historical population

Cities

The largest cities (as per last censuses) in the Moldavia region are:

Education

ملف:AcademiaMihaileana.jpg
Academia Mihăileană was the first modern institution of higher learning in Moldavia

Culture

ملف:Albina Romaneasca - Coperta - Nr. 9 - 1 februarie 1840.jpg
Albina Românească (The Romanian Bee) was, in 1829, the first Romanian-language journal published in Moldavia

Literature

Magazines and newspapers

Theatre

Architecture

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Ștefan Pascu, Documente străine despre români, ed. Arhivelor statului, București 1992, ISBN 973-95711-2-3
  2. ^ "Tout ce pays: la Wallachie, la Moldavie et la plus part de la Transylvanie, a esté peuplé des colonies romaines du temps de Trajan l’empereur… Ceux du pays se disent vrais successeurs des Romains et nomment leur parler romanechte, c'est-à-dire romain … " în Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l’an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, în: Paul Cernovodeanu, Studii și materiale de istorie medievală, IV, 1960, p. 444
  3. ^ Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History, Central European University Press, Budapest, 2004, ISBN 963-9241-84-9
  • Gheorghe I. Brătianu, Sfatul domnesc și Adunarea Stărilor în Principatele Române, Bucharest, 1995
  • Vlad Georgescu, Istoria ideilor politice românești (1369-1878), Munich, 1987
  • Ștefan Ștefănescu, Istoria medie a României, Bucharest, 1991

External links

قالب:Fiefs of the Polish Kingdom

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).