بريطانيون

(تم التحويل من البريطانيون)
الشعب البريطاني
British people
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
إجمالي التعداد
British
72 million
British diaspora
140 million[1]
مناطق بتجمعات معتبرة

Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة
57,678,000[2]
(British citizens of any race or ethnicity)

المملكة المتحدة British Overseas Territories
247,899[3]
 الولايات المتحدة 36,812,826 1
678,000 2[4][5]
Flag of Australia.svg أستراليا 10,764,870 1[6]
1,300,000 4[7]
Flag of Canada.svg كندا 10,753,945 1
609,000 4[8]
Flag of New Zealand.svg نيوزيلندا 2,425,278 1
217,000 4[9]
Flag of South Africa.gif جنوب أفريقيا 1,603,575
750,000 4[7][10]
Flag of Chile.svg تشيلي 700,000 1[11]
Flag of France.svg فرنسا 400,000 4[12]
Flag of Ireland.svg أيرلندا 291,000 4[7]
Flag of Argentina.svg الأرجنتين 250,000 1[13]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg الإمارات العربية 240,000 2[14]
Flag of Spain.svg إسپانيا 236,669 4[15][16]
Flag of پيرو پيرو 150,000 1[17]
Flag of Germany.svg ألمانيا 115,000 2[18]
Flag of Pakistan.svg پاكستان 79,447 4[19]
Flag of Cyprus.svg قبرص 59,000 2[18]
Flag of Thailand.svg تايلند 51,000 2[20]
Flag of Singapore.svg سنغافورة 45,000 2[20]
Flag of Switzerland.svg سويسرا 45,000 2[21]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg هولندا 44,000 2[21]
 إسرائيل 44,000[22]
البرتغال البرتغال 41,000 2[21]
Flag of Sweden.svg السويد 39,989 2
Flag of Norway.svg نرويج 34,279 1[23]
Flag of Turkey.svg تركيا 34,000 2[21]
Flag of India.png الهند 32,000 2[24]
Flag of Kenya.svg كينيا 29,000 2[25]
Flag of Belgium.svg بلجيكا 28,000 2[21]
Flag of Barbados.svg بربادوس 27,000 2[26]
Flag of Italy.svg إيطاليا 26,000[5]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg السعودية 26,000 2
Flag of Jamaica.svg جامايكا 25,000 2[26]
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg ترينيداد وتوباگو 25,000 2[27]
Flag of Japan (bordered).svg اليابان 23,000 2[5]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg هونگ كونگ 19,405 1 2[28]
3,400,000 3[29]
33,733 4[28]
Flag of Greece.svg اليونان 18,000 2
Flag of Finland.svg فنلندا 16,732[30]
اللغات
الأديان
Mainly Christianity (Anglicanism, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism)
see also: Religion in the United Kingdom

1. People who identify of full or partial British ancestry born into that country.
2. UK-born people who identify of British ancestry only.
3. British citizens by way of residency in the British overseas territories; however, not all have ancestry from the United Kingdom.
4. British citizens or nationals.

The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.[31][32][33] British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons.[32] It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.

Though early assertions of being British date from the Late Middle Ages, the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain[34][35][36][37][38] in 1707 triggered a sense of British national identity.[39] The notion of Britishness was forged during the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and the First French Empire, and developed further during the Victorian era.[39][40] The complex history of the formation of the United Kingdom created a "particular sense of nationhood and belonging" in Great Britain and Ireland;[39] Britishness became "superimposed on much older identities", of English, Scots, Welsh and Irish cultures, whose distinctiveness still resists notions of a homogenised British identity.[41] Because of longstanding ethno-sectarian divisions, British identity in Northern Ireland is controversial, but it is held with strong conviction by Unionists.[42]

Modern Britons are descended mainly from the varied ethnic groups that settled in the British Isles in and before the 11th century: Prehistoric, Brittonic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Normans.[43] The progressive political unification of the British Isles facilitated migration, cultural and linguistic exchange, and intermarriage between the peoples of England, Scotland and Wales during the late Middle Ages, early modern period and beyond.[44][45] Since 1922 and earlier, there has been immigration to the United Kingdom by people from what is now the Republic of Ireland, the Commonwealth, mainland Europe and elsewhere; they and their descendants are mostly British citizens, with some assuming a British, dual or hyphenated identity.[46]

