الأسرة المصرية الثالثة

لعصر النهضة السومري، انظر الأسرة الثالثة من أور

معبد جنائزي للملك زوسر في سقارة
الأسر الفرعونية
بمصر القديمة
مصر قبل الأسرات
عصر نشأة الأسرات
عصر الأسر المبكرة
1 - 2
الدولة القديمة
3 - 4 - 5 - 6
الفترة الانتقالية الأولى
7 - 8 - 9 - 10 -
11 (طيبة فقط)
الدولة الوسطى
11 (كل مصر)
12 - 13 - 14
الفترة الانتقالية الثانية
15 - 16 - 17
الدولة الحديثة
18 - 19 - 20
الفترة الانتقالية الثالثة
21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25
العصر المتأخر
26 - 27 - 28
29 - 30 - 31
العصر الإغريقي والروماني
بطالمة - الإمبراطورية الرومانية

الأسرة الثالثة بالإنجليزية Third dynasty of Egypt ، هي أول الأسر الفرعونية الحاكمة في عصر الدولة القديمة ويليها الأسر الرابعة والخامسة والسادسة. وكانت عاصمة مصر في ذلك الوقت هي منف.

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أهم الأحداث

تبدأ الدولة القديمة مع بداية الأسرة الثالثة، ولكن من حيث تسلسل الأحداث البحتة تجد أن الانتقال من الأسرة الثانية إلى الأسرة الثالثة تم دون حدوث أي انفصال أو انقطاع. فنجد أن أول ملوكها يقيم تمثالا لسلفه، زيادة على أننا نجد أن الملكة "ني ماعت حابي Nymaathapy" التي كان يطلق عليها لقب "أم الأولاد الملكيين"، خلال حكم "خعسخمري (الأسرة الثانية)، صارت توصف "بأم الملك" أثناء حكم الملك زوسر. مما يوحي بوجود روابط عائلية تجمع بين الأسرتين.[1]

خلف خع سخم وى على العرش في منف الملك نترخت زوسر مؤسس الأسرة الثالثة ، وهو أول ملك بنتى لنفسه مقربتين ؛ الأولى في بيت خلاف بصفته ملكا للوجه القبلي ومقبرة أخرى في سقارة. وهذه المقبرة أقدم هرم ويعرف بالهرم المدرج وكان مهندسه المعماري إمحوتب. ويعد زوسر أول ملك تغل في النوبة السفلى فيما وراء الشلال. وقد عثر في دهاليز هرمه على أواني من الأحجار الصلبة من المرمر والجرانيت والديوريت و الإردواز وغيرها من أنواع الأحجار الصلبة. وآخر ملوك هذه الأسرة هو حوني وتعني الضارب الذي أقام لنفسه هرما في دهشور وهو الحلقة الموصلة بين الهرم المدرج الهرم الكامل.

فقد باشر فراعنة الأسرة الثالثة الحكم من مدينة منف، ووضعوا أسس ودعائم الحضارة المصرية التقليدية، وصار استخدام الأحجار في بناء المنشآت أمرا مستطاعا بل صار من المتيسر كذلك استغلال موارد المناجم الواقعة بشبه جزيرة سيناء "كالنحاس والفيروز" استغلالا منتظما. أما عن وسيلة جباية الضرائب، بالتجول من مكان لآخر، وفقا لبعض التقاليد التي ترجع إلى عصر ما قبل الأسرات، فقد حل محلها مركز للإحصاءات والبيانات نصف السنوية يقوم بالسيطرة عليه جهاز رسمي منظم. (وفي خلال الأسرة الثالثة ظهر أول وزير معروف وهو "منكا Menka" . ولقد نبغ كبار المستخدمين بالدولة في تلك الفترة في إدارة الهيئة العمالية وإعداد المنتجات المصنعة. كما أن النقوش البارزة الخاصة "بآخت Akhetaa" أو اللوحات الخشبية المنحوتة الخاصة بالمدعو "حسى رع" Hesyre تبرز الأسس الاجتماعية المتعلقة بالنخبة المتميزة الحاكمة.


عرض عام

After the turbulent last years of the Second Dynasty, which might have included civil war, Egypt came under the rule of Djoser, marking the beginning of the Third Dynasty.[2] Both the Turin King List and the Abydos King List record five kings,[3] while the Saqqara Tablet only records four, and Manetho records nine,[4] many of whom did not exist or are simply the same king under multiple names.

