مايكل عطية

السير مايكل عطية
Sir Michael Atiyah
Michael Francis Atiyah.jpg
وُلِدَ22 أبريل 1929 (1929-04-22) (العمر 93 سنة)
الجنسية المملكة المتحدة
المدرسة الأمVictoria College, Alexandria
Manchester Grammar School
Trinity College, Cambridge
الجوائزوسام فيلدز (1966)
وسام كوپلي (1988)
جائزة آبل (2004)
السيرة العلمية
المجالاتالرياضيات
الهيئاتجامعة كمبردج
University of Oxford
Institute for Advanced Study
University of Leicester
University of Edinburgh
المشرف على الدكتوراهW. V. D. Hodge
طلاب الدكتوراهSimon Donaldson
Nigel Hitchin
Frances Kirwan
Peter Kronheimer
Ruth Lawrence
Graeme Segal

مايكل عطية (22 أبريل 1929) عالم بريطاني مولود لأبوين عربيين من أصل لبناني، حاصل على لقب فارس "سير" البريطاني. هو من أبرز علماء الرياضيات في العالم وقد حصل في عام 1967 على جائزة فيلدز في الرياضيات وهي موازية في أهميتها لجائزة نوبل التي لا تمنح في حقل الرياضيات كما هو معروف. يعمل الدكتور عطية أستاذا الآن في جامعة ادنبره - اسكتلندا، وهو فاز بجوائز علمية دولية عدة في السابق، من بينها جائزة الملك فيصل العالمية عن العلوم في عام 1987.

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حياته

Great Court of Trinity College, Cambridge, where Atiyah was a student and later Master

ولد في 22 أبريل 1929 من والد لبناني (إدوار عطية) وأم سكتلندية (جين ليفنز). وله أخان (باتريك وجو) واخت (سلمى). عاش عطية طفولته في السودان مع أبيه الذي هاجر من لبنان إلى بريطانيا وهو في العشرينات، ومنها غادر مع زوجته الاسكتلندية وهو في الثلاثينات من العمر إلى مصر والسودان، حيث أمضى ابنه مايكل طفولته في الخرطوم، ودرس الابتدائية في القاهرة التي عاش فيها 9 سنوات، ومنها عاد إلى لندن ليدرس في كلية فكتوريا، ثم ليتخرج دكتوراً عام 1954 بالرياضيات من كلية ترينيتي في جامعة كمبردج.

The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where Atiyah was professor from 1969 to 1972


التعاونات

The Mathematical Institute في Oxford, where Atiyah supervised many of his students


الهندسة الجبرية (1952–1958)

A twisted cubic curve, the subject of Atiyah's first paper

نظرية K (الفترة 1959–1974)

A Möbius band is the simplest non-trivial example of a vector bundle.

Atiyah's works on K-theory, including his book on K-theory[1] are reprinted in volume 2 of his collected works.[2]


Michael Atiyah and Friedrich Hirzebruch (right), the creators of topological K-theory

The Atiyah–Hirzebruch spectral sequence relates the ordinary cohomology of a space to its generalized cohomology theory.[3] (Atiyah and Hirzebruch used the case of K-theory, but their method works for all cohomology theories).


Atiyah showed[4] that for a finite group G, the K-theory of its classifying space, BG, is isomorphic to the completion of its character ring:

The same year[5] they proved the result for G any compact connected Lie group. Although soon the result could be extended to all compact Lie groups by incorporating results from Graeme Segal's thesis,[6] that extension was complicated. However a simpler and more general proof was produced by introducing equivariant K-theory, i.e. equivalence classes of G-vector bundles over a compact G-space X.[7] It was shown that under suitable conditions the completion of the equivariant K-theory of X is isomorphic to the ordinary K-theory of a space, , which fibred over BG with fibre X:


نظرية المؤشر (1963–1984)

Isadore Singer (in 1977), who worked with Atiyah on index theory

Atiyah's work on index theory is reprinted in volumes 3 and 4 of his collected works.[8][9]


Atiyah's former student Graeme Segal (in 1982), who worked with Atiyah on equivariant K-theory


Raoul Bott, who worked with Atiyah on fixed point formulas and several other topics

Atiyah, Bott and Vijay K. Patodi[10] gave a new proof of the index theorem using the heat equation.


The lacunas discussed by Petrovsky, Atiyah, Bott and Gårding are similar to the spaces between shockwaves of a supersonic object.