The British are a diverse, multinational,[47][48] multicultural and multilingual society, with "strong regional accents, expressions and identities".[49][50] The social structure of the United Kingdom has changed radically since the 19th century, with a decline in religious observance, enlargement of the middle class, and increased ethnic diversity, particularly since the 1950s. The population of the UK stands at around 66 million,[51] with a British diaspora of around 140 million concentrated in Australia, Canada and New Zealand, with smaller concentrations in the United States, Republic of Ireland, Chile, South Africa and parts of the Caribbean.[52]


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See also


المصادر

المراجع

  1. ^ Richards 2004, p. 255.
  2. ^ Population By Country of Birth and Nationality tables January 2013 to December 2013. Retrieved 04_11_2014
  3. ^ See the article entitled British overseas territories.
  4. ^ "Ancestry in the United States". Statistical Atlas. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  5. ^ أ ب ت Brits Abroad: Country-by-country, BBC News, 11 December 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6161705.stm, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  6. ^ Numerical estimate based on the total percentage of population identifying their principal ancestry as Scottish, English or Welsh. "CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN AUSTRALIA, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  7. ^ أ ب ت خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة BritsAbroad
  8. ^ Canadians of British Isles origin with the exception of those identifying their ancestry as Irish only. "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  9. ^ Statistics New Zealand (4 February 2009), QuickStats About Culture and Identity, stats.govt.nz, Archived from the original on 19 February 2008, https://web.archive.org/web/20080219232357/http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006-census-data/quickstats-about-culture-identity/quickstats-about-culture-and-identity.htm?page=para017Master, retrieved on 18 May 2009 
  10. ^ Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 26. ISBN  9780621413885 . Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015. The number of people who described themselves as white in terms of population group and specified their first language as English in South Africa's 2011 Census was 1,603,575. The total white population with a first language specified was 4,461,409 and the total population was 51,770,560.
  11. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة british
  12. ^ Erwin Dopf. "Présentation du Royaume-Uni". diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  13. ^ Chavez, Lydia (23 June 1985), Fare of the country: A bit of Britain in Argentina, https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A02E5D61039F930A15755C0A963948260, retrieved on 21 May 2009 
  14. ^ "The other special relationship: the UAE and the UK". The National. Abu Dhabi. 21 November 2010. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  15. ^ "TablaPx". www.ine.es.
  16. ^ "End to Mediterranean dream for 90,000 Britons who left Spain last year". Telegraph.co.uk. 22 April 2014.
  17. ^ Erwin Dopf. "Inmigración británica al Perú". Espejodelperu.com.pe. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  18. ^ أ ب The most popular British emigration destinations, local.live.com, 13 April 2007, http://local.live.com/?v=2&cid=8383590E124DC654!157&encType=1, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  19. ^ Gishkori, Zahid (30 July 2015). "Karachi has witnessed 43% decrease in target killing: Nisar". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 3 August 2017. As many as 116,308 Afghan nationals are living as immigrants in the country, higher than any other country," Nisar told the House. Besides Afghans, 52,486 Americans, 79,447 British citizens and 17,320 Canadians are residing in the country, the interior minister added.
  20. ^ أ ب Brits Abroad: Asia-Pacific, BBC News, 11 December 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/brits_abroad/html/asia_pac.stm, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  21. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Brits Abroad: Europe, BBC News, 11 December 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/brits_abroad/html/europe.stm, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  22. ^ Brits Abroad: Middle East, BBC News, 11 December 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/brits_abroad/html/mid_east.stm, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  23. ^ "Persons with immigrant background by immigration category, country background and sex". Statistics Norway. ssb.no. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 15 November 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  24. ^ Brits Abroad: Asia, BBC News, 11 December 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/brits_abroad/html/asia.stm, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  25. ^ Brits Abroad: Africa, BBC News, 11 December 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/brits_abroad/html/africa.stm, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  26. ^ أ ب Brits Abroad: Caribbean, BBC News, 11 December 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/brits_abroad/html/caribbean.stm, retrieved on 24 May 2009 
  27. ^ "Estimated overseas-born population resident in the United Kingdom by sex, by country of birth (Table 1.4)". Office for National Statistics. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015. Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
  28. ^ أ ب Interactive Data Dissemination Service, Hong Kong Census, 2011
  29. ^ The Committee Office, House of Commons. "House of Commons - Foreign Affairs - Fifth Report". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  30. ^ "Ethnic Groups And Nationalities In Finland".
  31. ^ Cfr. Interpretation Act 1978, Sched. 1. By the British Nationality Act 1981, s. 50 (1), the United Kingdom includes the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man for the purposes of nationality law.
  32. ^ أ ب Macdonald 1969, p. 62:
    British, brit'ish, adj. of Britain or the Commonwealth.
    Briton, brit'ὁn, n. one of the early inhabitants of Britain: a native of Great Britain.
  33. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2004), British (Fourth ed.), dictionary.reference.com, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/british, retrieved on 19 February 2009 :
    Brit·ish (brĭt'ĭsh) adj.
    • Of or relating to Great Britain or its people, language, or culture.
    • Of or relating to the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth of Nations.
    • Of or relating to the ancient Britons.

    n. (used with a pl. verb)

    • The people of Great Britain.
  • ^ Uniting the kingdom?, nationalarchives.gov.uk, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/citizenship/rise_parliament/uniting.htm, retrieved on 4 January 2011 
  • ^ Acts of Union 1707, Parliament of the United Kingdom, http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/, retrieved on 4 January 2011 
  • ^ Making the Act of Union 1707, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Archived from the original on 11 May 2011, https://web.archive.org/web/20110511140052/http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/visitingHolyrood/union_exhibition.pdf, retrieved on 4 January 2011 
  • ^ The Union of the Parliaments 1707, Learning and Teaching Scotland, Archived from the original on 2 January 2012, https://web.archive.org/web/20120102060414/http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scotlandshistory/unioncrownsparliaments/unionofparliaments/index.asp, retrieved on 28 January 2011 
  • ^ "THE TREATY or Act of the Union". scotshistoryonline.co.uk. Retrieved 12 December 2009.
  • ^ أ ب ت Colley 1992, p. 1.
  • ^ Colley 1992, p. 5.
  • ^ Colley 1992, p. 6.
  • ^ CAIN Web Service, British? Irish? Or what?, cain.ulst.ac.uk, http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/dd/report7/report7c.htm, retrieved on 19 February 2009 
  • ^ United States Department of State (July 2008), United Kingdom - People, state.gov, https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3846.htm, retrieved on 19 February 2009 
  • ^ Trudgill 1984, p. 519.
  • ^ Richardson & Ashford 1993, p. 531.
  • ^ Ward 2004, pp. 113–115.
  • ^ Gordon Brown: We must defend the Union The Daily Telegraph, 25 March 2008
  • ^ DIVERSITY AND CITIZENSHIP CURRICULUM REVIEW www.devon.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2010. Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  • ^ UK dialects 'strong and varied', BBC, 15 August 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4152394.stm, retrieved on 19 February 2009 
  • ^ Rosen 2003, p. 3.
  • ^ "Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2017". www.ons.gov.uk.
  • ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة BritDis47
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    Further reading

    • Adams, Ian (1993). Political Ideology Today (2nd ed.). Manchester University Press. ISBN  978-0-7190-3347-6 .
    • Cunliffe, Barry (2005). Iron Age communities in Britain: an account of England, Scotland and Wales from the seventh century BC until the Roman conquest (4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN  978-0-415-34779-2 .
    • Gottlieb, Julie V.; Linehan, Thomas P. (2004). The Culture of Fascism: Visions of the Far Right in Britain. I.B.Tauris. ISBN  978-1-86064-799-4 .
    • McLean, Iain (2001). Rational Choice and British Politics. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN  0-19-829529-4 .
    • Woodward, Kath (2000). Questioning Identity: Gender, Class and Nation. Routledge. ISBN  978-0-415-22287-7 .

    External links

    خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).