عقد 1990

"التسعينيات" تحوّل إلى هنا. لمطالعة العقود التي تضم السنوات 90-99 من قرون أخرى، انظر قائمة العقود.
هذا المقال هو عن العقد. إذا كنت تريد الفرقة الموسيقية، انظر عقد 1990 (فرقة موسيقية).
تلسكوب هبل الفضائيحرب الخليجاتفاقيات اوسلوالشبكة العالميةحل الاتحاد السوڤيتيالنعجة دوليوفاة ديانا، أميرة ويلزالإبادة الجماعية في رواندا
من اليسار، تجاه عقارب الساعة: تلسكوپ هبل الفضائي يسبح في الفضاء بعد إطلاقه في 1990؛ الطائرة الأمريكية إف-16 وإف-15 تحلقان فوق حقول النفط المحترقة أثناء عملية عاصفة الصحراء، وتعرف أيضاً بحرب الخليج 1991؛ توقيع اتفاقيات اوسلو في 13 سبتمبر 1993؛ الشبكة العالمية حظى بشعبية عند بداية العقد؛ بوريس يلتسين وأنصاره يعتلون دبابة في تحدي لمجموعة أغسطس، والتي أدت إلى حل الاتحاد السوڤيتي في 26 ديسمبر 1991؛ النعجة دولي هي أول حيوان ثديي يستنسخ من خلية جسدية بالغة؛ جنازة ديانا، أميرة ويلز، التي توفت في 1997 جراء حادث تحطم سيارة في باريس، شارك في جنازتها الملايين؛ لقى مئات الألاف مصرعهم في الإبادة الجماعية في رواندا عام 1994.
الألفية: الألفية 2
القرون: القرن 19القرن 20القرن 21
العقود: عقد 1960 عقد 1970 عقد 1980عقد 1990عقد 2000 عقد 2010 عقد 2020
Years: 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
التصنيفات: المواليدالوفياتالعمارة
التأسيساتالانحلالات

عقد 1990، يُنطق "التسعينيات"، هو العقد الذي بدأ في 1 يناير 1990، وانتهى في 31 ديسمبر 1999. وكان العقد العاشر والأخير في القرن 20 والعقد المائة والأخير في الألفية الثانية.

تميز عقد 1990 بصعود التعددية الثقافية والإعلام البديل. في ذلك العقد، حركات مثل الگرونگ، ريڤ سكن وهيپ هوپ انتشرت حول العالم بين الشباب، ثم بمساعدة التكنولوجيا الجديدة مثل التلفزيون الكبلي والإنترنت.

مجموعة العوامل، وتشمل الحركة العشوائية المستمرة لأسواق رأس المال عن طريق الليبرالية الجديدة، أطاحت بعقود الحرب الباردة الطويلة، ليبدأ الانتشار واسع النطاق للإعلام الجديد مثل الإنترنت بدءأ من أواسط القرن، تزايد الشكوك حول الحكومة، وحل الاتحاد السوڤيتي الذي أدى إلى إعادة تحييد وتوحيد السلطة الاقتصادية والسياسية في العالم وداخل البلدان. الكثير من البلدان مثل كندا، [1] والسويد خصخصت معظم اقتصادها، لتنتقل السلطة إلى الحكومات، ونحو المزيد من المؤسسات الخاصة. دوت كوم بابل 1996-2000 جلبت ثروة لبعض رواد الأعمال قبل انهيارها في 2000-2001

النزاعات العرقية الجديدة ظهرت في أفريقيا، البلقان والقوقاز، وأدى هذا إلى إندلاع الإبادة الجماعية في رواندا والبوسنة. لقت بوادر حل أي توترات بين إسرائيل والعالم العربي بعيدة المنال، أما الاضطرابات الأيرلندية فقد تم تسويتها عام 1998 بموجب اتفاقية الجمعة المجيدة بعد 30 عام من العنف.[2]

السياسة والحروب

الحروب

المقالة الرئيسية: قائمة الحروب 1990–2002

أبرز النزاعات المسلحة في هذا العقد، وتشمل:


الحروب الدولية

  • The Gulf War – Iraq was left in severe debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of flooding the market with oil and driving down prices. As a result, on 2 August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and conquered Kuwait. The UN immediately condemned the action, and a coalition force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf. Aerial bombing of Iraq began in January 1991 (see also Gulf War), and a month later, the UN forces drove the Iraqi army from Kuwait in just four days. In the aftermath of the war, the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the Shiites in the south rose up in revolt, and Saddam Hussein barely managed to hold onto power. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off from much of the world.
  • The Kosovo War (1998–1999):
    • War between Albanian separatists and Yugoslav military and Serb paramilitary forces in Kosovo begin in 1996 and escalates in 1998 with increasing reports of atrocities taking place.
    • In 1999, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) led by the United States launched air attacks against Yugoslavia (then composed of only Serbia and Montenegro) to pressure the Yugoslav government to end its military operations against Albanian separatists in Kosovo due to accusations of war crimes being committed by Yugoslav military forces working alongside nationalist Serb paramilitary groups. After weeks of bombing, Yugoslavia submits to NATO's demands and NATO forces occupy Kosovo and later UN peacekeeping forces to take control of Kosovo.
Bosnian parliament building burns after being hit by Bosnian Serb artillery.