Gauge theory (1977–1985)

On the left, two nearby monopoles of the same polarity repel each other, and on the right two nearby monopoles of opposite polarity form a dipole. These are abelian monopoles; the non-abelian ones studied by Atiyah are more complicated.


The mathematical problems that have been solved or techniques that have arisen out of physics in the past have been the lifeblood of mathematics.

مايكل عطية[11]


عمله اللاحق (1986 ويعدها)

Edward Witten, whose work on invariants of manifolds and topological quantum field theories was influenced by Atiyah


But for most practical purposes, you just use the classical groups. The exceptional Lie groups are just there to show you that the theory is a bit bigger; it is pretty rare that they ever turn up.

مايكل عطية[12]

الجوائز والتكريم

The premises of the Royal Society, where Atiyah was president from 1990 to 1995

In 1966, when he was thirty-seven years old, he was awarded the وسام فيلدز,[13] for his work in developing K-theory, a generalized Lefschetz fixed-point theorem and the Atiyah–Singer theorem, for which he also won the Abel Prize jointly with Isadore Singer in 2004.[14] Among other prizes he has received are the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1968,[15] the De Morgan Medal of the London Mathematical Society in 1980, the Antonio Feltrinelli Prize from the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in 1981, the King Faisal International Prize for Science in 1987,[16] the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1988,[17] the Benjamin Franklin Medal of the American Philosophical Society in 1993,[18] the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Medal of the Indian National Science Academy in 1993,[19] the President's Medal from the Institute of Physics in 2008[20] and the Grande Médaille of the French Academy of Sciences in 2010.[21]


I had to wear a sort of bulletproof vest after that!

مايكل عطية، معلقاً على ردود الأفعال على مأثورته السابقة[22]



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ملاحظات

  1. ^ Atiyah 1989
  2. ^ Atiyah 1988b
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة paper28
  4. ^ Atiyah 1961
  5. ^ Atiyah & Hirzebruch 1961
  6. ^ Segal 1968
  7. ^ Atiyah & Segal 1969
  8. ^ Atiyah 1988c
  9. ^ Atiyah 1988d
  10. ^ Atiyah, Bott & Patodi 1973
  11. ^ Atiyah 1988a, paper 19, p. 13
  12. ^ Atiyah 1988a, paper 19, p. 19
  13. ^ Fields medal citation: Cartan, Henri (1968), "L'oeuvre de Michael F. Atiyah", Proceedings of International Conference of Mathematicians (Moscow, 1966), Izdatyel'stvo Mir, Moscow, pp. 9–14 
  14. ^ The Abel Prize 2004, http://www.abelprisen.no/en/prisvinnere/2004/index.html, retrieved on 2008-08-14 
  15. ^ Royal archive winners 1989–1950, http://royalsociety.org/page.asp?id=1751, retrieved on 2008-08-14 
  16. ^ Sir Michael Atiyah FRS, Newton institute, http://www.newton.ac.uk/history/atiyah.html, retrieved on 2008-08-14 
  17. ^ Copley archive winners 1989–1900, http://royalsociety.org/page.asp?id=1742, retrieved on 2008-08-14 
  18. ^ Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences, Archived from the original on 2008-04-24, http://web.archive.org/web/20080424161915/http://www.amphilsoc.org/prizes/franklinscience.htm, retrieved on 2008-08-14 
  19. ^ Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Medal, http://insaindia.org/jnbc.htm, retrieved on 2008-08-14 
  20. ^ 2008 President's medal, http://www.iop.org/activity/awards/The_President's_Medal/Presidents_medal_recipients/page_29148.html, retrieved on 2008-08-14 
  21. ^ La Grande Medaille, http://http://www.academie-sciences.fr/prix/grande_medaille.htm, retrieved on 2011-01-25 
  22. ^ Atiyah 2004, p. 10 of paper 160 (p. 660)
مناصب أكاديمية
سبقه
جورج پورتر
رئيس الجمعية الملكية
1990-1995
تبعه
السير آرون كلگ
سبقه
أندرو هكسلي
Master of Trinity College, Cambridge
1990-1997
تبعه
أمارتيا سن
سبقه
اللورد پورتر من لدنهام
Chancellor of the University of Leicester
1995-2005
تبعه
السير پيتر وليامز
سبقه
لورد سذرلاند من هاوندوود
President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
2005-2008
تبعه
David Wilson, Baron Wilson of Tillyorn
جوائز وانجازات
سبقه
روبن هيل
وسام كوپلي
1988
تبعه
سيزار ميلستاين