احتجاجات هونگ كونگ المناهضة لمشروع قانون تسليم المطلوبين 2019

احتجاجات هونگ كونگ المناهضة لمشروع قانون تسليم المجرمين 2019
June9protestTreefong01.jpgJune16protestTreefong15.jpg
مئات الآلاف من المحتجين في مسيرة مرتديين ملابس بيضاء في 9 يونيو (أعلى) وسوداء في 16 يونيو (أسفل).
التاريخ 31 مارس 2019 – مستمرة
المكان

المظاهرات الرئيسية في هونگ كونگ:

الاحتجاجات المتضامنة:

  • عشرات المدن الأخرى في الخارج
السبب
  • مشروع قانون لتسليم المجرمين اقترحته حكومة هونگ كونگ
  • استخدام الشرطة القوة المفرطة، اعتقال المتظاهرين، ووصف الاحتجاجات بأنها "أعمال الشغب" (منذ 12 يونيو)[1]
  • الأهداف
  • سحب مشروع القانون بشكل كامل
  • استقالة كاري لام الرئيسة التنفيذية للبلاد
  • إطلاق سراح المحتجين وإسقاط التهم عنهم؛ محاسبة الشرطة عن أعمالها الوحشية؛ التوقف عن وصف الاحتجاجات بأعمال الشغب
  • الطرق الاعتصامات، المظاهرات، العصيان المدني، الناشطية على الإنترنت، الإضرابات العامة
    الوضع مستمرة
    التنازلات
    • تم تعليق مشروع القانون في 15 يونيو؛ قدمت لام اعتذاراً للعامة في 16 يونيو
    • الشرطة تتراجع جزئياً عن وصف الاحتجاج بأنها "أعمال شغب"[2]
    أطراف الصراع الأهلي
    المحتجون

    (لا توجد قيادة مركزية)

    Casualties
    القتلى 4 (جميعها حالات انتحار)[4][5][6][7]
    الجرحى 72+ (حتى 12 يونيو 2019)[3]
    المعتقَلون 50+ (حتى 3 يوليو 2019)[8][9][10]

    احتجاجات هونگ كونگ المنهاضة لمشروع قانون تسليم المجرمين 2019، هي سلسلة من المظاهرات في هونگ كونگ ومدن آخرى حول العالم، للمطالبة بسحب مشروع قانون تسليم المجرمبين المقترح من قبل حكومة هونگ كونگ. يخشى أن يتسبب مشروع هذا القانون في فتح المدينة للقانون الصيني وأن يصبح الأشخاص من هونگ كونگ خاضعين لنظام قانوني مختف.

    خرجت عدة احتجاجات في هونگ كونگ والتي أطلقها العامة والتجمعات القانونية. من بينها، احتجاج 9 يونيو الذي نظمته جبهة حقوق الإنسان المدنية، والذي شارك فيه ما يقدر بحوالي 1.03 مليون شخص، وحصل على تغطية إعلامية كبيرة.[11] كما خرجت احتجاجات في أماكن أخرى أطلقها أيضاً سكان هونگ كونگ وراء البحار والمحليين.

    على الرغم من انتشار الاحتجاجات، إلا أن الحكومة أصرت على تمرير مشروع القانون، مشيرة أن مشروع القانون عاجلاً وأنه يجب إصلاح "الثغرة" القانونية.[12] كان من المقرر عقد الجلسة الثانية لمراجعة مشروع القانون في 12 يونيو، لكنها لم تُعقد بسبب الاحتجاجات،[13] والاجتماع الذي كان من المزمع عقده في اليوم التالي، 13 يونيو، تأجل أيضاً.[14]

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    خلفية

    مشروع قانون المجرمين الهاربين والمساعدة القانونية المتبادلة في التشريعات الجنائية (تعديل) 2019 (صينية تقليدية: 2019年逃犯及刑事事宜相互法律協助法例(修訂)條例草案) هو مشروع قانون مقترح يتعلق بتسليم المجرمين لتعديل قانون الجناة الهاربين (Cap. 503) فيما يتعلق بترتيبات الاستسلام الخاصة ومرسوم المساعدة القانونية المتبادلة في المسائل الجنائية (Cap. 525) بحيث يمكن إجراء ترتيبات المساعدة القانونية المتبادلة بين هونگ كونگ وأي مكان خارج هونگ كونگ.[15] اقترحت حكومة هونگ كونگ مشروع القانون في فبراير 2019 لطلب تسليم مشتبه به من هونگ كونگ في قضية قتل وقعت في تايوان. اقترحت الحكومة إنشاء آلية لنقل الهاربين ليس فقط ‘لى تايوان، ولكن أيضاً إلى بر الصين الرئيسي وماكاو، والتي لا تشملها القوانين الحالية.[16]


    الاحتجاج الأول: 31 مارس

    آلاف المحتجين في مسيرة في الشارع احتجاجاً على قانون تسليم المجرمين المقترح في 31 مارس 2019.

    الاحتجاج الأول، الذي أطلقته جبهة حقوق الإنسان المدنية في 31 مارس بدأ من طريق لوارد (ملعب ساوثورن) وانتهى عند ميدان سيڤيك. هتف المتظاهرون "بتسليم المطلوبين إلى البر الرئيسي، تصبح هونگ كونگ سجناً مظلماً" و"أوقفوا القانون الشرير".

    لام وينگ-كي، صاحب كوزواي باي بوكس الذي اختفى مع زملاء آخرين عام 2015، قاد التجمع جنباً إلى جنب مع أعضاء آخرين في المجموعة المؤيدة للديمقراطية. غادر لام هونگ كونگ إلى تايوان بسبب مخاوف على أمنه الشخصي.[17]

    تقول المنظمة أن هناك 12.000 شخص قد حضروا المسيرة، بينما قدرت شرطة هونگ كونگ أعدادهم بنحو 5.200 شخص فقط. أشار المنظمون إلى أن هناك المزيد من الاحتجاجات إذا كانت الحكومة لا تزال مصرة على مشروع القانون.[18]

    الاحتجاج الثاني: 28 أبريل

    عشرات الآلاف من المحتجين في مظاهرة ضد قانون تسليم المجرمين المقترح في 28 أبريل 2019.

    في 28 أبريل تجمع 130.000 محتج في مسيرة ضد قانون تسليم المجرمين المقترح تبعاً للمنظمين، بينما قدرت الشرطة انضمام 22.800 فقط. كان الإقبال كبيراً حيث قدر أن هناك 510.000 شخص قد انضموا إلى احتجاج 1 يوليو عام 2014. بدأ التجمع من كوزواي باي حتى المجلس التشريعي في أدميرالتي، في طريق طوله 2.2 كم. واستغرقت المسيرة 4 ساعات.[19] هدد نائب رئيس جبهة حقوق الإنسان المدنية فيگو تشان هون-هانگ بتصعيد معارضته إذا لم تسحب الحكومة مشروع القانون.[19]

    بعد يوم من الاحتجاجات، أصرت كاري لام، الرئيسية التنفيذية لهونگ كونگ، على أن يتم إقرار مشروع القانون وقالت إن على المستشارين التشريعيين إصدار قوانين جديدة لتسليم المجرمين قبل العطلة الصيفية، على الرغم من أن الرجل الذي كان في قلب القضية اعتاد تبرير الاحتياج الملح لسن تشريع جديد، تشان تونگ كاي، تم الحكم عليه بالسجن 29 شهر قبل فترة وجيزة.[20] حُكم على تشان بالسجن 29 شهر في 29 أبريل. ومع ذلك، نظراً لأنه محتجز بالفعل لمدة 13 شهر منذ اعتقاله في هونگ كونگ، سينتهي الحكم الصادر في أغسطس 2020. وقال وزير الأمن جون لي إنه يمكن إطلاق سراح تشان بحلول أكتوبر قبل انتهاء مدة الحكم، لأن السلوك الجيد في السجن يمكن أن يؤدي إلى تخفيض ثلث عقوبة السجين، وبعد ذلك سيكون حراً في مغادرة المدينة.[21]

    مسيرة المحامين الصامتة: 6 يونيو

    Thousands of lawyers marched in black against the extradition bill on 6 June 2019.

    In a rare protest, more than 3,000 Hong Kong lawyers, representing around one quarter of the city's lawyers, marched against the bill. Wearing black, they marched from the Court of Final Appeal to the Central Government Offices on 6 June. They then stood in front of the government headquarters looking at the building for three minutes silently.[22]

    The march was organised by Dennis Kwok, Legislative Councillor for the Legal constituency. It was the fifth, and largest, protest march held by lawyers in Hong Kong since 1997 after a series of intrusions by the Chinese Government.[23]

    While lawyers expressed grave reservations about the openness and fairness of the justice system in China, limited access to a lawyer, and the prevalence of torture, Secretary for Security John Lee said the legal sector did not really understand the bill. A senior barrister complained that government's inability or unwillingness to listen was polarising, adding that it was "so stupid, so arrogant".[23]


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    الاحتجاج الثالث: 9 يونيو

    الاحتجاج في هونگ كونگ

    المسيرة النهارية

    The organisers said there were record breaking 1.03 million protesters showing up in the streets on 9 June.

    In response to the proposed bill, the Civil Human Rights Front called a march from Victoria Park, Causeway Bay to the Legislative Council in Admiralty on 9 June—an approximately 3km (1.86mi) route.[24][25] Hundreds of thousands of protesters were drawn to the street, wearing white to symbolise "light and brightness" and justice, chanting "Scrap the evil law," "Oppose China extradition" and "Carrie Lam resign" and waving Taiwanese flags on the day.[26][27]

    Protesters brought Hong Kong Island to a halt from early afternoon until late at night. The MTR enacted crowd control measures in which the police ordered trains not to stop at Wan Chai, Causeway Bay and Tin Hau stations for several hours.[28] Protesters had to get off at Fortress Hill in order to join the protest from there.[29] Police urged protesters to march from Victoria Park before the 3 pm start-time to ease overcrowding. During the march, there were several times when protesters come to a standstill due to the limited road space. People demanded that the police opened up more roads. It was only after some protesters climbed over a metal barricade and walked on lanes originally reserved for traffic that police opened up all lanes on Hennessy Road, having previously refused to do so.[30]

    A huge number of protesters were still leaving Victoria Park up to four hours after the start time and were still arriving at the end-point at Admiralty seven hours after the protest began.[31]

    Jimmy Sham, convener of the CHRF said that 1.03 million people attended the march—the largest protest Hong Kong has seen since the 1997 handover—surpassing the turnout seen at mass rallies in support of the Tiananmen protests of 1989 and 1 July March 2003.[32] The police countered with an estimate of 270,000 at its peak.[33][34][35] In the Hong Kong Free Press, Evan Fower noted that the police had "become notorious for using highly selective methods to significantly underreport numbers, but that the demonstration was "beyond doubt ... the largest one-day protest in Hong Kong's history".[36]

    Other than the march, more than a dozen ships carrying banners with slogans supporting the bill cruised Victoria Harbour.[37] Around 20 supporters from the Safeguard Hong Kong Alliance—a pro-government group—showed up at Tamar to support the bill around 12 pm.[38]

    الاشتباكات الليلية

    The protest in Harcourt Road during night with police in standby.

    Hundreds of protesters camped out in front of the government headquarters well into the night, with more joining them in response to calls from Demosisto and pro-independence activists. The Civil Human Rights Front officially called an end to the march at 10 pm, however, around 100 protesters remained at the Civic Square.[39]

    Pro-independence groups, Student Localism and the Students Independent Union, called for protesters to stay after the day march and storm the legislative council. Some protesters called for street occupations as a further show of strength, while others insisted of a peaceful protest. Still, around 500 people occupied Harcourt Road and Lung Wo Road, while police urged protesters to leave.[37]

    A stand-off with police around midnight descended into chaos following a press release from the Hong Kong government stating the bill reading would continue as planned—unchanged from before the protests. Protesters in Civic Square, most of them wearing face masks, threw bottles and metal barriers at the police, while the police tried to drive them away with batons and pepper spray.[33] Anti-riot officers arrived, and warned protesters that they would "command appropriate force".[40]

    Protesters in Harcourt Road and Lung Wo Road moved simultaneously, and threw metal barricades placed by the police. They then protested and chanted in Gloucester Road.[37] SCMP commented the night protest as "the scene of bigger clashes during the 2014 Occupy movement for greater democracy".[39] The protest ended at around 3 am, with several police officers and protesters injured.[39] There were 19 arrests; 358 protesters (80% younger than 25) were stopped and searched near the Old Wan Chai Police Station, and had their ID recorded.[41]


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    مسيرات التضامن حول العالم

    At least 29 rallies were held in 12 countries with protesters taking to the streets in cities around the world with significant Hong Kong diaspora, including about 4,000 in London, about 3,000 in Sydney, and further rallies in New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Boston, Toronto, Vancouver, Berlin, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne, Brisbane and Taipei.[42][43] As one of the biggest overseas protests, hundreds of demonstrators mostly made up of Hong Kong immigrants filled the street outside the Chinese consulate-general in Vancouver with yellow umbrellas (referencing the 2014 Umbrella Movement) and chants against the extradition law. More than 60 people gathered outside the White House in Washington to protest against the bill.[44]

    الاحتجاج الرابع: 12 يونيو

    الاحتجاجات في هونگ كونگ

    Protesters on Harcourt Road on 12 June 2019, adjacent to the Central Government Complex

    Protests resumed on 12 June following an announcement from the government that the bill will continue its reading. Sit-ins in the government headquarters have taken place since the morning. It is alleged that the police intentionally prevented newcoming protestors from reaching the designated protest site. As the crowd built up at the MTR exit on the other side of the bridge of the government headquarters, skirmishes occurred and eventually the crowd broke into Harcourt Road, the main traffic route of Hong Kong Island. An hour-long occupation by tens of thousands followed, mimicking the Umbrella Movement in 2014[45]

    Tear gas fired by the police to the protesters in Tim Mei Avenue.

    In the afternoon, the police fired 150 tear gas, 20 beanbag shots, several rubber bullets and smoke bombs on protesters outside the Legislative Council's complex.[46] Protesters, while chanting "withdraw!" and moving barricades, wore face masks, goggles, umbrellas and makeshift body armour to protect themselves.[47]

    The government and police controversially declared that the protest had "turned into a riot".[48][49][50] Seventy-two people aged between 15 and 66 have been injured, with two men in a critical condition.[51] SCMP stated that the protests were "reminiscent of—and even more intense than—the Occupy protests of 2014".[52]

    Parties has blamed the police for their actions during the protests. The pro-democracy camp condemned the level of force used and stated that the force used is not proportional as protesters are " weapon-less young people".[53] The Hong Kong Journalists Association said that the police "trampled on reporters", and that the police has ignored the safety of the reporters. They complained that the police have unreasonably interfered their work with flashlights and by dispersing them. HKJA added that some police officers has insulted them with foul language, called them “trash", and shouted to them "reporters have no special privilege".[54]

    HK Police Firing Rubber Bullets at Local Protestors in Breaking Up Admiralty's Protest

    Overnight, 2,000 protesters from religious groups held a vigil outside the government offices, with some singing hymns and joining in prayers.[55] Various trade unions, businesses and schools also vowed to stage protests.[56] The Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union has called for a city-wide strike for a week. At least 4,000 Hong Kong teachers have followed the call.[57]

    احتجاجات 7 يوليو

    عشرات الآلاف من المحتجين في طريق ناتان في 7 يوليو.
    المحتجون في طريقهم لمحطة غرب كاولون، 7 يوليو 2019.


    في 7 يوليو 2019 خرج أكثر من 230.000 متظاهر عبر شوارع كاولون، في أول تجمع حاشد ضد مشروع قانون تسليم المجرمبين المقترح من قبل حكومة هونگ كونگ. سار المحتجون نحو متاجر يرتادها السياح الصينيين القادمين من البر الرئيسي، مما دفع أصحاب المتاجر إلى إغلاقها طوال اليوم. شهدت المظاهرات تواجد شرطي كبير، وقال المحتجون إن هدفهم هو شرح قضيتهم للسائحين وكسب دعمهم وتفهمهم.[58]

    الاحتجاجات في مدن أخرى

    In Taipei, representatives from 24 Taiwanese civic groups, including Taiwan Association for Human Rights, protested outside Hong Kong's representative office in Taipei, while shouting slogans such as "Taiwan supports Hong Kong." In Kaohsiung, around 150 Hong Kong students staged a sit-in protest requesting the Hong Kong government to withdraw the bill.[59] In Adelaide, 150 people protested against the extradition law.[60]

    الرقابة

    The protests were mostly censored from Mainland Chinese social media, such as Sina Weibo.[61] Keyword searches of "Hong Kong," "HK" and "extradition bill" led to other official news and entertainment news. Accounts that posted content regarding the protest were also blocked.[62]

    Bloomberg stated that protesters had been using Telegram to communicate in order to conceal their own identity and prevent tracking by the Chinese government.[63] The app's servers experienced a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) on 12 June. The app's founder Pavel Durov identified the origin of the attack as China, and stated that it "coincided in time with protests in Hong Kong".[64]

    ردود الفعل

    • Chief Executive Carrie Lam at the press conference with Secretary for Justice Teresa Cheng and Secretary for Security John Lee one day after the massive protest on 10 June.
       هونگ كونگ – Carrie Lam declined to answer questions at a public appearance in Ocean Park on 9 June afternoon. At 11 pm, the government issued a press statement, saying that it "acknowledge[s] and respect[s] that people have different views on a wide range of issues", but insisted the second reading debate on the bill would resume on 12 June.[65] Following 10 June violent clashes, Lam spoke in the next morning along with Secretary for Justice Teresa Cheng and Secretary for Security John Lee, stating that the size of the rally showed there were "clearly still concerns" over the bill but refused to withdraw it.[66] In a video published by the Hong Kong government news agency, the Information Services Department, Carrie Lam blamed the protesters for "organising a riot" that posed a threat to the security of the people.[67] In another interview with TVB, Lam said in tears that she had not "sold Hong Kong out", and that she loved and had made sacrifices for the city, but insisted that the bill would not be withdrawn.[68] Democratic Party LegCo member James To responded that many people in society, including himself, felt that Lam loved power and approval more than Hong Kong.[69]
    •  الصين – After the first protest, the Beijing government blamed "outside interference" and voiced its support to the Hong Kong administration. The Foreign Ministry accused opponents of the proposed legislation of "collusion with the West".[70] State-run media such as China Daily cited more than 700,000 people backing the legislation through an online petition, "countering a protest by about 240,000 people"[71][70] while the Global Times dismissed the mass demonstration on 9 June, stating that "some international forces have significantly strengthened their interaction with the Hong Kong opposition in recent months".[72]
    • Press conference by Taiwan Association for Human Rights to support Hong Kong protesters against the bill on 12 June 2019.
       تايوان – President of Taiwan Tsai Ing-wen expressed her solidarity with the people of Hong Kong, remarking that Taiwan's democracy was hard-earned and had to be guarded and renewed, and pledged that one country, two systems would never be an option as long as she was President.[73] She also posted on Instagram to provide support for "Hongkongers on the front line", saying that the Taiwanese people would support all those who fight for free speech and democracy.[74] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Taiwan stated that they stood shoulder to shoulder with the hundreds of thousands in Hong Kong fighting against the extradition bill and for rule of law, adding, "Taiwan is with you!".[75]
    •  الولايات المتحدة – A U.S. State Department official voiced support for the 9 June protesters, saying that "the peaceful demonstration of hundreds of thousands of Hongkongers yesterday clearly shows the public's opposition to the proposed amendments." They also called on the Hong Kong government to ensure that "any amendments to the Fugitive Offenders Ordinance should be pursued with great care."[76] United States House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi strongly condemned the bill and offered support to the protesters. "The hearts of all freedom-loving people were moved by the courage of the one million men and women of Hong Kong who took to the streets on Sunday to peacefully demand their rights, defend their sovereignty and denounce this horrific extradition bill" and that America stands with the people in Hong Kong.[77]
    •  المملكة المتحدةForeign Secretary Jeremy Hunt urged the Hong Kong government to listen to the concerns of the protesters, stating that "it is essential that the authorities engage in meaningful dialogue and take steps to preserve Hong Kong's rights and freedoms and high degree of autonomy, which underpin its international reputation". He added that upholding the one country, two systems principle, which is legally bound in the Sino-British Joint Declaration, is vital to Hong Kong's future success.[78] The British Consulate in Hong Kong has also opened its doors for protesters needing sanctuary.[79]
    •  الاتحاد الأوروپي – Parliamentary leader Guy Verhofstadt stated that scenes were inspirational for making a stand for human rights and the rule of law and that Europe was watching.[80]
    •  كوريا الجنوبية – The Bareunmirae Party stated that the party supports Hong Kong protesters, adding that the "Bareunmirae Party support the democratization movement in Hong Kong. We hear Hong Kong's cry for freedom and democracy with a strong echo."[81]
    •  اليابانTarō Kōno, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan, said, "I strongly hope that things will be settled early and Hong Kong's freedom and democracy will be maintained".[82]

    انظر أيضاً

    المصادر

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