الحروب الأهلية وحرب العصابات

Rwandan Genocide: Genocide victims in Murambi Technical School. Estimates put the death toll of the Rwandan Genocide as high as 800,000 people.

الانقلابات

الهجمات الارهابية

  • The 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the Oklahoma City bombing leads to awareness in U.S. of domestic and international terrorism as a potential threat.
  • Markale market massacres in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1994 involving soldiers of the Army of Republika Srpska deliberately targeting Bosniak (then known as "Bosnian Muslims") civilians.
  • Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995 involving soldiers of the Army of Republika Srpska, members of Serbia's Scorpions paramilitary group, and Greek volunteers in the Srpska army, committing mass murder of Bosniak civilians.
  • The Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, the bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, killed 168. Bombing suspect Timothy McVeigh claimed he bombed the building in retaliation for the 1993 Waco massacre.
  • After the bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania by Al-Qaeda militants, U.S. naval military forces launch cruise missile attacks against Al-Qaeda bases in Afghanistan in 1998.
  • The Omagh bombing in Omagh, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland which killed 29 civilians and injured hundreds more.
  • Ahmed Ressam, an Islamist militant associated with Al-Qaeda is arrested when attempting to cross from Canada to the United States at the Canada-U.S. border on 14 December 1999; it is discovered that he intended to bomb Los Angeles International Airport during millennium celebrations. This is the first major attempted terrorist attack by Al Qaeda on U.S. soil since the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and marked the beginning of a series of attempted terrorist attacks by Al Qaeda against the U.S. that would continue into the 21st century.
  • On 18 July 1994 an unknown terrorist targeting Argentina's Jewish community plants a car-bomb in the AMIA Headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina killing 85 people and injuring hundreds, making it the first ethnically targeted and deadliest bombing in Argentine history
  • on 15 June 1996, the IRA set off a bomb in Manchester, England. The bomb, placed in a van on Corporation Street in the city centre, targeted the city's infrastructure and economy and caused widespread damage, estimated by insurers at £700 million (£1 billion as of 2011). Two hundred and twelve people were injured, but there were no fatalities.

إنتهاء الاستعمار والاستقلال

أحداث سياسية بارزة

  • The 1990s was an era of spreading capitalism.[6] The former countries of the Warsaw Pact moved from single-party socialist states to multi-party states with private sector economies.[6] The same wave of political liberalisation occurred in capitalist countries, such as Taiwan, Chile, South Africa, and Indonesia. Market reforms made great changes to the economies of socialist countries like China and Vietnam.
  • The ethnic tensions and violence in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s create a greater sense of ethnic identity of the nations in the new countries, especially involving increased popularity of nationalism.

أفريقيا

  • The release of African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela from jail in February 1990 after thirty years of imprisonment for opposing apartheid and white-minority rule in South Africa. This would resolve with the end of Apartheid in South Africa in 1994, marking the end of the original Civil Rights era of the 20th century.
  • Nelson Mandela is elected President of South Africa in 1994, becoming the first black President in South African history ending a long legacy of apartheid white-rule in the country.

