تنمية مستدامة

التنمية المستدامة (Sustainable Development) هي عملية تطوير الأرض والمدن والمجتمعات وكذلك الأعمال التجارية بشرط ان تلبي إحتياجات الحاضر بدون المساس بقدرة الأجيال القادمة على تلبية حاجاتها. ويواجه العالم خطورة التدهور البيئي الذي يجب التغلب عليه مع عدم التخلي عن حاجات التنمية الإقتصادية وكذلك المساواة والعدل الإجتماعي.


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تعريفات

Three circles enclosed within one-another showing how both economy and society are constrained by environmental limits
A representation of sustainability showing how both economy and society are constrained by environmental limits (2003)[1]
Environment Equitable Sustainable Bearable (Social ecology) Viable (Environmental economics) Economic Social
Scheme of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts.(2006)[2][3]
The natural resource of wind powers these 5MW wind turbines on this wind farm 28 km off the coast of Belgium.


Solar towers utilize the natural resource of the sun, and are a renewable energy source. From left: PS10 and PS20 solar towers.



=استدامة بيئية

Water is an important natural resource that covers 71% of the Earth's surface. Image is the Earth photographed from Apollo 17.
استهلاك الموارد المتجددة حالة البيئة الاستدامة
More than nature's ability to replenish Environmental degradation غير مستدامة
Equal to nature's ability to replenish Environmental equilibrium Steady state economy
Less than nature's ability to replenish تجدد بيئي استدامة بيئية

مفهوم رأس المال في التنمية المستدامة

فشل السوق

Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in نيو مكسيكو contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.


The business case for sustainable development

Critique of the concept of sustainable development

Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest are a significant concern because of increased human encroachment upon wilderness areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity.


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Purpose

Consequences

The retreat of Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps (situation in 1979, 1991 and 2002), due to global warming.


Vagueness of the term


Basis

"De-growth"

Sustainable development in economics

انظر أيضا


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منظمات وأبحاث

المصادر

  1. ^ Ott, K. (2003). "The Case for Strong Sustainability." In: Ott, K. & P. Thapa (eds.) (2003).Greifswald’s Environmental Ethics. Greifswald: Steinbecker Verlag Ulrich Rose. ISBN 3931483320. Retrieved on: 2009-02-16.
  2. ^ Adams, W.M. (2006). "The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century." Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, 29–31 January 2006. Retrieved on: 2009-02-16.
  3. ^ UCN. 2006. The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century. Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, 29–31 January 2006 http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf

قراءات إضافية

  • Book Review on An Introduction to Sustainable Development by Peter Rogers, Kazi Jalal, & John Boyd Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, Published online June 18, 2008
  • Pezzey, J (January 2002). "The Economics of Sustainability:A Review of Journal Articles" (PDF). Resources for the Future DP 02-03: 1–36. Retrieved 2009-06-16. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Mark Jarzombek, "Sustainability - Architecture: between Fuzzy Systems and Wicked Problems," Blueprints 21/1 (Winter 2003), pp. 6–9.
  • Wallace, Bill (2005). Becoming part of the solution : the engineer’s guide to sustainable development. Washington, DC: American Council of Engineering Companies. ISBN  0910090378 .

وصلات خارجية

Polar bears on the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean, near the north pole.