كومانوڤو

(تم التحويل من Kumanovo)
كومانوڤو

Куманово

Kumanovo
الميدان الرئيسي في كومانوڤو
الميدان الرئيسي في كومانوڤو
Flag of كومانوڤو
Flag
Coat of arms of Kumanovo Municipality.svg
Seal
خريطة كومانوڤو
خريطة كومانوڤو
كومانوڤو is located in جمهورية شمال مقدونيا
كومانوڤو
كومانوڤو
الموقع في جمهورية مقدونيا
الإحداثيات: 42°08′09″N 21°43′05″E / 42.13583°N 21.71806°E / 42.13583; 21.71806
البلد مقدونيا
البلدية بلدية كومانوڤو
الحكم
 • العمدة Zoran Damjanovski (SDSM)
المساحة
 • المدينة 509٫48 كم² (196٫71 ميل²)
الارتفاع +340 m (1٬120 ft)
التعداد(2002)
 • المدينة 70٬842
 • الكثافة 207٫04/km2 (536٫2/sq mi)
 • العمرانية 105 484
منطقة التوقيت CET (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+1)
Postal codes 1300
مفتاح الهاتف +389 (0)31
Car plates KU
Patron saints St. George[1]
الموقع الإلكتروني Official Page

كومانوڤو (مقدونية: Куманово [kuˈmanɔvɔ] ( استمع)؛ بالإنگليزية: Kumanovo) هي مدينة في جمهورية مقدونيا وهي مقر بلدية كومانوڤو التي هي أكبر بلدية في البلد. مؤسسات البلدية تضم مجلس المدينة، العمدة وهيئات ادارية أخرى.

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أصل الاسم

The name of the city in Albanian is Kumanova or Kumanovë and in Turkish is Kumanova, while in Serbian and Bulgarian is the same as in Macedonian: Kumanovo (Куманово). The name derives from the Cumans, a Turkic tribe that invaded in the area in the early 12th century.[2]

The Municipal Building in Kumanovo (built as an Ottoman police station)


الجغرافيا

Kumanovo is situated in the northeastern part of the Macedonia, near the capital city of Skopje.

الديمغرافيا

التاريخية

The following is a table of historical visits to Kumanovo, along with the number of houses recorded by the visitor.

اسم الرحالة سنة زيارته كومانوڤو عدد البيوت/التعداد
Pukvil 1800 300 houses
Gomera 1810 800 population
Dupničanin 1835 5,000 population
Bue 1838 3-4,000 polulation
Bue 1854 3,000 population
Papadopulos 1856 200 houses
Reports 1859 4,500 population
Han 1862 3,200 population
Hadzi Vasiljevič 1865 650 houses
Timaev 1865 4,200 population
Harački's List 1868 721 houses
Bjankoni 1885 7,000 population
Novakovič 1886 8,000 population
Petrov 1886 8,000 population
Sal-Name 1887 900 houses
Veselinovič 1887 5,000 population
Gopčevič 1889 5,700 population
Petrov 1896 2,100 houses
Knčev 1900 14,530 population
Župančič 1903 14,530 population
Hadzi Vasiljevič 1907 15,000 population

Table below showing historic demographic development according to Yugoslav and Macedonian census data:

City of Kumanovo population according to ethnic group 1948-2002[3]
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1994 census 2002
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
المقدونيون .. .. 14,351 61.5 20,323 66.1 28,789 62.1 36,812 60.5 40,634 62.3 42,840 60.5
الألبان .. .. 951 4.0 1,893 6.2 7,827 16.9 12,997 21.4 15,612 23.9 18,277 25.8
أتراك .. .. 3,858 16.5 2,512 8.2 1,791 3.9 936 1.5 241 0.4 256 0.4
روما .. .. 1,861 8.0 .. .. 3,013 6.5 4,415 7.3 2,987 4.6 4,042 5.7
ڤلاخ .. .. 12 0.1 .. .. .. .. 44 0.1 85 0.1 108 0.2
الصرب .. .. 1,790 7.7 2,808 9.1 3,759 8.1 4,252 7.0 5,097 7.8 4,727 6.7
البشناق .. .. 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 14 0.0
غيرهم .. .. 516 2.2 3,226 10.5 1,184 2.6 1,386 2.3 577 0.9 578 0.8
Total 20,242 23,339 30,762 46,363 60,842 65,233 70,842


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الوضع الحالي

The population of the city of Kumanovo according to the 2002 census numbers 77,561, the majority of which are ethnic Macedonians 62.4% (48,416), with a significant minority of ethnic Albanians 23.7% (18,369) and Serbs 7.4% (5,746).[4]

The most common mother tongues in the city were the following:

  • Macedonian, 45,306 (64.0%)
  • Albanian, 18,283 (25.8%)
  • Romani, 4,007 (5.7%)
  • Serbian, 2,399(3.4%)
  • Turkish, 215 (0.3%)
  • others, 632 (0.9%)

The religious composition of the city was the following:

التاريخ

قبل التاريخ

تحف كوكينو.