أمريكا الشمالية

  • United States President Bill Clinton was a dominant political figure in international affairs during the 1990s known especially for his attempts to negotiate peace in the Middle East and end the ongoing wars occurring in the former Yugoslavia; his promotion of international action to decrease human-created climate change; and his endorsement of advancing free trade in the Americas.
  • Lewinsky scandal – US president Bill Clinton was caught in a media-frenzied scandal involving inappropriate relations with a White House intern Monica Lewinsky, first announced on 21 January 1998. After the U.S. House of Representatives impeached Clinton on 19 December 1998 for perjury under oath, following an investigation by federal prosecutor Kenneth Starr, the Senate acquitted Clinton of the charges on 12 February 1999 and he finished his second term.
  • Jean-Bertrand Aristide becomes the first democratically elected President of Haiti in 1990.
  • Canadian politics is radically altered in the 1993 federal election with the collapse of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, (a major political party in Canada since 1867) from being government to only 2 seats and the New Democratic Party collapsing from 44 seats to 9. The Liberal Party of Canada is the only genuine national political party that remains while the regionally based parties such as the Quebec-based Bloc Québécois and the almost entirely Western Canada-based Reform Party of Canada rise from political insignificance to being major political parties.
  • After the collapse of the Meech Lake constitutional accord in 1990, the province of Quebec in Canada experienced a rekindled wave of separatism by francophone Québécois nationalists, who sought for Quebec to become an independent country. In 1995, during a referendum on Quebec sovereignty, Quebec voters narrowly reject the vote for independence.
  • The 1995 Quebec referendum on sovereignty is held in the predominantly francophone province of Quebec in Canada, a majority anglophone country. If accepted Quebec would become an independent country with an economic association with Canada. The proposal is narrowly rejected by Quebec's voters by 50.4% no, and 49.6% yes.
  • California voters passed Proposition 215 in 1996, to legalize cannabis for medicinal purposes. The debate over legalization of marijuana in the U.S. goes on today.
  • The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on 1 January 1994, creating a North American free trade zone consisting of Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
  • Abortion reaches historical levels of high popularity in the United States from 1990 to 1996, before falling back again in the late 1990s. [7]

آسيا

اوروپا

  • The improvement in relations between the countries of NATO and the former members of the Warsaw Pact ended the Cold War both in Europe and other parts of the world.
  • German reunification – Germany reunified on 3 October 1990 as a result of the fall of the Berlin Wall and after integrating the economic structure and provincial governments, focused on modernization of the former communist East. People who were brought up in a socialist culture became integrated with those living in capitalist western Germany.
  • The restructuring of the Soviet Union destabilizes, as nationalist and separatist demagogues gain popularity. Boris Yeltsin, then chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, resigns from the Communist Party and becomes the opposition leader against Mikhail Gorbachev. The Communist Party looses its status as the governing force of the country and is banned after a coup attempt by Communist hardliners attempted to revert the effects of Gorbachev's policies. Yeltsin's counter-revolution is victorious on 25 December 1991 with the resignation of Gorbachev from presidency and the dissolution of the USSR. Yeltsin became president of the successor Russian Federation and presided over a period of political unrest, economic crisis, and social anarchy. On 31 December 1999, Yeltsin resigned leaving Vladimir Putin as acting president.
  • Margaret Thatcher who had been the United Kingdom's Prime Minister since 1979 resigned as Prime Minister on 22 November 1990 after being challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by Michael Heseltine because of widespread opposition to the introduction of the controversial Community Charge and the fact that her key allies such as Nigel Lawson and Geoffrey Howe resigned over the deeply sensitive issues of the Maastricht Treaty and Margaret Thatcher's resistance to Britain joining the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. Less than two years later on the infamous Black Wednesday of September 1992, the pound sterling crashed out of the system after the pound fell below the agreed exchange rate with the Deutsche Mark.
  • The Belfast Agreement (a.k.a. the Good Friday Agreement) is signed by U.K. and Irish politicians on 10 April 1998, declaring a joint commitment to a peaceful resolution of the territorial dispute between Ireland and the المملكة المتحدة over Northern Ireland.
  • The IRA agreed to a truce in 1994. This marked the beginning of the end of 25 years of violence between the IRA and the United Kingdom, and the start of political negotiations.
  • The European Union forms in 1992 under the Maastricht Treaty.

أمريكا الجنوبية

اغتيالات

The 1990s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts:

كوارث

كوارث طبيعية

The 1999 İzmit earthquake which occurred in the northwestern of Turkey killed 17,217 and injured 43,959.


كوارث غير طبيعية

The crash site of El Al Flight 1862 in 1992.


الاقتصاد

The Dow Jones Index of 1990s.
Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton share a laugh in October 1995.


العلوم والتكنولوجيا

التكنولوجيا

الإلكترونيات والاتصالات

The World Wide Web project historic logo designed by Robert Cailliau.
The logo created by The President's Council on the Year 2000 Conversion, for use on Y2K.gov

برمجيات

سيارات

The General Motors EV1, sold during this decade, It was the first mass-produced and purpose-designed electric vehicle of the modern era from a major automaker, and the first GM car designed to be an electric vehicle from the outset.


العلوم

Dolly the sheep is the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell.


البيئة

NASA satellite observation of deforestation in the Mato Grosso state of Brazil. The transformation from forest to farm is evident by the paler square shaped areas under development.


