كراي خبروڤسك

هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
Khabarovsk Krai
Хабаровский край
علم Khabarovsk Krai
Flag
درع Khabarovsk Krai
Coat of arms
النشيد: [1]
Map of Russia - Khabarovsk Krai.svg
الإحداثيات: 54°48′N 136°50′E / 54.800°N 136.833°E / 54.800; 136.833Coordinates: 54°48′N 136°50′E / 54.800°N 136.833°E / 54.800; 136.833
البلدروسيا
المنطقة الاتحاديةالشرق الأقصى[2]
المنطقة الاقتصاديةالشرق الأقصى[3]
تأسست20 October 1938[4]
المركز الاداريخبروڤسك
الحكومة
 • الكيانLegislative Duma[5]
 • Governor[5]Yuri Zolochevsky (acting)
المساحة
 • Total788٬600 كم² (304٬500 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة4th
Population
 (2010 Census)[7]
 • Total1٬343٬869
 • Estimate 
(January 2018);[8]
1٬328٬302
 • Rank34th
 • Density1٫7/km2 (4٫4/sq mi)
 • Urban
81٫8%
 • Rural
18٫2%
منطقة التوقيتUTC+ ([9])
ISO 3166 codeRU-KHA
لوحات السيارات27
اللغات الرسميةالروسية[10]
الموقع الإلكترونيhttp://www.khabkrai.ru

كراي خبروڤسك (روسية: Хаба́ровский край, النطق خبروڤسكي كراي; النطق الروسي: [xɐˈbarəfskʲɪj kraj]) هي إحدى الكيانات الفدرالية في روسيا. ويقع جغرافياً في الشرق الأقصى الروسي وهو جزء من منطقة الشرق الأقصى الاتحادية. المركز الاداري للكراي هو مدينة خبروڤسك، التي تضم نحو نصف سكان الكراي وهي أكبر مدن الشرق الأقصى الروسي (أكبر من ڤلاديڤوستوك). وكراي خبروڤسك هو رابع أكبر كيان فدرالي من حيث المساخة، بتعداد 1,343,869 نسمة، في (2010 Census).[7]

يقع معظم المنطقة الجنوبية في حوض نهر الآمور السفلي، ويقع مصب النهر عند نيقولايڤسك على الآمور مُصرِّفاً مياهه في مضيق تارتاري, which separates Khabarovsk Krai from the island of Sakhalin. The north occupies a vast mountainous area along the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk, a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. Khabarovsk Krai is bordered by Magadan Oblast to the north, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast and the Sakha Republic to the west, Primorsky Krai to the south, and Sakhalin Oblast to the east.

The population is mostly ethnic Russians, but indigenous people of the area are various Tungusic peoples (Evenks, Negidals, Ulchs, Nanai, Oroch, Udege) and Amur Nivkhs and Ainu.[11]

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الجغرافيا

Khabarovsk Krai shares its borders with Magadan Oblast in the north, with the Sakha Republic and Amur Oblast in the west, with the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, China (Heilongjiang), and Primorsky Krai in the south, and is limited by the Sea of Okhotsk in the east. In terms of area, it is the fourth-largest federal subject within Russia. Major islands include Shantar Islands.

Taiga and tundra in the north, swampy forest in the central depression, and deciduous forest in the south are the natural vegetation in the area.


التاريخ

According to various Chinese and Korean records, the southern part of Khabarovsk Krai was originally occupied by one of the five semi-nomadic Shiwei, the Bo Shiwei tribes and the Black Water Mohe tribes living respectively on the west and the east of the Bureya and the Lesser Khingan ranges.

In 1643, Vassili Poyarkov's boats descended the Amur, returning to Yakutsk by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Aldan River, and in 1649–1650 Yerofey Khabarov occupied the banks of the Amur. The resistance of the Chinese, however, obliged the Cossacks to quit their forts, and by the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) Russia abandoned her advance into the basin of the river.

