الأكاديمية الوطنية لبعيدي النظر

(تم التحويل من Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei)
Palazzo Corsini

The Accademia dei Lincei (النطق بالإيطالية: [akkaˈdɛːmja dei linˈtʃɛi]; literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

Founded in the Papal States in 1603 by Federico Cesi, the academy was named after the lynx, an animal whose sharp vision symbolizes the observational prowess that science requires. Galileo Galilei was the intellectual centre of the academy and adopted "Galileo Galilei Linceo" as his signature. "The Lincei did not long survive the death in 1630 of Cesi, its founder and patron",[1] and "disappeared in 1651".[2]

During the nineteenth century, it was revived, first in the Vatican and later in the nation of Italy. Thus the Pontifical Academy of Science, founded in 1847, claims this heritage as the Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei ("Pontifical Academy of the New Lynxes"), descending from the first two incarnations of the Academy. Similarly, a lynx-eyed academy of the 1870s became the national academy of Italy, encompassing both literature and science among its concerns.[3]

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الأكاديمية

Federico Cesi


الأعضاء

إعادة تأسيس الأكاديمية

In 1801, Abbot Feliciano Scarpellini and Gioacchino Pessuti, with the patronage of Francesco Caetani, founded the Accademia Caetani which took the name of Accademia dei Lincei.[4][5] The period from 1801-1840 has been termed the "Second Renaissance" of the Accademia. Conflicting goals and general shifts in the "geo-political scale" left the Academy in a state of limbo, which ultimately led to its collapse in the 1840s.[5] During the French domination of the Accademia, the institution saw a transition from a private association to a municipal institution.[5] Despite efforts from the early 1800s onward, the Accademia underwent a true revival in 1847, when Pope Pius IX re-founded it as the Pontificia Accademia dei Nuovi Lincei, the Pontifical Academy of New Lincei.

الأكاديمية الملكية لبعيدي النظر

In 1874, Quintino Sella turned it into the Accademia Nazionale Reale dei Lincei, the Royal National Lincean Academy. This incarnation broadened its scope to include moral and humanistic sciences, and regained the high prestige associated with the original Lincean Academy. After the unification of Italy, the Piedmontese Quintino Sella infused new life into the Nuovi Lincei, reaffirming its ideals of secular science, but broadening its scope to include humanistic studies: history, philology, archeology, philosophy, economics and law, in two classes of Soci (Fellows).

الأعضاء

أكاديمية إيطاليا

During the fascist period the Lincean Academy was effectively replaced by the new Accademia d'Italia, the Italian Academy, but was not fully absorbed by that institution until 1939.[10] In 1949, after the fall of the fascist regime, at the suggestion of Benedetto Croce the Lincean Academy recovered its independence. A brief history of this period of the Accademia, as well as the complete inventory of publications and documents produced in the same period, can be found in the book by Cagiano De Azevedo & Gerardi (2005).


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الأكاديمية الوطنية لبعيدي النظر

In 1986, the Academy was placed under a statute that says it shall be composed of 540 members, of whom 180 are ordinary Italian members, 180 are foreigners, and 180 are Italian corresponding members. The members are divided into two classes: one for mathematical, physical, and natural sciences; the other for moral, historical, and philological sciences.

In 2001, the natural sciences were re-divided into five categories: mathematics, mechanics and applications; astronomy, geodesy, geophysics and applications; physics, chemistry and applications; geology, paleontology, mineralogy and applications; and biological sciences and applications. At the same time, the moral sciences were divided into seven categories: philology and linguistics; archeology; criticism of art and of poetry; history, historical geography, and anthropology; philosophical science; juridical science; social and political science.


الهامش

  1. ^ Quoted from: Peter M.J Hess, Paul L. Allen. Catholicism and Science. ISBN 9780313021954. Page 39.
  2. ^ Quoted from: Agustín Udías. Searching the Heavens and the Earth: The History of Jesuit Observatories. Springer, 2003. ISBN 9781402011894. Page 5.
  3. ^ Thomas G. Bergin (ed.), Encyclopedia of Renaissance Italy (Oxford and New York: New Market Books, 1987).
  4. ^ Accademia dei Lincei: Protagonisti: Feliciano Scarpellini
  5. ^ أ ب ت Donato, Maria Pia (2012-01-01). "Science on the Fringe of the Empire: The Academy of the Linceans in the Early Nineteenth Century". Nuncius. 27 (1): 110–140. doi:10.1163/182539112X637183. ISSN 1825-3911.
  6. ^ Sloane, 11
  7. ^ Sloane, 11
  8. ^ Sloane, 11
  9. ^ Sloane, 11
  10. ^ Fascist Italy, John Whittam, page 84

المراجع


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وصلات خارجية


قالب:Learned societies in Italy Coordinates: 41°53′36″N 12°28′00″E / 41.89333°N 12.46667°E / 41.89333; 12.46667