  • The Turin King List gives Nebka, Djoser, Djoserti, Hudjefa I, and Huni.
  • The Abydos King List gives Nebka, Djoser, Teti, Sedjes, and Neferkare.
  • The Saqqara Tablet gives Djoser, Djoserteti, Nebkare, and Huni.
  • Manetho gives Necheróphes (Nebka), Tosorthrós (Djoser), Týreis (Djoserti/Sekhemkhet), Mesôchris (Sanakht, probably the same person as Nebka), Sôÿphis (also Djoser), Tósertasis (also Djoserti/Sekhemkhet), Achês (Nebtawy Nebkare; unlikely Khaba, perhaps nonexistent), Sêphuris (Qahedjet), and Kerpherês (Huni).

The archaeological evidence shows that Khasekhemwy, the last ruler of the Second Dynasty, was succeeded by Djoser, who at the time was only attested by his presumed Horus name Netjerikhet. Djoser's successor was Sekhemkhet, who had the Nebty name Djeserty. The last king of the dynasty is Huni, who may be the same person as Qahedjet or, less likely, Khaba. There are three remaining Horus names of known 3rd dynasty kings: Sanakht, Khaba, and perhaps Qahedjet. One of these three, by far most likely Sanakht, went by the nebty name Nebka.[3]

Dating the Third Dynasty is similarly challenging. Shaw gives the dates as being approximately from 2686 to 2613 BCE.[5] The Turin King List suggests a total of 75 years for the third dynasty. Baines and Malek have placed the third dynasty as spanning the years 2650–2575 BCE,[3] while Dodson and Hilton date the dynasty to 2584–2520 BCE. It is not uncommon for these estimates to differ by more than a century.[2]

Some scholars have proposed a southern origin for the Third Dynasty. Egyptologist, Flinders Petrie believed the dynasty originated from Sudan based on the iconographic evidence whereas S.O.Y. Keita, a biological anthropologist, differed in his view and argued an origin in southern Egypt was “equally likely”.[6] He cited a previous X-ray and anthropological study which suggested that the Third Dynasty nobles had “Nubian affinities”. The author also interpreted the portrait of Djoser as having little resemblance to “portraits of late dynastic Greek/Roman conquerors” and cited an iconographic review conducted by anthropologist, John Drake as supporting evidence.[7] In a separate article, Keita noted that the archaeological remains of the southern elites and their descendants which he discussed in reference to the Second Dynastic rulers and Djoser were eventually buried in the north and not at Abydos, Egypt.[8]

ملوك الأسرة الثالثة

The pharaohs of the Third Dynasty ruled for approximately seventy-five years. Due to recent archaeological findings in Abydos revealing that Djoser was the one who buried Khasekhemwy, the last king of the Second Dynasty, it is now widely believed that Djoser is the founder of the Third Dynasty, as the direct successor of Khasekhemwy and the one responsible for finishing his tomb.[9] These findings contradict earlier writings, like Wilkinson 1999, which proposed that Nebka/Sanakht was the founder of the dynasty. However, the two were not very far apart temporally; they may have been brothers, along with Sekhemkhet,[10][11] as the sons of Khasekhemwy and his favoured consort Nimaathap.

فراعنة الأسرة الثامنة
اسم حورس الاسم الشخصي سنوات الحكم المدفن العقيلة
Netjerikhet زوسر Djoser statue.jpg 19 or 28 سقارة Hetephernebti
سخم خت Djoserty Sekhemkhet.png 6–7 سقارة: الهرم المدفون Djeseretnebti
سع نخت نب كا ReliefFragmentOfPharaohSanakht-BritishMuseum-August21-08.jpg 6–28 سنة، بناءً على التعرف؛ غالباً 6 أو 18 أو 19 سنة ربما المصطبة K2 في بيت خلاف
خابا تتي KhabaCloseUp.jpg 6 ؟ 24, لو مطابق لـ هوني زاوية العريان: Layer Pyramid
غير أكيد، Qahedjet ? هوني Qahedjet detail of the stela.jpg 24 ميدوم ؟ Djefatnebti
مرس عنخ الأولى

While Manetho names Necherophes, and the Turin King List names Nebka (a.k.a. سع نخت)، as the first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty,[3] many contemporary Egyptologists believe Djoser was the first king of this dynasty, pointing out the order in which some predecessors of Khufu are mentioned in the Papyrus Westcar suggests that Nebka should be placed between Djoser and Huni, and not before Djoser. More importantly, seals naming Djoser were found at the entrance to Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos, which demonstrates that it was Djoser, rather than Sanakht, who buried and succeeded this king.[3] The Turin King List scribe wrote Djoser's name in red ink, which indicates the Ancient Egyptians' recognition of this king's historical importance in their culture. In any case, Djoser is the best known king of this dynasty, for commissioning his vizier Imhotep to build the earliest surviving pyramids, the Step Pyramid.

