ڤافن-إس‌إس

(تم التحويل من Waffen-SS)
Waffen-SS
Bundesarchiv Bild 101III-Wiegand-117-02, Russland, Kradschütze, Beiwagenkrad.jpg
Waffen-SS in the Baltic states
نشطة 1933–45
البلد  ألمانيا النازية
الولاء Flag of the NSDAP (1920–1945).svg Adolf Hitler
الفرع Flag Schutzstaffel.svg Schutzstaffel
النوع
الحجم 900,000 including foreign volunteers and conscripts[1]
List of Waffen SS units
جزء من SS; under operational control of the OKW and Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS
مقر الحامية SS Führungshauptamt, Berlin
الاشتباكات World War II
القادة
كبير التشريفات Heinrich Himmler
أبرز
القادة

The Waffen-SS (النطق الألماني: [ˈvafən.ɛs.ɛs], Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation. Its formations included men from Nazi Germany, along with volunteers and conscripts from both occupied and un-occupied lands.[2]

The Waffen-SS grew from three regiments to over 38 divisions during World War II, and served alongside the Heer (regular army), Ordnungspolizei (uniformed police) and other security units. Originally, it was under the control of the SS Führungshauptamt (SS operational command office) beneath Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. With the start of World War II, tactical control was exercised by the High Command of the Armed Forces (OKW),[3] with some units being subordinated to Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS (Command Staff Reichsführer-SS) directly under Himmler's control.[4]

Initially, in keeping with the racial policy of Nazi Germany, membership was open only to people of Germanic origin (so-called Aryan ancestry).[5] The rules were partially relaxed in 1940,[6][7] and later the formation of units composed largely or solely of foreign volunteers and conscripts was authorised. These SS units were made up of men mainly from among the nationals of Nazi-occupied Europe. Despite relaxation of the rules, the Waffen-SS was still based on the racist ideology of Nazism, and ethnic Poles (who were viewed as subhumans) were barred specifically from the formations.[8][9][10]

Members of the Waffen-SS were involved in numerous atrocities.[11] At the post-war Nuremberg trials, the Waffen-SS was judged to be a criminal organisation due to its connection to the Nazi Party and direct involvement in numerous war crimes and crimes against humanity. Former Waffen-SS members were denied many of the rights afforded to the military veterans. An exception was made for Waffen-SS conscripts, who were exempted because they were not volunteers.[12][13] About a third of the total membership were conscripts.[14]

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Origins (1929–39)

Parade for the third anniversary of the LSSAH on the barracks' grounds. Sepp Dietrich is at the lectern. May 1935

The origins of the Waffen-SS can be traced back to the selection of a group of 120 SS men on 17 March 1933 by Sepp Dietrich to form the Sonderkommando Berlin.[15] By November 1933 the formation had 800 men, and at a commemorative ceremony in Munich for the tenth anniversary of the failed Munich Putsch the regiment swore allegiance to Adolf Hitler. The oaths pledged were "Pledging loyalty to him alone" and "Obedience unto death".[15] The formation was given the title Leibstandarte (Bodyguard Regiment) Adolf Hitler (LAH).[16] On 13 April 1934, by order of Himmler, the regiment became known as the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH).[16]


World War II

1939

Invasion of Poland

SS Einsatzgruppe members murdering Polish civilians in Kórnik shortly after the outbreak of World War II in Europe

1940 expansion

Himmler gained approval for the Waffen-SS to form its own high command, the Kommandoamt der Waffen-SS within the SS-Führungshauptamt, which was created in August 1940.[17] It received command of the SS-VT (the Leibstandarte and the Verfügungs-Division, renamed Reich) and the armed SS-TV regiments (the Totenkopf-Division together with several independent Totenkopf-Standarten).[18]

1941

Balkans

The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler Division advancing into the Balkans during 1941


الجنود المسلمون في الفرقة 13 من وافن-إس‌إس يؤدون الصلاة.


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Soviet Union

Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, started on 22 June 1941, and all the Waffen-SS formations participated (including the SS Reich, which was formally renamed to SS Das Reich by the Fall of 1941).[19]

SS members at a murder site in Zboriv, Ukraine, 1941


Cavalrymen of the SS Cavalry Brigade. September 1941.


