الزحف على روما

الزحف على روما
Mussd.jpg
بنيتو موسوليني و Fascist Blackshirts during the March
Date22–29 أكتوبر 1922
Location
ActionBlackshirts occupied the Po plain and took all strategic points of the country. Bands of fascist troops gathered outside Rome marched over Rome. It was the precipitating force behind a transfer of power within the framework of the constitution after the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation.
Result انقلاب فاشي، بنيتو موسوليني يشكل حكومة جديدة
Government-Insurgents   
 مملكة إيطاليا

Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg الحزب الفاشي الوطني

Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg القمصان السود
Commanders and leaders
مملكة إيطاليا لويجي فاكتا
مملكة إيطاليا أنطونيو سالاندرا
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg بنيتو موسوليني
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg إميليو دى بونو
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg إيطالو بالبو
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg چزارى ماريا دى ڤكي
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF).svg ميكلى بيانكي
Political support
الليبراليون اليمينيون والأحزاب اليسارية Military, the business class, various workers and proletarians
Military support
الشرطة والقوات المسلحة الإيطالية 30,000 رجل ميليشيا

الزحف على روما (بالايطالية: Marcia su Roma؛ بالإنگليزية: March on Rome) كان مسيرة وصل بها الحزب الفاشي الوطني (Partito Nazionale Fascista، أو PNF) بقيادة بنيتو موسوليني إلى السلطة في مملكة إيطاليا (Regno d'Italia). المسيرة استمرت من 22 إلى 29 أكتوبر 1922.

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السياق

In March 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the first "Italian Combat Leagues" (Fasci Italiani di Combattimento) at the beginning of the "two red years" (biennio rosso). He suffered a defeat in انتخابات نوفمبر 1919. But, by the election of 1921, دخل موسوليني البرلمان.

Out of his "Fascist" party the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale ("القمصان السود" أو Squadristi) were formed. In August 1920, the Blackshirts were used to break the الاضراب العام الذي بدأ في مصنع ألفا روميو في ميلانو. In November 1920، بعد اغتيال جوردانا (a right-wing municipal counsellor في بولونيا), the Blackshirts were used as a repression tool by the state[بحاجة لمصدر] to crush the socialist movement (which included a strong anarcho-syndicalist component), especially in the Po Valley.

Trade unions were dissolved while left-wing mayors resigned. The fascists, included on جوڤاني جولتي's "National Union" lists at the May 1921 elections, then won 36 seats. Mussolini then withdrew his support to Giolitti and attempted to work out a temporary truce with the socialists by signing a "Pacification Pack" in summer 1921. This provoked a conflict with the most fanatical part of the movement, the Squadristi and their leaders the Ras ("Dukes", from an Ethiopian term). In July 1921, Giolitti attempted without success to dissolve the squadristi. The contract with the socialists was then broken at its turn in November 1921, Mussolini adopted a nationalist program and founded the National Fascist Party, which boasted 700,000 members in July 1922.[بحاجة لمصدر] In August, an anti-fascist general strike was triggered, but failed to rally the Italian People's Party (Partito Popolare Italiano) and was repressed by the fascists. A few days before the march, Mussolini consulted with the U.S. Ambassador Richard Washburn Child about whether the U.S. government would object to Fascist participation in a future Italian government. Child encouraged him to go ahead. When Mussolini learned that Prime Minister لويجي فاكتا had given Gabriele d'Annunzio the mission to organize a large demonstration on 4 November 1922 to celebrate the national victory during the war, he decided on the March to accelerate the process and sidestep any possible competition.[بحاجة لمصدر].


المسيرة

الفاشيون يزحفون باتجاه روما.

The quadrumvirs leading the Fascist Party, General إميليو دى بونو, إيطالو بالبو (one of the most famous ras), ميكلى بيانكي و چزارى ماريا دى ڤكي, organized the March while the Duce stayed behind for most of the march, though he allowed pictures to be taken of him marching along with the Fascist marchers. Generals Gustavo Fara and Sante Ceccherini assisted to the preparations of the March of 18 October. Other organizers of the march included the Marquis Dino Perrone Compagni and Ulisse Igliori.

الملك ڤيكتور عمانويل الثالث incontra ufficialmente بنيتو موسوليني في 4 نوفمبر 1922.

مشاركون آخرون

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  • Carsten, Francis Ludwig (1982). The Rise of Fascism. University of California Press.
  • Cassells, Alan. Fascist Italy. Arlington Heights, IL: H. Davidson, 1985.
  • Gallo, Max. Mussolini's Italy: Twenty Years of the Fascist Era. New York: Macmillan, 1973.
  • Leeds, Christpher. Italy under Mussolini. Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1988 (1972).
  • Chiapello, Duccio. Marcia e contromarcia su Roma. Marcello Soleri e la resa dello Stato liberale. Rome: Aracne, 2012.
  • Gentile, Emilio. E fu subito regime. Il fascismo italiano e la marcia su Roma. Rome-Bari: Laterza, 2012.

الهامش

وصلات خارجية