إيه‌جي‌إم-88 هارم

إيه‌جي‌إم88 هارم
AGM-88 HARM[1]
AGM-88 HARM on FA-18C.jpg
صاروخ إيه‌جي‌إم-088 هارم محمول على إف/إيه-18 سي.
النوعصاروخ أرض-جو مضاد للرادار
مكان الأصلالولايات المتحدة
تاريخ الخدمة
في الخدمة1985–الآن
يستخدمهالولايات المتحدة وآخرون
الحروبحرب الخليج، حرب كوسوڤو، حرب العراق، التدخل العسكري في ليبيا 2011
تاريخ الانتاج
المصممتكساس للمعدات
صممه1983
الصانعتكساس للمعدات، ثم شركة رايثيون
تكلفة الوحدةدولار284,000
870,000 دولارل أمريكي لإيه‌جي‌إم-88إي[2]
أُنتِج1983–الآن
المواصفات
الوزن355 kiloغرامs (783 رطل)
الطول4.1 مترs (13 قدم)
القطر254 milliمترs (10.0 بوصة)
الرأس الحربيWDU-21/B blast-fragmentation in a WAU-7/B warhead section, and later WDU-37/B blast-fragmentation warhead.
وزن الرأس الحربي66 kiloغرامs (146 رطل)
آلية
التفجير
FMU-111/B laser proximity fuze

المحركThiokol SR113-TC-1 dual-thrust rocket engine
الباع1.1 مترs (3.6 قدم)
الدافعSolid fuel
المدى
العملياتي
106 kiloمترs; 66 ميلs (57 nmi)
السرعة2,280 كيلومتر في الساعة (1,420 ميل/س)
نظام
التوجيه
Passive radar homing with home-on-jam,GPS/INS and EHF active radar homing in E variant.[3] 500-20,000 MHz for AGM-88C
منصة
الإطلاق
F/A-18, F-4G, F-16, Tornado IDS, F-35 and others

الصاروخ إيه‌جي‌إم-88 عالي السرعة المضاد للرادار AGM-88 HARM، هو صاروخ أرض-جو تكتيكي مصمم to home in on electronic transmissions الآتية من أنظمة الرادار الأرض-جو. طورته في الأصل تكساس للمعدات ليحل محل أنظمة إيه‌جي‌إم-45 شرايك وإيه‌جي‌إم-78 ستاندرد إيه‌أرإم. فيما بعد تولت الانتاج شركة رايثيون بعد شرائها أعمال الانتاج الدفاعي في تكساس للمعدات.

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الوصف

The AGM-88 can detect, attack and destroy a radar antenna or transmitter with minimal aircrew input. The proportional guidance system that homes in on enemy radar emissions has a fixed antenna and seeker head in the missile's nose. A smokeless, solid-propellant, booster-sustainer rocket motor propels the missile at speeds over Mach 2. HARM, a Navy-led program, was initially integrated onto the A-6E, A-7 and F/A-18 and later onto the EA-6B. RDT&E for use on the F-14 was begun, but not completed. The Air Force introduced HARM on the F-4G Wild Weasel and later on specialized F-16s equipped with the HARM Targeting System (HTS).


التاريخ

الانتشار

The HARM missile was approved for full production in March 1983, and then deployed in late 1985 with VA-72 and VA-46 aboard the aircraft carrier USS America. It was soon used in combat—in March 1986 against a Libyan SA-5 site in the Gulf of Sidra, and then Operation Eldorado Canyon in April. HARM was used extensively by the United States Navy and the United States Air Force for Operation Desert Storm during the Gulf War of 1991.

During the Gulf War, the HARM was involved in a friendly fire incident when the pilot of an F-4G Wild Weasel escorting a B-52 bomber mistook the latter's tail gun radar for an Iraqi AAA site. (This was after the tail gunner of the B-52 had targeted the F-4G, mistaking it for an Iraqi MiG.) The F-4 pilot launched the missile and then saw that the target was the B-52, which was hit. It survived with shrapnel damage to the tail and no casualties. The B-52 was subsequently renamed In HARM's Way.[4]

"Magnum" is spoken over the radio to announce the launch of an AGM-88.[5] During the Gulf War, if an aircraft was illuminated by enemy radar a bogus "Magnum" call on the radio was often enough to convince the operators to power down.[6] This technique would also be employed in Serbia during air operations in 1999.

في 2013 عرض الرئيس اوباما إيه‌جي‌إم-88 على إسرائيل لأول مرة.[7]

إيه‌جي‌إم-88إيه‌إيه‌أرجي‌إم

إيه‌جي‌إم-88إي

The newest upgrade is a joint venture by the Italian Ministry of Defense and the US Department of Defense: the AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM), produced by Alliant Techsystems.

In November 2005, the Italian Ministry of Defense and the US Department of Defense signed a Memorandum of Agreement on the joint development of the AGM-88E AARGM missile. Italy was providing $20 million of developmental funding as well as several millions worth material, equipment and related services. The Italian Air Force was expected to procure up to 250 missiles for its Tornado ECR aircraft. Thus flight test program was set to integrate the AARGM onto Tornado ECR's weapon system.

The AARGM features the latest software, enhanced capabilities intended to counter radar shutdown and passive radar using an additional active millimeter wave seeker. It was released in November 2010.

The Navy demonstrated the AARGM's capability during Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) in spring 2012 with 12 live firing of the missiles. Aircrew and maintenance training with live missiles were completed in June. The Navy authorized Full-Rate Production (FRP) of the AARGM in August 2012, with 72 missiles for the Navy and nine for the Italian Air Force to be delivered in 2013. A U.S. Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornet squadron will be the first forward-deployed unit with the AGM-88E.[8]

It will be initially integrated onto the FA-18C/D, FA-18E/F, EA-18G, and Tornado ECR aircraft and later on the F-35.[9]

انظر أيضاً

إف-16 تحمل صاروخ إيه‌أي‌إم-120 أماران (أعلى)، إيه‌أي‌إم-9 سايدويندر (في المنتصف) وإيج‌جي‌إم-88 هارم


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المصادر

الهوامش
  1. ^ "AGM-88 HARM (high-speed antiradiation missile) - Smart Weapons". Fas.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-16. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  2. ^ AGM-88E AARGM / Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile, HDAM
  3. ^ AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile | NAVAIR - U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command - Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Research, Development, Acquisition, Test and Eva...
  4. ^ Lake, Jon (2004). B-52 Stratofortress Units in Operation Desert Storm (1 ed.). Oxford: Osprey. pp. 47–48. ISBN 1-84176-751-4.
  5. ^ "Operational Brevity Words And Terminology". Fas.org. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  6. ^ Lambeth, Benjamin (2000). The Transformation of American Air Power. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8014-3816-5.
  7. ^ "Israel seeks $5B in U.S. loans to buy arms."
  8. ^ Navy Approves Full Rate Production for New Anti-Radiation Missile - Strategicdefenseintelligence.com, August 30, 2012
  9. ^ "ATK Awarded $55 Million Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile Low Rate Initial Production..." Reuters. 2009-01-21. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
المراجع

وصلات خارجية