خط الطول 180

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لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
A map of the Earth with the Pacific Ocean in the centre, with a vertical red line running the full height just west of the Bering Strait and east of New Zealand.
180th meridian on a map of Earth.
The International Date Line zigzags around the 180th Meridian.

خط الطول 180 أو خط الزوال المقابل antimeridian‏[1] is the meridian 180° both east and west of the Prime Meridian, with which it forms a great circle dividing the earth into the نصفي الكرة الغربي والشرقي. It is common to both east longitude and west longitude. It mostly passes through the open waters of the Pacific Ocean, but passes across land in Russia, Fiji and Antarctica. This meridian is used as the basis for the International Date Line, but the latter deviates from it to maintain date consistency within the territories of Russia, USA, Kiribati, Fiji and New Zealand.

Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 180th meridian passes through:

الإحداثيات
(تقريبية)
البلد، الإقليم أو البحر ملاحظات
90°0′N 180°0′E / 90.000°N 180.000°E / 90.000; 180.000 (Arctic Ocean) المحيط القطبي
71°32′N 180°0′E / 71.533°N 180.000°E / 71.533; 180.000 (Russia) Flag of Russia.svg روسيا Chukotka Autonomous OkrugWrangel Island
70°58′N 180°0′E / 70.967°N 180.000°E / 70.967; 180.000 (Chukchi Sea) Chukchi Sea
68°59′N 180°0′E / 68.983°N 180.000°E / 68.983; 180.000 (Russia) Flag of Russia.svg روسيا أوكروگ چوكوتكا الذاتي
65°02′N 180°0′E / 65.033°N 180.000°E / 65.033; 180.000 (Bering Sea) بحر برنگ
52°0′N 180°0′E / 52.000°N 180.000°E / 52.000; 180.000 (Amchitka Pass) ممر أمچيتكا Passing just east of Semisopochnoi Island, ألاسكا,  الولايات المتحدة (at 51°57′N 179°47′E / 51.950°N 179.783°E / 51.950; 179.783 (Semisopochnoi Island))
51°0′N 180°0′E / 51.000°N 180.000°E / 51.000; 180.000 (Pacific Ocean) المحيط الهادي Passing just east of Nukulaelae atoll, Flag of Tuvalu.svg توڤالو (at 9°25′S 179°52′E / 9.417°S 179.867°E / -9.417; 179.867 (Nukulaelae atoll))
Passing just west of the island of Cikobia,  فيجي (at 15°43′S 179°59′W / 15.717°S 179.983°W / -15.717; -179.983 (Cikobia))
16°9′S 180°0′E / 16.150°S 180.000°E / -16.150; 180.000 (Fiji)  فيجي جزر Vanua Levu, رابي، و Taveuni
16°59′S 180°0′E / 16.983°S 180.000°E / -16.983; 180.000 (Pacific Ocean) المحيط الهادي يمر مباشرة شرق جزيرة موالا،  فيجي (at 18°33′S 179°57′E / 18.550°S 179.950°E / -18.550; 179.950 (Moala))
Passing just west of the island of توتويا،  فيجي (at 19°0′S 179°52′W / 19.000°S 179.867°W / -19.000; -179.867 (Totoya))
Passing just east of the island of Matuku,  فيجي (at 19°10′S 179°47′E / 19.167°S 179.783°E / -19.167; 179.783 (Matuku))
60°0′S 180°0′E / 60.000°S 180.000°E / -60.000; 180.000 (Southern Ocean) المحيط الجنوبي
78°13′S 180°0′E / 78.217°S 180.000°E / -78.217; 180.000 (Antarctica) أنتارتيكا Ross Dependency, claimed by Flag of New Zealand.svg نيوزيلندا
180° Meridian, Taveuni, فيجي

The meridian also passes between (but not particularly close to):

The only place where roads cross this meridian, and where there are buildings very close to it, is in Fiji.

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مشاكل تمثيل البرمجيات

Many geographic software libraries or data formats project the world to a rectangle; very often this rectangle is split exactly at the 180th meridian. This often makes it non-trivial to do simple tasks (like representing an area, or a line) over the 180th meridian. Some examples:

  • The GeoJSON specification strongly suggests splitting geometries so that neither of their parts cross the antimeridian.[2]
  • In OpenStreetMap, areas (like the boundary of Russia) are split at the 180th meridian.


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ The word antimeridian can also mean the meridian opposite to any given meridian. E.g. 20° غرب is the antimeridian of 160° شرق.
  2. ^ "RFC 7946 - The GeoJSON Format".