منفى

(تم التحويل من النفي)
دانته في المنفى بريشة فنان مجهول.

المنفى ، أو النفي ، هو إبعاد شخص ما عن موطنه (مدينته، دولته، بلدته) ويكون هناك عقاب بالسجن أو الاعدام إذا ما رجع الشخص إلى موطنه. وهو أحد أشكال العقاب.[1]

كان النفي نوعا شائعًا من العقوبات على الجرائم والمخالفات السياسية في فلسطين القديمة وبلاد الإغريق وروما. وكانت الحروب الأهلية تتسبب غالبًا في النفي لزعماء الجانب المهزوم.

أما في الأزمنة الحديثة فإن كثيرًا من الدول قد أرسلت المجرمين والمعارضين والسياسيين إلى أماكن نائية في بلادها. فقد أرسلت بريطانيا مجرميها إلى المستعمرات الأمريكية وأستراليا لكي تقدم مصدرًا للعمل لتنمية الأراضي الجديدة. ومعظم المنفيين أناس هربوا من بلادهم لأنهم كانوا مهددين من قبل حكوماتهم المستبدة هناك.

ومن المواضيع المفضلة في الأدب موضوع الحنين إلى الوطن. وكثير من الشعراء أمضوا جزءًا من حياتهم في المنفى، ولقد عبَّروا عن حنينهم لوطنهم. [2]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

النفي الشخصي

النفي الداخلي

النفي الشخصي في الأدب

حكومات في المنفى


أمم في المنفى

ضريبة النفي

النفي في الترجيديا الاغريقية

مشاهير تم نفيهم


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

شخصيات تاريخية في المنفى

قالب:Fictionrefs

  • Omnius, an artificial intelligence, is banished forever to an alternate universe in the final novel in the Dune series of science fiction works.
  • Yoda went into self exile after the Great Jedi Purge in Episode III of Star Wars.
  • In Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, after defeating Sir Leopold, the player's party are blamed by Captain Marcello for an attempted assassination of the Lord High Priest, causing High Priest Rolo and the player's party to be subsequently banished to Purgatory Island.
  • In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Romeo is exiled to Mantua after killing Tybalt.
  • Lord Voldemort goes to self exile in Albania after losing his physical form in Godric's Hollow in 1981.
  • Ender Wiggin is exiled from Earth after winning the Bugger War in the Orson Scott Card book Ender's Game.
  • In the book The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, Aragorn is the heir in exile to the throne of Gondor.
  • In the television series Avatar: The Last Airbender, Prince Zuko is exiled from the Fire Nation by his father, and tasked with finding the Avatar.
  • Chancellor Sutler is in self-exile in the film V for Vendetta.
  • In the British sci-fi TV series Doctor Who, The Doctor was exiled to Earth by his own people, the Time Lords for interfering in the affairs of other planets. He was also forced to regenerate in order to help conceal his identity. All this happened in the 1969 story The War Games. This was the last Doctor Who story to feature Patrick Troughton as the Doctor. He was eventually forgiven by his own people and allowed to roam the Universe again in the 1972-73 adventure The Three Doctors, by this time starring Jon Pertwee as the Doctor.
  • In the TV series 24, Jack Bauer went into self-exile, after being threatened with being extradited for torture in a Chinese prison camp following the events of Season 4.
  • Oedipus went into self exile after finding out that he had killed his father and slept with his mother (Sophocles)
  • Medea sent herself into exile to follow Jason into Corinth (Euripedes).
  • Agave went into self exile after killing her son Pentheus (Euripedes)
  • Thyestes was sent into exile after raping his brother's wife (Aeschylus)
  • Orestes was sent into exile by his mother Clytaemnestra but returned to kill her in the garb of a stranger (Aeschylus)
  • Simba, shortly after his father's death went into exile from the Pridelands for much of his childhood and teenage life in The Lion King. He later returns to avenge his father's death and take his rightful place as king of the Pridelands.
  • Jim Halpert of NBC's The Office went into self exile from Dunder Mifflin Scranton and relocated to Stamford when Pam was going to marry Roy.
  • A Dwarven Clan Chief in Brisingr was exiled from the Dwarven Land when he attempted to assassinate Eragon.
  • Leiji Matsumoto's Captain Harlock is depicted in several stories as being branded a pirate and exiled from Earth by the government; most notably in Arcadia of My Youth.

انظر أيضا

المصادر

شعار قاموس المعرفة.png
ابحث عن exile في
قاموس المعرفة.
  1. ^ Hobbes, Thomas (1886). Leviathan; Or, The Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil. p. 145. Unknown parameter |publishe r= ignored (help)
  2. ^ الموسوعة المعرفية الشاملة