الثورة الهايتية

الثورة الهايتية
جزء من الثورات الأطلسية، الحروب الثورية الفرنسية والحروب الناپليونية.
San Domingo.jpg
Battle at San Domingo, a painting by January Suchodolski, depicting a struggle between Polish troops in French service and the slave rebels and freed revolutionary soldiers
التاريخ 21 August 1791 – 1 January 1804
(12 سنة , 4 شهر , 1 أسبوع و 4 يوم )
الموقع Saint-Domingue
النتيجة

انتصار هايتي

Territorial
changes
Independent Empire of Haiti established
المتحاربون
1791–1793
Flag of Haiti (1791–1789).svg Ex-slaves
Flag of Royalist France.svg French royalists
إسپانيا Spain (from 1793)


1793–1798
Flag of Royalist France.svg French royalists
Flag of مملكة بريطانيا العظمى مملكة بريطانيا العظمى
إسپانيا Spain (until 1796)

1798–1801
فرنسا Louverture Loyalists


1802–1804
Flag of Haiti (1803–1804).svg Ex-slaves
United Kingdom

1791–1793
Flag of Royalist France.svg Slave owners
فرنسا Kingdom of France (until 1792)
فرنسا French Republic

1793–1798
فرنسا French Republic


1798–1801
فرنسا Rigaud Loyalists
إسپانيا Spain

1802–1804
فرنسا French Republic
إسپانيا Spain
القادة والزعماء
1791–1793
Flag of Haiti (1791–1789).svg Dutty Boukman 
Flag of Haiti (1791–1789).svg Georges Biassou
Flag of Haiti (1791–1789).svg Vincent Ogé أُعدِم
Flag of Haiti (1791–1789).svg André Rigaud

1793–1798
Flag of Royalist France.svg Paul-Louis Dubuc
مملكة بريطانيا العظمى Thomas Maitland
إسپانيا Joaquín Moreno

1798–1801
فرنسا Toussaint Louverture

1802–1804
Flag of Haiti (1803–1804).svg Toussaint Louverture استسلم
Flag of Haiti (1803–1804).svg Jean-Jacques Dessalines
Flag of Haiti (1803–1804).svg Henri Christophe
Flag of Haiti (1803–1804).svg Alexandre Pétion
Flag of Haiti (1803–1804).svg François Capois
المملكة المتحدة John Duckworth
المملكة المتحدة John Loring
1791–1793
Flag of Royalist France.svg Viscount de Blanchelande
فرنسا Léger-Félicité Sonthonax

1793–1798
فرنسا Toussaint Louverture
فرنسا André Rigaud
فرنسا Alexandre Pétion

1798–1801
فرنسا André Rigaud

1802–1804
فرنسا Napoleon Bonaparte
فرنسا Charles Leclerc 
فرنسا Vicomte de Rochambeau استسلم
فرنسا Villaret de Joyeuse
إسپانيا Federico Gravina
القوة
Regular army: 55,000,
Volunteers: 100,000+
31,000[1]
Regular army: 60,000,
86 warships and frigates
الإصابات والخسائر
Haitians: 200,000 dead[2]
British: 45,000 dead[2]
France: 75,000 dead[2]
White colonists: 25,000[2]

قالب:Campaignbox Haitian Revolution

قالب:History of Haiti

الثورة الهايتية (بالفرنسية: Révolution haïtienne [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ ajisjɛ̃n])، كانت successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection that took place in the former French colony of Saint-Domingue that lasted from 1791 until 1804. It affected the institution of slavery throughout the Americas. Self-liberated slaves destroyed slavery at home, fought to preserve their freedom, and with the collaboration of mulattoes, founded the sovereign state of Haiti.[3][4][5] It led to the greatest slave uprising since Spartacus's unsuccessful revolt against the Roman Republic nearly 1,900 years prior.[6]

The Haitian Revolution was the only slave uprising that led to the founding of a state free from slavery and ruled by non-whites and former captives.[7] With the increasing number of Haitian Revolutionary Studies in the last few decades, it has become clear that the event was a defining moment in the racial histories of the Atlantic World.[8] The legacy of the Revolution was that it challenged long-held beliefs about black inferiority and of the enslaved person's capacity to achieve and maintain freedom. The rebels' organizational capacity and tenacity under pressure became the source of stories that shocked and frightened slave owners.[9]


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Literature about the Haitian Revolution


