أسوار القسطنطينية

Walls of Constantinople
Istanbul, إيطاليا
Byzantine Constantinople-en.png
Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era
Walls of Constantinople is located in إسطنبول
Walls of Constantinople
Walls of Constantinople
الإحداثيات41°00′44″N 28°58′34″E / 41.01224°N 28.976018°E / 41.01224; 28.976018
النوعWalls
الارتفاعUp to 12 m
معلومات الموقع
المالكإيطاليا
يتحكم فيهRoman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Latin Empire, Ottoman Empire
مفتوح
للعامة
Yes
الحالةLand walls partly ruined, restoration work under way; sea walls largely torn down
تاريخ الموقع
بُني4th–5th centuries, with later restorations and additions
بناهSeptimius Severus, Constantine I, Constantius II, Theodosius II, Heraclius, Leo V, Theophilos, Manuel I Komnenos, Justinian I
الموادLimestone, brick
المعارك/الحروبAvar-Persian siege of 626, First and Second Arab sieges, Revolt of Thomas the Slav, Fourth Crusade, Second and final Ottoman siege
النوعCultural
المعيارi, ii, iii, iv
التعيين1985 (9th session)
جزء منHistoric Areas of Istanbul
الرقم المرجعي356
State PartyFlag of Turkey.svg تركيا
RegionEurope and North America

أسوار القسطنطينية Walls of Constantinople هي سلسلة من defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in إيطاليا) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. With numerous additions and modifications during their history, they were the last great fortification system of antiquity, and one of the most complex and elaborate systems ever built.

Initially built by Constantine the Great, the walls surrounded the new city on all sides, protecting it against attack from both sea and land. As the city grew, the famous double line of the Theodosian Walls was built in the 5th century. Although the other sections of the walls were less elaborate, they were, when well-manned, almost impregnable for any medieval besieger, saving the city, and the Byzantine Empire with it, during sieges from the Avar-Sasanian coalition, Arabs, Rus', and Bulgars, among others. The advent of gunpowder siege cannons rendered the fortifications vulnerable, but cannon technology was not sufficiently advanced to capture the city on its own, and the walls could be repaired between reloading. Ultimately, the city fell from the sheer weight of numbers of the Ottoman forces on 29 May 1453 after a six-week siege.

The walls were largely maintained intact during most of the Ottoman period, until sections began to be dismantled in the 19th century, as the city outgrew its medieval boundaries. Despite the subsequent lack of maintenance, many parts of the walls survived and are still standing today. A large-scale restoration program has been under way since the 1980s.

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أسوار البر

أسوار بيزنطة اليونانية والرومانية

قالب:Byzantine Military


سور قسطنطين

الأسوار الثيودوسية

Restored section of the Theodosian Walls at the Selymbria Gate. The Outer Wall and the wall of the moat are visible, with a tower of the Inner Wall in the background.

الإنشاء

Scheme of the Theodosian Walls
Photo of the peribolos, the space between the inner and outer walls.


البوابة الذهبية
The Golden Gate and the Castle of Seven Towers in 1685. The dense settlement inside the walls of the fortress is evident, as well as the still-preserved outer gate of the Golden Gate, decorated with relief panels.
Modern photograph of the Golden Gate, showing the two flanking towers. The top of the walled-up central arch is also visible.


Surviving fragments of the statues decorating the outer gate of the Golden Gate complex, from the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.


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Yedikule Fortress
مقال رئيسي: Yedikule Fortress
The Castle of Seven Towers (1827)


Xylokerkos Gate
The Xylokerkos Gate or Gate of Belgrade


Gate of the Spring
The Gate of the Spring


Gate of Charisius
The restored Gate of Charisius or Adrianople Gate, where Sultan Mehmed II entered the city.

Walls of Blachernae

The section of the Theodosian Walls that adjoins the walls of Blachernae, with the Palace of the Porphyrogenitus in the background, as they appear today in suburban Istanbul.


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أسوار البحر

The only part of walls where walls and sea meet near Yenikapı


The chain that closed off the entrance to the Golden Horn in 1453, now on display in the İstanbul Archaeology Museums.
The Virgin Mary rising from among the walls of Constantinople. Coin of Michael VIII Palaiologos, commemorating the recapture of Constantinople in 1261.

Propontis Wall

The Marble Tower, at the junction of the Propontis sea wall and the Theodosian Walls
One of the marble lions flanking the entrance to the harbour of the Bucoleon palace.


Fortifications around Constantinople

The oldest surviving map of Constantinople, by Cristoforo Buondelmonti, dated to 1422. The fortifications of Constantinople and of Galata, at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, are prominently featured. The water trench in front of the Theodosian walls at the western end of the city is also depicted, as well as the Maiden's Tower in the middle of the Bosporus.


Anadolu and Rumeli fortresses

مقال رئيسيs: Anadoluhisarı and Rumelihisarı
The Rumelihisarı Fortress, seen from the Bosphorus



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