اللغة القيرغيزية

Kyrgyz
кыргызча
قىرعىچه
qırğızça
кыргыз тили
qırğız tili
النطق[qɯɾʁɯztʃɑ][lacks stress]
[qɯɾʁɯz tili][lacks stress]
موطنهاKyrgyzstan (official), Afghanistan, Xinjiang (China), Tajikistan, Russia, Pakistan
العرقKyrgyz people
الناطقون الأصليون
4٫3 million (2009 census)e18
Turkic
Kyrgyz alphabets (Cyrillic script, Perso-Arabic script, formerly Latin, Kyrgyz Braille)
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
 قيرغيزستان

 الصين

Flag of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.svg Collective Security Treaty Organization
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1ky
ISO 639-2kir
ISO 639-3kir
Glottologkirg1245[1]
Linguasphere44-AAB-cd
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

اللغة القيرغيزية (Kyrgyz ؛ /kɪərˈɡz/ (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) هي أحد لغات المجموعة التركية والمحكاة في وسط أسيا كاللغات الكازاخية والاوزبكية والتركمانية.

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Phonology

Kyrgyz vowel phonemes[2]
Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open (a) ɑ
  • /a/ appears only in borrowings from Persian or when followed by a front vowel later in the word (regressive assimilation), e.g. /ajdøʃ/ 'sloping' instead of */ɑjdøʃ/.[3] Note that in most dialects, its status as a vowel distinct from /ɑ/ is questionable.[4]
Kyrgyz consonant phonemes[5]
Labial Dental/
alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Dorsal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless (t͡s) t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʃ (x)
voiced (v) z
Approximant l j
Trill r
  • /f, v, t͡s, x/ occur only in foreign borrowings.[5]


نظام الكتابة

The Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan use a Cyrillic alphabet, which uses all the Russian letters plus ң, ө, and ү.

In Xinjiang of China, an Arabic alphabet is used.

Although the Latin script is not in official use, some Kyrgyz texts are written in the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet which was designed by Pamukkale University, and uses Turkish spelling norms e.g. for diphthongization (ey, ay etc.) and with the addition of J corresponding to Russian Ж (/zh/). Native Kyrgyz sound values are almost identical to Turkish, the exceptions being the velar nasal /ŋ/ and the voiceless uvular stop /q/ which do not exist in Turkish. In these cases they are written as "ñ" and "q" respectively.

Кыргыз ариптеринин салыштырмалуу жадыбалы

Кириллица ариптери Аты Араб ариптери[6] Латын ариптери Латын ариптери
(1928—1940)
IPA
А а а ا A a A a /ɑ/
Б б бы ب B b B в /b/, [w], [v]
В в вы ۋ V v V v /v/
Г г (Ғ ғ) гы گ
ع*
G g G g, Ƣ ƣ /ɡ/ [ʁ]
Д д ды د D d D d /d/
Е е e ه E e E e /je/, /e/
Ё ё ё يو Yo yo Yo yo /jo/
Ж ж жы ج J j Ç ç (Ƶ ƶ 1938-1940) /dʒ/
З з зы ز Z z Z z /z/
И и и ى İ i I i /i/
Й й йы ي Y y J j /j/
К к (Қ қ) кы ك
ق*
K k K k, Q q /k/, [q], [χ]
Л л лы ل L l L l /l/
М м мы م M m M m /m/
Н н ны ن N n N n /n/
Ң ң ың ڭ Ñ ñ Ŋ ŋ /ŋ/
О о о و O o O o /o/
Ө ө ө ۅ Ö ö Ɵ ɵ /ø/
П п пы پ P p P p /p/
Р р ры ر R r R r /r/
С с сы س S s S s /s/
Т т ты ت T t T t /t/
У у у ۇ U u U u /u/
Ү ү ү ۉ Ü ü Y y /y/
Ф ф фы ف F f F f /f/
Х х хы ح H h X x (H h 1928-1938) [χ] /k/
Ц ц ыцы تس C c Ts ts /ts/
Ч ч чы چ Ç ç C c /tʃ
Ш ш шы ش Ş ş Ş ş /ʃ/
Щ щ ща - Şç şç Şc şc /ʃtʃ/, /ʃː/
Ъ ъ ажыратуу белгиси - - - -
Ы ы ы ى İ i Ь ь /ɯ/
Ь ь ичкертүү белгиси - - - -
Э э э ه É é E e /e/
Ю ю ю يۋ Yu yu Yu yu /ju/, /jy/
Я я я يا Ya ya Ya ya /ja/, /jɑ/
  • К ك + а, о, у, ы => ق
  • Г گ + а, о, у, ы => ع


Romanization system by Kazakhstan's KazInform was also considered.

Cyrillic Arabic Latin (based from KazInform Romanization) Latin (Turkish-based, by PAU) English
Бардык адамдар өз беделинде жана укуктарында эркин жана тең укуктуу болуп жаралат. Алардын аң-сезими менен абийири бар жана бири-бирине бир туугандык мамиле кылууга тийиш. باردىق ادامدار ۅز بەدەلىندە جانا ۇقۇقتارىندا ەركىن جانا تەڭ ۇقۇقتۇۇ بولۇپ جارالات.۔ الاردىن اڭ-سەزىمى مەنەن ابئيىرى بار جانا بئرى-بئرىنە بئر تۇۇعاندىق مامئلە قىلۇۇعا تئيىش. Bardıq adamdar öz bedelïnde jana wqwqtarında erkïn jana teñ wqwqtww bolwp jaralat. Alardın añ-sezïmï menen abïyrï bar jana bïrï-bïrïne bïr twğandıq mamïle qılwwğa tïyïş. Bardıq adamdar öz bedelinde jana uquqtarında erkin jana teñ uquqtuu bolup jaralat. Alardın añ-sezimi menen abiyiri bar jana biri-birine bir tuuğandıq mamile qıluuğa tiyiş. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Morphology and syntax

Case

Nouns in Kyrgyz take a number of case endings that change based on vowel harmony and the sort of consonant they follow (see the section on phonology).