Although the Russians were thus deprived of the right to navigate the Amur River, the territorial claim over the lower courses of the river was not settled in the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689. The area between Uda River and Greater Khingan mountain range (i.e. most of Lower Amuria) was left undemarcated and the Sino-Russian border was allowed to fluctuate.[12][13]

Later in the nineteenth century, Nikolay Muravyov would conduct an aggressive policy with China by claiming that the lower reaches of the Amur River belonged to Russia. In 1852, a Russian military expedition under Muravyov explored the Amur, and by 1857 a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants had been settled along the whole course of the river. In 1858, in the Treaty of Aigun, China recognized the Amur River downstream as far as the Ussuri River as the boundary between Russia and the Qing Empire, and granted Russia free access to the Pacific Ocean.[14] The Sino-Russian border was later further delineated in the Treaty of Peking of 1860 when the Ussuri Territory (the Maritime Territory), which was previously a joint possession, became Russian.[15]

Modern Khabarovsk Krai was established on 20 October 1938, when the Far Eastern Krai was split into the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais.[4] On 24 April 1996 Khabarovsk signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy.[16] This agreement would be abolished on 12 August 2002.[17]

القسيمات الادارية

السياسة

Khabarovsk Krai Administration building

Economy

Khabarovsk Krai is the most industrialized territory of the Far East of Russia, producing 30% of the total industrial products in the Far Eastern Economic Region.


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Heavy industry

The machine construction industry consists primarily of a highly developed military-industrial complex of large-scale aircraft- and shipbuilding enterprises.[18] The Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association is currently among the krai's most successful enterprises, and for years has been the largest taxpayer of the territory.[18] Other major industries include timber-working and fishing, along with metallurgy in the main cities. Komsomolsk-on-Amur is the iron and steel centre of the Far East; a pipeline from northern Sakhalin supplies the petroleum-refining industry in the city of Khabarovsk. In the Amur basin, there is also some cultivation of wheat and soybeans. The administrative centre, Khabarovsk, is at the junction of the Amur River and the Trans-Siberian Railway.

Mining

The region's own mineral resources are underdeveloped. The region hosts large Gold mining operations (Highland Gold, Polus Gold), a major but low-grade Copper deposit being explored by IG Integro Group and a world-class tin district which was a major contributor to the Soviet Industrial complex and is currently being revitalised by Far Eastern Tin (Festivalnoye mine) and by Sable Tin Resources which is developing the Sable Tin Deposit (Sobolinoye) large high grade deposit, 25 km from Solnechny town.

الديمغرافيا

Lenin Square in Khabarovsk

Population: 1٬436٬570 (تعداد 2002);[19] 1٬824٬506 (تعداد 1989).[20]

According to the 2010 Census,[7] 91.8% of the population are Russians, 2.1% Ukrainians, 0.8% Nanais, 0.6% Tatars, 0.6% Koreans, and 0.4% Belarusians. 55,038 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[21]

In addition to the Nanai, other indigenous groups include the Evenks and Evens in the northern part of the province, and Ulchs in the lower Amur river (Ulchsky District). Some Nivkhs (Gilyak), an indigenous fishing people speaking an isolate language, live around the Amur river delta as well. Smaller groups indigenous to the area are Negidals (567), Orochs (686), and Udege (1,657) and Taz people (3) according to the 2002 census.