See also

References

*Please note that the URL in a footnote whose link is followed by an asterisk may occasionally require special attention.[10]
  1. ^ Madiou, Thomas (1848). Histoire d'Haiti Volume 3 of Histoire d'Haïti [1492]-. J. Courtois,. p. 313.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث Scheina. Latin America's Wars. Potomac Books. p. 1772.
  3. ^ Taber, Robert D. “.” 13, no. 5 (2015): 235–50. doi:10.1111/hic3.12233. (2015). "Navigating Haiti's History: Saint-Domingue and the Haitian Revolution". History Compass. 13 (5): 235–50. doi:10.1111/hic3.12233.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Bongie, Chris (2008). Friends and Enemies: The Scribal Politics of Post/colonial Literature. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press. p. 45. ISBN  184631142X .
  5. ^ Curtis Comstock, Sandra (2012). Incorporating Comparisons in the Rift: Making Use of Cross-Place Events and Histories in Moments of World Historical Change, a chapter in Anna Amelina, Beyond methodological nationalism: research methodologies for cross-border studies. Taylor and Francis,. pp. 183–185. ISBN  0-415-89962-1 .
  6. ^ Vulliamy, Ed, ed. (28 August 2010). "The 10 best revolutionaries". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  7. ^ Franklin W. Knight (February 2000). "The Haitian Revolution". The American Historical Review. 105 (1): 103–115. doi:10.2307/2652438.
  8. ^ Joseph, Celucien L. (2012). "'The Haitian Turn': An Appraisal of Recent Literary and Historiographical Works on the Haitian Revolution". Journal of Pan African Studies. 5 (6): 37–55.
  9. ^ Philip James Kaisary (2008). "The Literary Impact of the Haitian Revolution," Ph.D. dissertation. University of Warwick. pp. 8–10.
  10. ^ Web pages for FRD Country Studies are subject to changes of URL. If a page linked from a footnote that cites the Haiti study bears a title different from that cited next to the link, consult A Country Study: Haiti for the revised URL.

Further reading

  • Baur, John. "International Repercussions of the Haitian Revolution." The Americas 26, no. 4 (1970).
  • Blackburn, Robin. "Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution", William and Mary Quarterly 63.4, 633–674 (2006)
  • Bryan, Patrick E. (1984). The Haitian Revolution and Its Effects. Heinemann. ISBN  978-0-435-98301-7 . Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  • Censer,Jack Richard,; Lynn Avery Hunt (2001). Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Exploring the French Revolution. Penn State University Press. ISBN  978-0-271-02088-4 .CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Dubois, Laurent (2005). Avengers of the New World. Harvard University Press. ISBN  978-0-674-01826-6 .
  • Laurent Dubois; John D. Garrigus (2006). Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789–1804 A Brief History with Documents. Bedford/st Martins. ISBN  978-0-312-41501-3 .
  • Fick, Carolyne "The Haitian revolution and the limit of freedom: defining citizenship in the revolutionary era". Social History, Vol 32. No 4, November 2007
  • Garrigus, John D. (2006). Before Haiti Race and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue. Macmillan. ISBN  978-1-4039-7140-1 .
  • Geggus, David Patrick. The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press 2001. ISBN 978-1-57003-416-9
  • Girard, Philippe. “Black Talleyrand: Toussaint Louverture’s Secret Diplomacy with England and the United States,” William and Mary Quarterly 66:1 (Jan. 2009), 87–124.
  • Girard, Philippe. “Napoléon Bonaparte and the Emancipation Issue in Saint-Domingue, 1799–1803,” French Historical Studies 32:4 (Fall 2009), 587–618.
  • Girard, Philippe R. The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801–1804. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press 2011. ISBN 0-8173-1732-5
  • Girard, Philippe. “Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the Atlantic System: A Reappraisal,” William and Mary Quarterly (July 2012).
  • Cyril Lionel Robert James (1989). The Black Jacobins Toussaint Louverture and the San Domingo Revolution (2nd ed.). Vintage. ISBN  978-0-679-72467-4 .
  • Joseph, Celucien L. Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution: Essays on Faith, Freedom, and Decolonization (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012)
  • Joseph, Celucien L. From Toussaint to Price-Mars: Rhetoric, Race, and Religion in Haitian Thought (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013)
  • Ott, Thomas O. The Haitian Revolution, 1789–1804. University of Tennessee Press, 1973.
  • Joseph Elisée Peyre-Ferry (2006). Journal des opérations militaires de l'armée française à Saint-Domingue 1802–1803 sous les ordres des capitaines-généraux Leclerc et Rochambeau. Les Editions de Paris-Max Chaleil. ISBN  978-2-84621-052-2 .
  • Popkin, Jeremy D., You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010)
  • Jeffers, Jen (2016) "Freedom At All Cost: Remembering History's Greatest Slave Rebellion". The Raven Report.


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وصلات خارجية

قالب:Haiti topics