الهندو-أوروپيون الأوائل

(تم التحويل من Proto-Indo-Europeans)

The Proto-Indo-Europeans were a hypothetical prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.

Knowledge of them comes chiefly from that linguistic reconstruction, along with material evidence from archaeology and archaeogenetics. The Proto-Indo-Europeans likely lived during the late Neolithic, or roughly the 4th millennium BC. Mainstream scholarship places them in the Pontic–Caspian steppe zone in Eastern Europe (present day Ukraine and Russia).[1][2] Some archaeologists would extend the time depth of PIE to the middle Neolithic (5500 to 4500 BC) or even the early Neolithic (7500 to 5500 BC), and suggest alternative location hypotheses.

By the early second millennium BC, offshoots of the Proto-Indo-Europeans had reached far and wide across Eurasia, including Anatolia (Hittites), the Aegean (the ancestors of Mycenaean Greece), the north of Europe (Corded Ware culture), the edges of Central Asia (Yamnaya culture), and southern Siberia (Afanasievo culture).[3]

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Culture


فرضيات أورهايمات

Scheme of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan hypothesis. The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area which may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to ca. 2500 BC; the orange area to 1000 BC.[4]:30


نظرية السهوب

الأصول من الشرق الأدنى

الفرضية الأرمنية

الفرضية الأرمنية، المبنية على glottalic theory, suggests that the Proto-Indo-European language was spoken during the 4th millennium BC in the Armenian Highland. This Indo-Hittite model does not include the Anatolian languages in its scenario. The phonological peculiarities of PIE proposed in the glottalic theory would be best preserved in the Armenian language and the Germanic languages, the former assuming the role of the dialect which remained in situ, implied to be particularly archaic in spite of its late attestation. Proto-Greek would be practically equivalent to Mycenean Greek and would date to the 17th century BC, closely associating Greek migration to Greece with the Indo-Aryan migration to India at about the same time (viz., Indo-European expansion at the transition to the Late Bronze Age, including the possibility of Indo-European Kassites). The Armenian hypothesis argues for the latest possible date of Proto-Indo-European (sans Anatolian), a full millennium later than the mainstream Kurgan hypothesis. In this, it figures as an opposite to the Anatolian hypothesis, in spite of the geographical proximity of the respective Urheimaten suggested, diverging from the time-frame suggested there by a full three millennia.[5]

جبال زاگروس

الفرضي الأناضولية

Genetics

قالب:Original research section

The rise of archaeogenetic evidence which uses genetic analysis to trace migration patterns also added new elements to the origins puzzle.

Kurgan hypothesis

R1b and R1a

Yamnaya culture

Eastern European hunter-gatherers
Near East population

The Near East population were most likely hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus (CHG)[6] c.q. Iran Chalcolithic related people with a CHG-component.[7]


See also

Notes


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References

  1. ^ Anthony, David W.; Ringe, Don (2015-01-01). "The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives". Annual Review of Linguistics. 1 (1): 199–219. doi:10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124812. ISSN 2333-9683.
  2. ^ Anthony, David W. (26 July 2010). The horse, the wheel, and language : how Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton, N.J. ISBN 9781400831104. OCLC 496275617.
  3. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 4 and 6 (Afanasevo), 13 and 16 (Anatolia), 243 (Greece), 127–128 (Corded Ware), and 653 (Yamna). ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  4. ^ Christopher I. Beckwith (2009). Empires of the Silk Road. Oxford University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. ^ T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, "The Early History of Indo-European Languages", Scientific American (March 1990); I.M. Diakonoff, The Prehistory of the Armenian People (1984).
  6. ^ Jones 2015.
  7. ^ Lazaridis 2016, p. 8.

Sources

Printed sources
Web-sources

Further reading


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External links

Genetics