المجتمع

الموجة الأنثوية الثالثة

مظاهرات حقوق المرأة في باريس، نوفمبر 1995


أحداث عالمية إضافية

  • 1991 – Soviet Union military troops attack Lithuanian independence supporters in Vilnius. Killed 14 people and wounding 1000.


الثقافة العامة

السينما

المقالة الرئيسية: عقد 1990 في السينما


التلفزيون

المقالة الرئيسية: عقد 1990 في التلفزيون
Friends which premiered on NBC in 1994 became one of the most popular sitcoms of all time.


الموسيقى

Spice Girls became one of the biggest global pop acts of the decade.
Nirvana performing at the 1992 MTV Video Music Awards.
Mariah Carey at Edwards Air Force Base during the making of I Still Believe video in 1998.


ألعاب الڤيديو

The PlayStation was released in the mid-1990s and became the best-selling gaming console of its time.

الألعاب


الرياضة

العمارة

قالب:Salso

The Petronas Twin Towers were the world's tallest buildings when completed in 1999.


الأدب

الموضة

المقالة الرئيسية: عقد 1990 في الموضة
Grunge-style flannel shirt and curtained hair


أشخاص

زعماء العالم

السياسة

  • Sebastián Alegrett Ruiz, Secretary-general Andean Community
  • Mohamed Amamou, Secretary-general Arab Maghreb Union
  • Mohamed al-Madani al-Azhari, Secretary-general Community of Sahel-Saharan States
  • Vasil Ivanov Baychev, Secretary-general Black Sea Economic Cooperation
  • Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary-general International Organization of the Francophonie
  • José Maurício Bustani, Director-General Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
  • Michel Camdessus, Managing Director International Monetary Fund
  • Wim Duisenberg, President of the European Central Bank
  • Robert B. Dun, Director-general Pacific Community
  • Lawrence "Larry" D. Eicher, Secretary-general International Organization for Standardization
  • Álvaro Gil-Robles, Commissioner for Human Rights Council of Europe
  • Wolfgang Hoffmann, Executive Secretary Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
  • Enrique V. Iglesias, President Inter-American Development Bank
  • Ivan Mikhailovich Korotchenya, Coordinator of the Working Group for Organization Commonwealth of Independent States
  • Assad Kotaite, President of the Council International Civil Aviation Organization
  • Vladimir Nikolayevich Lobov, Chief of General Staff of the Unified Armed Forces Warsaw Treaty Organization
  • Pyotr Georgyevich Lushev, Commander-in-chief of the Unified Armed Forces Warsaw Treaty Organization
  • Ahmad Mohamed Ali Al-Madani, President Islamic Development Bank
  • Marcolino José Carlos Moco, Executive Secretary Community of Portuguese Language Countries
  • Germán Simón Molina Duarte, Secretary-general Association of Caribbean States
  • Francis Muthaura, Secretary-general East African Community
  • Satya N. Nandan, Secretary-general International Seabed Authority
  • William A. O'Neil, Secretary-general International Maritime Organization
  • Sir Neville Vernon Nicholls, President Caribbean Development Bank
  • Godwin Olu Patrick Obasi, Secretary-general World Meteorological Organization
  • Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary-general African Union
  • Juan Antonio Samaranch Torelló, marqués de Samaranch, President International Olympic Committee
  • Javier Solana Madariaga, High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, European Union
  • Cornelio Sommaruga, President International Committee of the Red Cross
  • Jacek Starościak, Director-general Council of the Baltic Sea States
  • Max van der Stoel, High Commissioner on National Minorities Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • Vyacheslav Vladimirovich Sychev, Secretary Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

فنانون

موسيقيون

فرق موسيقية

رياضيون

انظر أيضاً


Alwyn Turner (2013), A Classless Society: Britain in the 1990s, Aurum Press

خط زمني

المقالات التالية تحتوي على خطوط زمنية موجزة لأبرز أحداث العقد:

1990199119921993199419951996199719981999

المصادر

  1. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/1996/0923/092396.intl.intl.1.html/(page)/2
  2. ^ Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2004). The Roaring Nineties. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-32618-5. 
  3. ^ GlobalSecurity.org, Second Chechnya War – 1999–???
  4. ^ Des Forges, Alison (1999). Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-171-8. Retrieved 12 January 2007. 
  5. ^ See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, 1 April 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of every 10 Tutsis were killed.
  6. ^ أ ب Sorin Antohi and Vladimir Tismăneanu, "Independence Reborn and the Demons of the Velvet Revolution" in Between Past and Future: The Revolutions of 1989 and Their Aftermath, Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-9116-71-9. p.85.
  7. ^ http://www.gallup.com/poll/1576/abortion.aspx
  8. ^ Archive copy at the Internet Archive

وصلات خارجية