1942

1942 expansion

Offensive of the Red Army south of Lake Ilmen, 7 January – 21 February 1942, creating the Demyansk Pocket


1943

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1943 expansion

Propaganda photo of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini inspecting Bosnian Waffen-SS recruits, November 1943


Kharkiv

German tanks at Kharkov, 1943


1944

1944 expansion

After D-Day, the Indische Legion was transferred from the Heer to Waffen-SS.[20]
German counterattacks against Canadian-Polish positions on 20 August 1944

Criminality

Photograph from the Stroop Report, prepared for Jürgen Stroop

The Allgemeine SS was responsible for the administration of both the concentration and extermination camps. Many members of it and the SS-Totenkopfverbände subsequently became members of the Waffen-SS, forming the initial core of the 3rd SS Totenkopf Division.[21][22] A number of SS medical personnel who were members of the Waffen-SS were convicted of crimes during the "Doctors' trials" in Nuremberg, held between 1946 and 1947 for the Nazi human experimentation they performed at the camps.


See also

Explanatory notes

References

Citations

  1. ^ Neitzel & Welzer 2012, p. 290.
  2. ^ Stein 1984, pp. xxiv, xxv, 150, 153.
  3. ^ Stein 1984, p. 23.
  4. ^ The Nazi Holocaust. Part 3: The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder. Volume 2, p. 459, De Gruyter, 1989
  5. ^ Stackelberg 2002, p. 116.
  6. ^ Langer & Rudowski 2008, p. 263.
  7. ^ Król 2006, pp. 452, 545.
  8. ^ W. Borodziej, Ruch oporu w Polsce w świetle tajnych akt niemieckich, Część IX, Kierunki 1985, nr 16.
  9. ^ Polska i Polacy w propagandzie narodowego socjalizmu w Niemczech 1919-1945 Eugeniusz Cezary Król Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2006, page 452
  10. ^ Terror i polityka: policja niemiecka a polski ruch oporu w GG 1939-1944 Włodzimierz Borodziej Instytut Wydawniczy Pax, 1985, p. 86.
  11. ^ "Waffen-SS: Mračne sile zločinačke politike - Vojnici nacionalsocijalizma 1933.-45." ("Waffen-SS: The Dark Forces Of Villain Politics - The Soldiers Of Nationalsocialism 1933-45"), p 9, Hrvoje Spajić, 2010.
  12. ^ {{{author}}}, Two Hundred And Seventeenth Day, [[{{{publisher}}}]], September 1946.
  13. ^ Laar, Mart (2005). "Battles in Estonia in 1944". Estonia in World War II. Tallinn: Grenamder. pp. 32–59. 
  14. ^ McDonald, Gabrielle Kirk; Swaak-Goldman, Olivia (2000). Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts: Materials. BRILL. p. 695. 
  15. ^ أ ب Flaherty 2004, p. 144.
  16. ^ أ ب Cook & Bender 1994, pp. 17, 19.
  17. ^ Stein 1984, p. 102.
  18. ^ Stein 1984, pp. 7, 103–106.
  19. ^ Stein 1984, p. 104.
  20. ^ Thomson 2004.
  21. ^ Flaherty 2004, p. 149.
  22. ^ Flaherty 2004, p. 150.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Clark, Lloyd (2004). Operation Epsom. Battle Zone Normandy. History Press. ISBN 0-7509-3008-X. 
  • Lasik, Aleksander (2007). Sztafety Ochronne w systemie niemieckich obozów koncentracyjnych. Rozwój organizacyjny, ewolucja zadań i struktur oraz socjologiczny obraz obozowych załóg SS [Schutzstaffel of the NSDAP in the System of German Concentration Camps; Organizational Development, Evolution of Goals, Structure, and Social Picture of SS Staff] (in Polish). Auschwitz-Birkenau: Państwowe Muzeum. ISBN 83-60210-32-2. 
  • Wiesenthal, Simon; Wechsberg, Joseph (1967). The Murderers Among Us: The Simon Wiesenthal Memoirs. McGraw-Hill. LCN 67-13204. 
  • Wilke, Karsten (2011). Die "Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit" (HIAG) 1950–1990: Veteranen der Waffen-SS in der Bundesrepublik [HIAG 1950–1990: Waffen-SS veterans in the Federal Republic] (in German). Paderborn: Schoeningh Ferdinand GmbH. ISBN 978-3-506-77235-0. 

External links

قالب:SS Brigades

قالب:SS Corps

قالب:Fascism organization

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