أنواع المحال المأهولة في روسيا

نظام التبويب لأنواع المحال المأهولة في روسيا، والاتحاد السوڤيتي السابق، وبعض الدول بعد السوفيتية له خصائص معينة بالمقارنة بنظم التبويب في الدول الأخرى.

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التبويب الحديث في روسيا

محال حضرية

  • Cities and towns (город, gorod; pl. города, goroda). Cities and towns are classified by their level of jurisdiction (district/federal subject/federal). While the Russian language has no separate words for "town" and "city" ("город" is used for both), in translation, the word "city" is commonly applied to the urban localities with a population of at least 100,000.

محال ريفية

Multiple types of rural localities exist, some common through the whole territory of Russia, some specific to certain federal subjects. The most common types include:

  • Villages (деревня, derevnya; pl. деревни, derevni)
  • Selos (село, selo; pl. сёла, syola), also translated as "village". Historically, a selo differed from a village in that it had an Orthodox church.
  • (Rural-type) settlements (посёлок (сельского типа), posyolok (selskogo tipa); pl. посёлки (сельского типа)). The "rural-type" (сельского типа) designation is added to the settlements the population of which is mostly occupied in agriculture, while posyolok (посёлок) proper indicates a mix of population working in agriculture and industry.
  • Stanitsas (станица, stanitsa; pl. станицы, stanitsy)—historically, a Cossack rural locality. The name is still currently in use, with the basic meaning of "village".
  • Slobodas (слобода, sloboda; pl. слободы, slobody)—historically, a settlement freed from taxes and levies for various reasons. The name is still currently in use with the basic meaning of "village".
  • Khutors (хутор, khutor; pl. хутора, khutora)—translated as "hamlet", "farmstead", or "village".
  • Pochinoks (починок, pochinok; pl. починки, pochinki)—a newly formed rural locality of one or several families. Pochinoks are established as new settlements and usually grow into larger villages as they develop.
  • In some federal subjects, ethnic terminology is used in the Russian language. Such locality types include аул (aul), аал (aal), and кишлак (kishlak).

مصطلحات تاريخية

  • Krepost (крепость, a fort), a fortified settlement
    • A Kremlin (кремль, citadel), a major krepost, usually including a castle and surrounded by a posad
    • An ostrog, a more primitive kind of krepost which could be put up quickly within rough walls of debarked pointed timber
  • Posad (посад), a medieval suburban settlement
  • Mestechko (местечко, from بالپولندية: miasteczko), a small town in the Western Krai annexed during the partitions of Poland; typically a mestechko would have a Jewish majority
  • Pogost

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