إنگول‌شتات

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إنگول‌شتات
Ingolstadt by night
Ingolstadt by night
علم إنگول‌شتات
Flag
درع إنگول‌شتات
Coat of arms
إنگول‌شتات is located in ألمانيا
إنگول‌شتات
إنگول‌شتات
إنگول‌شتات is located in Bavaria
إنگول‌شتات
إنگول‌شتات
الإحداثيات: 48°46′N 11°26′E / 48.767°N 11.433°E / 48.767; 11.433Coordinates: 48°46′N 11°26′E / 48.767°N 11.433°E / 48.767; 11.433
البلدألمانيا
الولايةباڤاريا
Admin. regionOberbayern
DistrictUrban district
التقسيمات11 Stadtbezirke with 61 Unterbezirken
الحكومة
 • Lord mayorChristian Lösel (CSU)
المساحة
 • الإجمالي133٫37 كم² (51٫49 ميل²)
Elevation
374 m (1٬227 ft)
Population
 (2015-12-31)
 • Total131٬002
 • Density980/km2 (2٬500/sq mi)
منطقة التوقيتCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
85049–85057
Dialling codes0841
08450 (Zuchering, Brunnenreuth)
08424 (Irgertsheim)
08458 (Pettenhofen/Mühlhausen/Dünzlau)
08459 (Niederfeld)
Vehicle registrationIN
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.ingolstadt.de

إنگولشتات (Ingolstadt؛ الأمريكي /ˈɪŋɡəlʃtɑːt,_ʔstɑːt/ ING-gəl-s(h)taht,[1] ألمانية: [ˈʔɪŋɡɔlˌʃtat]  (Speaker Icon.svg listen), Austro-Bavarian: قالب:IPA-bar) is a city in Bavaria, Germany, on the banks of the Danube, in the centre of Bavaria. In 2016, it had 133,638 citizens, making it the fifth largest city in Bavaria. It is part of the Munich Metropolitan Region.

الجمعية السرية إليوميناتي، في عصر التنوير، تأسست في إنگولشتات في أواخر القرن الثامن عشر.

Ingolstadt is a setting in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, where the scientist Victor Frankenstein creates his monster.

It is the site of the headquarters of the German automobile manufacturer Audi, defence aircraft manufacturer Airbus (formerly Cassidian Air Systems), and electronic stores Media Markt and Saturn.

Ingolstadt Central Station has been connected to Nuremberg by a high-speed rail link since May 2006. Ingolstadt also has a second passenger station at Ingolstadt Nord.

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الجغرافيا

Covering an urban area of 133.35 kiloمتر مربعs (1.43536745407×109 قدم2), Ingolstadt is geographically Bavaria's fourth-largest city after Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg. At its largest point the city is about 18 kم (59,055 قدم) from east to west and from north to south about 15 kم (49,213 قدم). The city boundary has a length of 70 kم (229,659 قدم).

The city boundary is about 14 kم (45,932 قدم) away from the geographic centre of Bavaria in Kipfenberg. The old town is approximately 374 مترs (1,227 قدم) above sea level and the highest point, located in the district of Pettenhofen, is 410.87 م (1,348.00 قدم). The lowest point of the Schutter confluence with the Danube is at 362 م (1,188 قدم) above sea level. Ingolstadt uses Central European Time as throughout Germany; the average time lag is 14 minutes.

The city is expanding at the northern and southern banks of the Danube in a wide flat bowl. The Ingolstadt basin borders the Jura foothills, located south and is to the north of the Donau-Isar-Hügelland. In the southwest is the Donaumoos while in the east the lowland forests of the Danube reach into the urban area. It is the second largest hardwood floodplain on the Danube. The Sandrach, the former Southern main branch of the Danube, partly forms the Southern city border. In the north, the Schutter flows through from the west reaching the Danube near to the Altstadt.


التاريخ والثقافة

Old City Hall
Church of Our Lady
The Kreuztor

Ingolstadt was first mentioned in a document of Charlemagne on 6 February 806 as "Ingoldes stat", the place of Ingold. Circa 1250, Ingolstadt was granted city status.