  • Births (2009): 17,573 (12.5 per 1000)
  • Deaths (2009): 19,115 (13.6 per 1000)[22]
  • Urban Births (2009): 13,612 (12.1 per 1000)
  • Rural Births (2009): 3,961 (14.5 per 1000)
  • Urban Deaths (2009): 15,472 (13.7 per 1000)
  • Rural Deaths (2009): 3,643 (13.3 per 1000)[23]

The birth rate for 2008 is 5.2% higher than that in 2007, and the death rate is 1.4% lower. Birth rate was recorded at 11.6 for 2007 (11.1 for Urban areas and 13.8 for Rural areas) per 1000 people. The death rate was 14.2 in 2007 (14.3 for Urban areas and 14.0 for Rural areas). Rural locations of Khabarovsk Krai had a positive natural growth of population in 2008 (for the first time in the last 16 years).[23]

التجمعات السكنية

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 18 324 (13.6 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 18 169 (13.5 per 1000) [24]

Total fertility rate:[25]
2009 – 1.59 | 2010 – 1.56 | 2011 – 1.57 | 2012 – 1.70 | 2013 – 1.74 | 2014 – 1.79 | 2015 – 1.85 | 2016 – 1.79(e)

وتحوي المدن والقرى التالية: أمورسك، بيكين، خبروڤسك، كومسومولسك-نا-أموري، نيكولايفسك-نا-أمور، سوفتسكايا گافان، فيازيمسكي،


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الدين

Religion in Krai Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[26][27]
Russian Orthodoxy
  
26.2%
Other Orthodox
  
1.3%
Protestantism
  
0.5%
Other Christians
  
3.7%
Islam
  
1.1%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
  
0.5%
Spiritual but not religious
  
27.9%
Atheism and irreligion
  
23.1%
Other and undeclared
  
15.7%

According to a 2012 survey,[26] 26.2% of the population of Khabarovsk Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox churches or is a believer in Orthodox Christianity who doesn't belong to any church, 1% is an adherent of Islam. In addition, 28% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 23% is atheist, and 16.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[26]



الهامش

  1. ^ Article 10 of the Charter of Khabarovsk Krai states that the krai may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. As of 2015, no such law is in place.
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (گوستاندارت of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER).
  4. ^ أ ب Decree of October 20, 1938
  5. ^ أ ب Charter of Khabarovsk Krai, Article 4
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in الروسية). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  7. ^ أ ب ت Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1". Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  8. ^ Khabarovsk Krai Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения Хабаровского края по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года (in روسية)
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in الروسية). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  10. ^ الرسمية في جميع أرجاء روسيا الاتحادية حسب الفقرة 68.1 من دستور روسيا.
  11. ^ Chaussonnet, p.109
  12. ^ "1689, Nerchinsk – Russia". China's External Relations.
  13. ^ Alexei D. Voskressenski (2002). Russia and China: A Theory of Inter-State Relations. Routledge. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0700714957.
  14. ^ "1858, Aigun – Russia". China's External Relations.
  15. ^ Alexei D. Voskressenski (2002). Russia and China: A Theory of Inter-State Relations. Routledge. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-0700714957.
  16. ^ Solnick, Steven (29 May 1996). "Asymmetries in Russian Federation Bargaining" (PDF). The National Council for Soviet and East European Research: 12.
  17. ^ Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146.
  18. ^ أ ب "KNAAPO Komsomolsk na Amure Aviation Industrial Association named after Gagarin - Russian". www.globalsecurity.org.
  19. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек[[Category:Articles containing non-English-language text]] (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-07-25. URL–wikilink conflict (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  20. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров.[[Category:Articles containing non-English-language text]] (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. Retrieved 2007-12-13. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help); URL–wikilink conflict (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  21. ^ "ВПН-2010". www.gks.ru.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 15, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ أ ب "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 15, 2009. Retrieved November 29, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". www.gks.ru.
  25. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  26. ^ أ ب ت "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  27. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.

المصادر

  • Хабаровская краевая Дума. №150 30 ноября 1995 г. «Устав Хабаровского края», в ред. Закона №202 от 30 июля 2008 г. (Khabarovsk Krai Duma. #150 November 30, 1995 Charter of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Law #202 of July 30, 2008).
  • Chaussonnet, Valerie (1995) Native Cultures of Alaska and Siberia. Arctic Studies Center. Washington, D.C. 112p. ISBN 1560986611

وصلات خارجية