سلطان

(تم التحويل من السلطان)
Sultan Bayezid: Ottoman Empire - Oil on Canvas by Haydar Hatemi-1999

سلطان بالإنجليزية Sultan ، هو لفظ يطلق على الحاكم في العهود الإسلامية وإبان الخلافة.

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الحكم الإسلامي في إطار الشريعة

حسين كامل، سلطان مصر، 1914-1917.


ألقاب الحكم المركبة

السلاطين والسلطنات السابقة

Artistic representation of Saladin, the first Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria.

الأناضول وآسيا الوسطى

Caucasus

Levant and Arabian peninsula

H.M. Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said, the current Sultan of Oman from the Al Said dynasty.
Audhali, Fadhli, Haushabi, Kathiri, Lahej, Lower Aulaqi, Lower Yafa, Mahra, Qu'aiti, Subeihi, Upper Aulaqi, Upper Yafa and the Wahidi sultanates

North Africa


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Horn of Africa

Southeast Africa and Indian Ocean

Maliki

This was the alternative native style (apparently derived from malik, the Arabic word for "king") of the sultans of the Kilwa Sultanate, in Tanganyika (presently the continental part of Tanzania).

Swahili Coast

  • Sultanate of Zanzibar: two incumbents (from the Omani dynasty) since the de facto separation from Oman in 1806, the last assumed the title Sultan in 1861 at the formal separation under British auspices; since 1964 union with Tanganyika (part of Tanzania)

Mfalume is the (Ki)Swahili title of various native Muslim rulers, generally rendered in Arabic and in western languages as Sultan:

Sultani

This was the native ruler's title in the Tanzanian state of Uhehe a female sultan

West and Central Africa

  • In Cameroon:
    • Bamoun (Bamun, 17th century, founded uniting 17 chieftaincies) 1918 becomes a sultanate, but in 1923 re-divided into the 17 original chieftaincies.
    • Bibemi, founded in 1770 - initially styled lamido
    • Mandara Sultanate, since 1715 (replacing Wandala kingdom); 1902 Part of Cameroon
    • Rey Bouba Sultanate founded 1804
  • in the Central African Republic:
    • Bangassou created c.1878; 14 June 1890 under Congo Free State protectorate, 1894 under French protectorate; 1917 Sultanate suppressed by the French.
    • Dar al-Kuti - French protectorate since December 12, 1897
    • Rafai c.1875 Sultanate, 8 April 1892 under Congo Free State protectorate, March 31, 1909 under French protectorate; 1939 Sultanate suppressed
    • Zemio c.1872 established; December 11, 1894 under Congo Free State protectorate, April 12, 1909 under French protectorate; 1923 Sultanate suppressed
  • in Niger: Arabic alternative title of the following autochthonous rulers:
  • in Nigeria most monarchies previously had native titles, but when most in the north converted to Islam, Muslim titles were adopted, such as emir and sometimes sultan.


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Southern Asia

Sultan Ali Khan Bahadur, grandson of Nawab H.H Noor ul Umrah and son of Nawab Shujaath Ali Khan

In India:

In the Maldives:

Southeast and East Asia

Hamengkubuwono X, the incumbent Sultan of Yogyakarta
Pakubuwono XII, last undisputed Susuhunan of Surakarta
Sultan Saifuddin of Tidore

In Indonesia (formerly in the Dutch East Indies):

In Malaysia:

In Brunei:

In China:

  • Dali, Yunnan, capital of the short-lived Panthay Rebellion
    • Furthermore, the Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims) of Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State", a major Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province) is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan.

In the Philippines:

في تايلند:

السلطنات ذات السيادة الحالية

In some parts of the Middle East and North Africa, there still exist regional sultans or people who are descendants of sultans and who are styled as such.

الإمارة والألقاب الأرستقراطية

The Sultan Valide.

رتبة عسكرية

الإستعمال في الثقافة الغربية الشائعة

انظر أيضا

ألقاب إسلامية أخرى

أخرى

المصادر والمراجع

قالب:List of titles and honours of the Countries Crown