Ingolstadt was the capital of the Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt between 1392 and 1447. Ingolstadt was then united with Bavaria-Landshut. Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria ordered the building of the New Castle, whose form was strongly influenced by French Gothic architecture.

In 1472 Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria founded the University of Ingolstadt which became the Ludwig-Maximilians-University. In 1800 it was moved to Landshut and in 1826 eventually to Munich. The University of Ingolstadt was an important defender of the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation era, led by such notable scholars as Johann Eck.

Ingolstadt is where William IV, Duke of Bavaria wrote and signed the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot in 1516.

In the Battle of Ingolstadt in May 1525, the Black Company – a unit of Franconian farmers and knights fighting on the side of the peasants during the German Peasants' War – took their last stand at Ingolstadt against the Swabian League, all eventually being defeated and killed.

On 30 April 1632, the German field marshal Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly died at Ingolstadt during a Swedish siege of the city. The field marshal had been badly wounded in a previous engagement with the Swedes under King Gustavus Adolphus. Ingolstadt proved to be the first fortress in Germany that held out for the entire length of the Swedish siege, and the Swedes eventually withdrew.

The remains of Gustavus Adolphus' horse can be seen in the City Museum. The horse was shot from under the king by one of the cannons inside the fortress, a cannon known as "The Fig". When the Swedes withdrew, the city preserved the remains of the king's horse, eventually putting the form on display. It has remained thus for almost 400 years. In 1748, Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Order of Illuminati, was born in Ingolstadt. After the French invasion in 1799 the fortress was demolished and the university was relocated to Landshut.

Originally a fortress city, Ingolstadt is enclosed by a medieval defensive wall. The Bavarian fortress (1537–1930) now holds the museum of the Bavarian army. During World War I, future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war. A sappers' drill ground lies next to the river, and two military air bases are located nearby, one used for testing aircraft. The long military tradition of the city is reflected in today's civil and cultural life. Former "off-limit" military training areas have been converted into well-used public parks.

Adolf Scherzer composed the "Bayerischen Defiliermarsch". Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was set at the Ingolstädter Alte Anatomie (Old Anatomy Building), now a museum for medical history. Marieluise Fleißer set her play Pioneers in Ingolstadt (1928) in the city.

In 1945, the car manufacturer Auto Union first arrived in the city. The company's original factories in Chemnitz and Zwickau (both then in Soviet controlled East Germany) were shattered during the war, and were seized by the Russians as reparations. Auto Union executives initially started a spare parts operation in Ingolstadt in the immediate post war period, with a view to relocating the entire company to the region. With the help of Marshall Plan aid, Auto Union was formally re-founded in Ingolstadt in 1949, ultimately evolving into the modern-era Audi company, after it was taken over by Volkswagen in 1964. Today, Audi is the region's largest employer and now dominates the economy of the city.

الديمغرافيا

Population development since 1450:

التعداد التاريخي
السنةتعداد±%
14503٬000—    
16306٬500+116.7%
187113٬157+102.4%
190022٬207+68.8%
191926٬013+17.1%
192526٬630+2.4%
193328٬628+7.5%
193933٬394+16.6%
195040٬523+21.3%
196153٬405+31.8%
197070٬414+31.8%
198796٬071+36.4%
2001117٬311+22.1%
2011124٬927+6.5%
2018138٬181+10.6%
source:[2][مرجع دائرة مفرغة]
أكبر جماعات من المقيمين الأجانب[3]
العرق التعداد (2018)
 تركيا 4,438
 رومانيا 2,583
 اليونان 1,405
 كرواتيا 1,332
 إيطاليا 1,155
 كوسوڤو 1,126
 پولندا 1,103
 المجر 942


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علاقات دولية

Ingolstadt is twinned with:[4]

هيئات وأندية

أشخاص بارزون


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انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ قالب:Cite Merriam-Webster
  2. ^ Link
  3. ^ "Bevölkerung" [Population] (pdf) (in German). Stadt Ingolstadt. pp. 34–38. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  4. ^ "Partnerstädte Ingolstadts". ingolstadt.de (in الألمانية). Ingolstadt. Retrieved 2019-11-24.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Germany districts bavaria

الكلمات الدالة: