المسيرة الطويلة

(تم التحويل من لونگ مارش)
هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
المسيرة الطويلة
جزء من الحرب الأهلية الصينية
خريطة لاستعراض مسار "المسيرة الطويلة"
خريطة لاستعراض مسار "المسيرة الطويلة"
المناطق الملونة بالأحمر الخفيف تبين جيوب شيوعية. المناطق المميزة بعلامة "X" زرقاء سيطرت عليها ثوات الكومن‌تانگ أثناء حملة الإحاطة الرابعة، forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (الخطوط المنقطة). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army من جيانگ‌شي. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of شآن‌شي.
التاريخ16 October 1934 – 22 October 1936
الموقع
الصين. من جيانگ‌شي إلى شآن‌شي
النتيجة Armies of the Communist Party of China evade the Chinese Nationalist Party armies
الخصوم
Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Chinese Nationalist Party and allied warlords Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Communist Party of China
القادة والزعماء
Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Chiang Kai-shek
Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Xue Yue
Flag of the German Reich (1933–1935).svg Hans von Seeckt
Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Bai Chongxi
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Mao Zedong
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Zhu De
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg ژو إن‌لاي
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Peng Dehuai
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg لين بياو
القوات
over 300,000 First Front Red Army: 86,000 (October 1934)
7,000 (October 1935)
المسيرة الطويلة
صينية تقليدية 長征
صينية مبسطة 长征

المسيرة الطويلة Long March (أكتوبر 1934 – أكتوبر 1936) كانت تقهقراً عسكرياً قام به الجيش الأحمر للحزب الشيوعي الصيني، سلف جيش التحرير الشعبي، to evade the pursuit of the كومن‌تانگ (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The best known is the march from جيانگ‌شي province which began in October 1934. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold في مقاطعة جيانگ‌شي. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed over 9,000 kilometers (5600 miles) over 370 days.[1] The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to شآن‌شي.

The Long March began Mao Zedong's ascent to power, whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party. The bitter struggles of the Long March, which was completed by only about one-tenth of the force that left جيانگ‌شي، would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China, and would seal the personal prestige of Mao Zedong and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades.

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خط زمني

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek encircled the Communists في جيانگ‌شي في 1934.
  • 1931: Unofficial founding of the جيانگ‌شي–Fujian Soviet by Mao Zedong and Zhu De.
  • 1931: December, Zhou Enlai arrived in Ruijin and replaced Mao as leader of the CCP.
  • 1932: October, at the Ningdu Conference, the majority of CCP military leaders criticized Mao's tactics; Mao was demoted to figurehead status.
  • 1933: Bo Gu and Otto Braun arrived from the USSR, reorganized the Red Army; and took control of Party affairs. They defeated four encirclement campaigns.
  • 1933: September 25, the حملة الإحاطة الخامسة started. Bo and Braun were eventually defeated.
  • 1934: October 16, 130,000 soldiers and civilians, led by Bo Gu and Otto Braun, began the Long March.
  • 1934: November 25 – December 3, Battle of Xiang River.
  • 1935: January 15–17, Zunyi Conference. The leadership of Bo and Braun was denounced. Zhou became the most powerful person in the Party; Mao became Zhou's assistant.
  • 1935: June–July, troops under Zhou and Mao met with Zhang Guotao's troops. The two forces disagreed on strategy, and separated.
  • 1935: April 29 – May 8, crossing of the Jinsha River, the upper stream of the Yangtze River.
  • 1935: May 22, Yihai Alliance, the red army allied with the Yi people.
  • 1935: May 29, CCP forces captured Luding Bridge.
  • 1935: July, CCP forces crossed the Jade Dragon Snow Mountains.
  • 1935: August, CCP forces crossed the Zoigê Marsh.
  • 1935: September 16, CCP forces crossed the Lazikou Pass.
  • 1935: October 22, three Red Army fronts met في شآن‌شي. The Long March ended.
  • 1935: November, Mao became the leader of the CCP. Zhou became Mao's assistant.


الخلفية

الجيش الأحمر في 1934

الحرب الأهلية

سوڤيت جيانگ‌شي

محاولات تشيانگ للمحاوطة

المسيرة الطويلة

الهروب من جيانگ‌شي

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الإفلات من ملاحقة تشيانگ

The Luding Bridge


النزاع مع زعماء الحرب من الأقليات

الجيش الأحمر الرابع

الجيش الأحمر الثاني

Tiger Leaping Gorge في ماسيف Jade Dragon Snow Mountain في غرب مقاطعة يون‌نان.


اتحاد الجيوش الثلاث

الأعقاب

أعظم تراجع استراتيجي في التاريخ العسكري حوّل ماو إلى أسطورة حية.

رودريك مكفاركوهار، ماو تسى تونگ: امبراطور الصين الفلاح، A&E Biography, 2005[2]

زعيم شيوعي يخطب في الناجين من المسيرة الطويلة.



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انظر أيضاً

References

  1. ^ Zhang, Chunhou. Vaughan, C. Edwin. [2002] (2002). Mao Zedong as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. Lexington books. ISBN 0-7391-0406-3. pg 65.
  2. ^ Biography (TV series)Mao Tse Tung: China's Peasant Emperor, A&E Network, 2005, ASIN B000AABKXG

للاستزادة

  • Chang, Jung & Halliday, Jon (2005). Mao: The Unknown Story. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 814 pages. ISBN 0-679-42271-4. Cite uses deprecated parameter |lastauthoramp= (help)
  • Griffith, Samuel B. (translator) (2005). Yu Chi Chan (On Guerrilla Warfare) by Mao Tse-tung (1937). Dover Books on History. pp. 128 pages. ISBN 0-486-44376-0.
  • Jocelyn, Ed & McEwen, Andrew (March 2006). The Long March. Constable and Robinson. pp. 320 pages. ISBN 1-84529-255-3.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Kampen, Thomas (2000). Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and the Evolution of the Chinese Communist Leadership. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 66–83. ISBN 87-87062-76-3.
  • King, Dean (2010). Unbound: A True Story of War, Love, and Survival. Little, Brown and Company. pp. 432 pages. ISBN 978-0-316-16708-6.
  • Bosshardt, Rudolf Alfred (1975). The Guiding hand: Captivity and Answered Prayer in China. Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 192 pages. ISBN 978-0340175453.
  • Salisbury, Harrison Evans (1985). The Long March : The Untold Story. Harper & Row, New York. pp. 419 pages. ISBN 0-06-039044-1.
  • Shuyun, Sun (2008). The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth. Anchor. p. 304. ISBN 0-307-27831-X.
  • Snow, Edgar (1968). Red Star Over China (Revised ed.). Grove Press. pp. 534 pages. ISBN 0-8021-5093-4.
  • Whitson, William W. (1973). The Chinese High Command : A History of Communist Military Politics 1927–71. Praeger. ISBN 0-333-15053-8.
  • Wilson, Dick (1971). The Long March 1935: The Epic of Chinese Communism's Survival. Penguin Press. pp. 283 pages. ISBN 0-14-006113-4.
  • Yang, Benjamin (1990). From Revolution to Politics: Chinese Communists on the Long March. Westview Press. pp. 240 pages. ISBN 0-8133-7672-6.
  • Young, Helen Prager (2000). Choosing Revolution: Chinese Women Soldiers on the Long March. University of Illinois Press, pp. 282 pages. ISBN 978-0-252-07456-1

وصلات خارجية

معلومات عامة
Illustrations, Maps & Posters
Commemorations