هرمز الثاني

Hormizd II
King of Kings of Iranians and non-Iranians[1]
HormozdIISasanianCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
العهد302–309
سبقهنرسه
تبعهآذر نرسى
وُلِدUnknown
توفي309
الأنجالAdurfrazgird
Zamasp
شاپور الثاني
Hormizd
أردشير الثاني
Hormizddukht[2]
آذر نرسى
Asay
البيتHouse of Sasan
الأبنرسه
الديانةالزرادشتية

Hormizd II (فارسية: هرمز دوم) was the eighth king of the Sasanian Empire, and reigned for seven years and five months, from 302 to 309. He was the son of نرسه (293–302).

هرمز الثاني (302- 309) الذي يشيد التاريخ بحكمه القصير الأجل، والذي بدأ فيه طائفة من الأعمال النافعة وبسط على البلاد لواء السلم والرخاء. وبذل الملك عناية كبيرة فى ترميم الأبنية العامة، والمساكن الخاصة، موجهاً أكبر اهتمامه إلى مساكن الفقراء، وكان ينفق على هذه الأعمال كلها من أموال الدولة. وأنشأ محكمة جديدة خصها بسماع شكاوى الفقراء ضد الأغنياء، وكثيراً ما كان يتولى رياستها بنفسه. ولسنا نعرف هل كانت هذه العادات الغريبة هي التي حرمت ابنه من وراثة العرش؛ وسواء كان ذلك أو لم يكن فقد حدث على أثر وفاة هورمز أن زج النبلاء بابنه في السجن، وأعطوا الملك لابنه الذي لم يولد بعد، ولقبوه في ثقة واطمئنان بشابور الثاني، وأرادوا ألا يتركوا في الأمر مجالا للشك فتوجوا الجنين بأن علقوا التاج الملكي على رحم أمه(38).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

عهده

In 302, Hormizd II ascended the throne, assuming a crown resembling the crown used by the early Sasanian rulers. Hormizd II, unlike his father, persecuted the Manicheans who had lived peacefully during the reign of his father.[3] Hormizd tried to improve Sasanian relations with Armenia, which had recently under Tiridates III of Armenia declared Christianity as its state religion; he gave his daughter Hormizddukht in marriage to a Mamikonian prince named Vahan.[4] In 309, while Hormizd was hunting, he was wounded by a Ghassanid army, and was shortly killed by the Sasanian nobles.


Succession

After his death, his oldest son Adur Narseh, who had a cruel disposition, was killed by the grandees after a very short reign;[5] another son, Hormizd, was imprisoned, while the throne was reserved for the child of his concubine, Shapur II. Another version has it that Shapur II was the son of Hormizd II's first wife, and that while still pregnant she was made to wear a crown over her pudenda so that the baby would be born as a king.[6] Hormizd II also had many other sons named Adurfrazgird, Zamasp, Ardashir, and two daughters named Hormizddukht and Asay.

Family

Hormizd II was one of the Sasanian kings with most children, which he had from his Jewish wife Ifra-Hormizd, and several other wives and concubines:

الهامش

  1. ^ MacKenzie, David Niel (1998), "Ērān, Ērānšahr", Encyclopedia Iranica, 8, Costa Mesa: Mazda, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/shapur-ii 
  2. ^ HORMOZD II, A. Shapur Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (March 23, 2012).[1]
  3. ^ HORMOZD II, A. Shapur Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  4. ^ Touraj Daryaee, Sasanian Persia, (I.B.Tauris Ltd, 2010), 16.
  5. ^ Touraj Daryaee, Sasanian Persia, (I.B.Tauris Ltd, 2010), 16.
  6. ^ Touraj Daryaee, Sasanian Persia, (I.B.Tauris Ltd, 2010), 16.

المصادر

  • Shapur Shahbazi, A. (2005). "SASANIAN DYNASTY". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 9 January 2014. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Daryaee, Touraj (2008). Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. I.B.Tauris. pp. 1–240. ISBN 9780857716668.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hormizd" . دائرة المعارف البريطانية. 13 (eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 693–694. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help); More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
هرمز الثاني
سبقه
نرسه
شاهنشاه فارس
302–309
تبعه
آذر نرسى
الكلمات الدالة: