أويغور (لغة)

Uyghur
ئۇيغۇرچە  /  ئۇيغۇر تىلى
Uyghurche.png
Uyghur written in Perso-Arabic script
النطق[ʊjʁʊrˈtʃɛ], [ʊjˈʁʊr tili]
موطنهاXinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China
العرقUyghur
الناطقون الأصليون
10.4 million (2010 census)e18
الصيغ المبكرة
Karakhanid
Arabic (Uyghur alphabet), Latin script, cyrillic script
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China[1]
ينظمهاWorking Committee of Ethnic Language and Writing of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1ug
ISO 639-2uig
ISO 639-3uig
Glottologuigh1240[2]
Uyghur is spoken in northwest China
Geographical extent of Uyghur in China
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قالب:Contains Uyghur text

Uyghur or Uighur /ˈwɡər/[3][4] (ئۇيغۇر تىلى Uyghur tili, ئۇيغۇرچە Uyghurche),[5][6] formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 8 to 11 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China. Significant communities of Uyghur-speakers are located in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and various other countries have Uyghur-speaking expatriate communities. Uyghur is an official language of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and is widely used in both social and official spheres, as well as in print, radio, and television, and is used as a lingua franca by other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Uyghur belongs to the Karluk branch of the Turkic language family, which also includes languages such as Uzbek. Like many other Turkic languages, Uyghur displays vowel harmony and agglutination, lacks noun classes or grammatical gender, and is a left-branching language with subject–object–verb word order. More distinctly Uyghur processes include, especially in northern dialects, vowel reduction and umlauting. In addition to influence of other Turkic languages, Uyghur has historically been influenced strongly by Persian and Arabic, and more recently by Mandarin Chinese and Russian.

The Arabic-derived writing system is the most common and the only standard in China, although other writing systems are used for auxiliary and historical purposes. Unlike most Arabic-derived scripts, the Uyghur Arabic alphabet has mandatory marking of all vowels. Two Latin and one Cyrillic alphabet are also used, though to a much lesser extent. The Arabic and Latin alphabets both have 32 characters.

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History

The Middle Turkic languages are the direct ancestor of the Karluk languages, including Uyghur and the Uzbek language.

Modern Uyghur is not descended from Old Uyghur, rather, it is a descendant of the Karluk language spoken by the Kara-Khanid Khanate.[7] Western Yugur is considered to be the true descendant of Old Uyghur, and is also called "Neo-Uyghur". Modern Uyghur is not a descendant of Old Uyghur, but is descended from the Xākānī language described by Mahmud al-Kashgari in Dīwānu l-Luġat al-Turk.[8] Modern Uyghur and Western Yugur belong to entirely different branches of the Turkic language family, respectively the southeastern Turkic languages and the northeastern Turkic languages.[9][10] The Western Yugur language, although in geographic proximity, is more closely related to the Siberian Turkic languages in Siberia.[11]


التبويب

تنتمي اللغة الويغورية إلى فرع توركية القارلوق (Karluk أو Qarluq) من عائلة اللغات التوركية. وتقترن بشدة بلغات آينو Äynu, لوپ Lop، إيلي تركي، ولغة الچقطاي المنقرضة (لغات القارلوق الشرقية)، وبشكل أبعد إلى الأوزبكية (التي هي قارلوق غربية).

الوضع

ورقة بنكنوت من فئة 10 يوان مكتوب عليها بخمس لغات منها الويغورية.

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "China". Ethnologue.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Uighur". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Uyghur - definition of Uyghur by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Define Uighur at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  5. ^ In English, the name of the ethnicity and its language is spelled variously as Uyghur, Uighur, Uygur and Uigur, with the preferred spelling being Uyghur.
  6. ^ Its name in other languages in which it might be often referred to is as follows:
  7. ^ Arik, Kagan (2008). Austin, Peter (ed.). One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 145. ISBN 0520255607. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  8. ^ Clauson, Gerard (Apr 1965). "Review An Eastern Turki-English Dictionary by Gunnar Jarring". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (No. 1/2): 57. Retrieved 30 March 2014. line feed character in |title= at position 8 (help)
  9. ^ Coene, Frederik (2009). The Caucasus - An Introduction. Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 1135203024. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  10. ^ Coene, Frederik (2009). The Caucasus - An Introduction. Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series (illustrated, reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 75. ISBN 0203870719. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  11. ^ Hahn 1998, pp. 83–84

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Interwiki

قواميس


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الراديو

التلفزيون

الفونتات

قالب:Uyghur language

قالب:Languages of China