Nebka's identification with Sanakht is uncertain; though many Egyptologists continue to support the theory that the two kings were one and the same man, opposition exists because this opinion rests on a single fragmentary clay seal discovered in 1903 by John Garstang. Though damaged, the seal displays the serekh of Sanakht, together with a cartouche containing a form of the sign for "ka," with just enough room for the sign for "Neb." Nebka's reign length is given as eighteen years by both Manetho and the Turin Canon, though it is important to note that these sources write over 2,300 and 1,400 years after his lifetime, so their accuracy is uncertain. In contrast to Djoser, both Sanakht and Nebka are attested in considerably few relics for a ruler of nearly two decades; the Turin Canon gives a reign of only six years to an unnamed immediate predecessor of Huni. Toby Wilkinson suggests that this number fits Sanakht (whom he identifies concretely with Nebka), given the sparsity of archaeological evidence for him, but it could also be the reign length of Khaba or even Qahedjet, kings whose identities are uncertain. (Wilkinson places Nebka as the penultimate king of the Third Dynasty, before Huni, but this is by no means definitively known or even overwhelmingly supported among Egyptologists.)

Some authorities believe that Imhotep lived into the reign of the Pharaoh Huni. Little is known for certain of Sekhemkhet, but his reign is considered to have been only six or seven years, according to the Turin Canon and Palermo Stone, respectively. Attempts to equate Sekhemkhet with Tosertasis, a king assigned nineteen years by Manetho, find almost no support given the unfinished state of his tomb, the Buried Pyramid. It is believed that Khaba possibly built the Layer Pyramid at Zawyet el'Aryan; the pyramid is far smaller than it was intended to be, but it is not known whether this is due to natural erosion or because it, like Sekhemkhet's own tomb, was never completed to begin with. In any case, the duration of Khaba's reign is uncertain; a few Egyptologists believe Khaba was identical to Huni, but if Khaba is the same person as the Ramesside names Hudjeta II and Sednes, he could have reigned for six years.

انظر أيضا

المصادر

  1. ^ پاسكال ڤيرنوس (1999). موسوعة الفراعنة. دار الفكر. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  2. ^ أ ب Dodson, Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Toby A.H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 2001
  4. ^ Aidan Dodson: The Layer Pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan: Its Layout and Context. In: Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), No. 37 (2000). American Research Center (Hg.), Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake/Bristol 2000, ISSN 0065-9991, pp. 81–90.
  5. ^ Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  6. ^ Keita, S. O. Y. (March 1992). "Further studies of crania from ancient Northern Africa: An analysis of crania from First Dynasty Egyptian tombs, using multiple discriminant functions". American Journal of Physical Anthropology (in الإنجليزية). 87 (3): 245–254. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330870302. ISSN 0002-9483.
  7. ^ Keita, S. O. Y. (1993). "Studies and Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships". History in Africa. 20: 129–154. doi:10.2307/3171969. ISSN 0361-5413.
  8. ^ Keita, S. O. Y. (March 1992). "Further studies of crania from ancient Northern Africa: An analysis of crania from First Dynasty Egyptian tombs, using multiple discriminant functions". American Journal of Physical Anthropology (in الإنجليزية). 87 (3): 245–254. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330870302. ISSN 0002-9483.
  9. ^ Bard, Kathryn (2015). An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 140–145. ISBN 978-1-118-89611-2.
  10. ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, London 2001, ISBN 0415260116, pp. 80–82, 94–97.
  11. ^ Silke Roth: Die Königsmütter des Alten Ägypten von der Frühzeit bis zum Ende der 12. Dynastie (= Ägypten und Altes Testament, vol. 46). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-447-04368-7, pp. 59–61, 65–67.

سليم حسن (1992). موسوعة مصر القديمة. الهيئة العامة للكتاب.

سبقه
الأسرة الثانية
أسرة مصرية حاكمة
ح. 26862613 ق.م.
تبعه
الأسرة الرابعة