Case Underlying form Possible forms "boat" "air" "bucket" "hand" "head" "salt" "eye"
Nominative кеме аба челек кол баш туз көз
Genitive -NIn -нын, -нин, -дын, -дин, -тын, -тин, -нун, -нүн, -дун, -дүн, -тун, -түн кеменин абанын челектин колдун баштын туздун көздүн
Dative -GA -га, -ка, -ге, -ке, -го, -ко, -гө, -кө кемеге абага челекке колго башка тузга көзгө
Accusative -NI -ны, -ни, -ды, -ди, -ты, -ти, -ну, -нү, -ду, -дү, -ту, -тү кемени абаны челекти колду башты тузду көздү
Locative -DA -да, -де, -та, -те, -до, -дө, -то, -тө кемеде абада челекте колдо башта тузда көздө
Ablative -DAn -дан, -ден, -тан, -тен, -дон, -дөн, -тон, -төн кемеден абадан челектен колдон баштан туздан көздөн

Normally the decision between the velar ([ɡ ~ ɣ], [k]) and uvular ([ɢ ~ ʁ] and [χ ~ q]) pronunciation of г and к is based on the backness of the following vowel—i.e. back vowels imply a uvular rendering and front vowels imply a velar rendering—and the vowel in suffixes is decided based on the preceding vowel in the word. However, with the dative suffix in Kyrgyz, the vowel is decided normally, but the decision between velars and uvulars can be decided based on a contacting consonant, for example банк /bank/ 'bank' + GA yields банкка /bankka/, not /bankqa/ as predicted by the following vowel.


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Pronouns

Kyrgyz has eight personal pronouns:

Personal pronouns
Singular Plural
Kyrgyz (transliteration) English Kyrgyz (transliteration) English
Мен (Men) I Биз (Biz) We
Сен (Sen) You (singular informal) Силер (Siler) You (plural informal)
Сиз (Siz) You (singular formal) Сиздер (Sizder) You (plural formal)
Ал (Al) He/She/It Алар (Alar) They

The declension of the pronouns is outlined in the following chart. Singular pronouns (with the exception of сиз, which used to be plural) exhibit irregularities, while plural pronouns don't. Irregular forms are highlighted in bold.

Declension of pronouns
Singular Plural
1st 2nd inf 2nd frm 3rd 1st 2nd inf 2nd frm 3rd
Nom мен сен сиз ал биз силер сиздер алар
Acc мени сени сизди аны бизди силерди сиздерди аларды
Gen менин сенин сиздин анын биздин силердин сиздердин алардын
Dat мага сага сизге ага бизге силерге сиздерге аларга
Loc менде сенде сизде анда бизде силерде сиздерде аларда
Abl менден сенден сизден андан бизден силерден сиздерден алардан

In addition to the pronouns, there are several more sets of morphemes dealing with person.

Morphemes indicating person
pronouns copulas present tense possessive endings past/conditional imperative
1st sg мен -mIn -mIn -(I)m -(I)m -AyIN
2nd sg сен -sIŋ -sIŋ -(I)ŋ -(I)ŋ —, -GIn
2nd formal sg сиз -sIz -sIz -(I)ŋIz -(I)ŋIz -GIlA
3rd sg ал -t -(s)I(n) -sIn
1st pl биз -BIz -BIz -(I)bIz -(I)K -AyIK
2nd pl силер -sIŋAr -sIŋAr -(I)ŋAr -(I)ŋAr
2nd formal pl сиздер -sIzdAr -sIzdAr -(I)ŋIzdAr -(I)nIzdAr
3rd pl алар -(I)şAt -(s)I(n) -sIn, -IşsIn

Demonstrative pronouns

Subordinate clauses

To form complement clauses, Kyrgyz nominalises verb phrases. For example, "I don't know what I saw" would be rendered as "Мен эмнени көргөнүмдү билбейм" (Men emneni körgönümdü bilbeym): I what-ACC.DEF see-ing-1st.SG-ACC.DEF know-NEG-1st.SG, or roughly "I don't know my having seen what," where the verb phrase "I saw what" is treated as a nominal object of the verb "to know." The sentence above is also an excellent example of Kyrgyz vowel harmony; notice that all the vowel sounds are front vowels.

Several nominalisation strategies are used depending on the temporal properties of the relativised verb phrase: -GAn(dIK) for general past tense, -AAr for future/potential unrealised events, and -A turgan(dɯq) for non-perfective events are the most common. The copula has an irregular relativised form экен(дик) which may be used equivalently to forms of the verb бол- be (болгон(дук), болоор). Relativised verb forms may, and often do, take nominal possessive endings as well as case endings.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kirghiz". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Kara (2003:10)
  3. ^ Washington (2007:11)
  4. ^ Washington (2006b:2)
  5. ^ أ ب Kara (2003:11)
  6. ^ Kyrgyz alphabet, language and pronunciation

Bibliography

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Languages of Kyrgyzstan قالب:Languages of Afghanistan قالب:Languages of China