The area boasts several prehistoric settlements, among which are the Kostoperska karpa, the Bronze Age Gradiste near the village of Pelince, the Neolithic site of Mlado Nagoričane, the Iron Age tumulus Groblje at Vojnik, the Roman Necropolis Drezga of Lopate, and the Roman Settlement Vicianus at village of Klečovce.

الفترة العثمانية

The town was first mentioned in 17-th century.[5] أوليا چلبي described it in 1660–61: "The colony of Kumanovo is situated on the territory of the Skopje sanjak and represents one county. The city is embellished with many rivers and 600 tile-roofs houses. The mosque in the downtown is beautiful, there are tekke, madrassa, hammam, a number of shops and water mills; and the climate is pleasant and agreeable. There are many vineyards and gardens".[بحاجة لمصدر]

Commemoration plaque at Skopje dedicated to Karposh's Rebellion.

In 1689, Karposh, a brigand commander in the region of Dospat (present-day Bulgaria), who served as an Ottoman Christian auxiliary force commander, took advantage of the weakening of the Ottomans and discontent that arose concerning higher Ottoman taxation policies, and organized a revolt while Austria staged an attack on the Ottomans. Karposh's Rebellion quickly spread, resulting in the liberation of Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Kumanovo, Kačanik and other towns. Then, together with the Austrian army led by Emperor Leopold I, the local Christian population fought to liberate Skopje and Štip. Later changes in the military and political situation in the Balkans had crucial downwards effect on the revolt. The Austrian army was forced to withdraw and the reinforced Ottomans attacked the rebels, taking Kriva Palanka, the rebel stronghold, and then attacked Kumanovo and its newly constructed fortress, where they capturedKarposh and put him to death on the Stone Bridge across the Vardar.


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حرب البلقان الأولى

في أكتوبر 1912، أثناء حرب البلقان الأولى, Serbian forces under the command of General Radomir Putnik won a decisive victory over the Ottomans north of the town. The two-day Battle of Kumanovo ended Ottoman authority in Vardar Macedonia and prepared the way for the region's integration into Yugoslavia. Macedonia was split in three among Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria after the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913.

الحرب العالمية الثانية

Second World War memorial - Kosturnica

The anti-fascist insurrection of Macedonians and the struggle for national and social liberation began in Kumanovo and Prilep on October 11, 1941.


التاريخ الحديث

الثورة الألبانية 2001 والعلاقات الطائفية

A
Macedonian Armed forces in July 2001 near Kumanovo
نشاط لـ مولتي-كولتي.

The Albanian insurgency in Macedonia first started in the mountains outskirts of Tetovo and then spread in May 2001 to the region of Kumanovo mostly to the north. The armed conflict in Kumanovo mainly resulted in a division of the educational system along ethnical lines. All the Albanian-language students left the schools and demanded new schools to be opened. Following this process there is a visible separation in the town affecting the inter-community relations. The Law on Local Self-Government, Article 44 (Sl.besnik br.5/2002), envisages the establishment of the Commission for Inter-community Relations (CICR). CICR is a consultative body in the Council of the Municipality of Kumanovo and is formed by 12 representatives of the Macedonian, Albanian, Roma, Serbian, Turkish and Vlach ethnic groups. CICR aims to develop and improve relations between the ethnic communities and to ensure active participation of minorities in decision-making on issues that have ethnic nature and are found in the agenda of the Council of the Municipality of Kumanovo. Other organizations active in bridging the community divide include the Center for Intercultural Dialogue (CID), Roma community center DROM, the local Red Cross and others. One of the most effective systems for supporting the inter-community divide is through the youth centers MultiKulti managed by CID Kumanovo. These centers offer space for youngsters to meet, and apart from learning about each other, they also get youth work support.

الاقتصاد

The town's metal-processing, tobacco, agriculture, footwear and textile industries have made it an economic, trading and cultural center of approximately 135,529 people. Agriculture and trade developed mainly in the 19th century, but the city's modern look was established after the Second World War.

معرض صور

العلاقات الدولية

البلدات التوأم — المدن الشقيقة

Kumanovo is twinned with the following cities and municipalities:[6]

انظر أيضاً

غيرهم

قائمة البلدان التي حكمت كومانوڤو
Flag of جمهورية مقدونيا مقدونيا (1991–الحاضر)
Flag of يوغسلاڤيا يوغسلاڤيا (1945-1991)
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg قوى المحور (1941-1945)
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (1919-1941)
النمسا-المجر الإمبراطورية الألمانية الدولة العثمانية مملكة بلغاريا القوى المركزية (1914-1919)
Flag of مملكة صربيا مملكة صربيا (1912-1914)
Ottoman flag الدولة العثمانية (1395-1912)
Principality of Velbazhd.png Velbazhd Despotate (1373-1395)
Flag of الامبراطورية الصربية الامبراطورية الصربية (1346-1371)
Flag of مملكة صربيا (القروسطية) مملكة صربيا (1217–1346)
Flag of Constantine Tikh of Bulgaria 13th century.png Second Bulgarian Empire (1207-1217)
Flag of الإمبراطورية البيزنطية الإمبراطورية البيزنطية (1018-1204)
Macedonia-02793 - Tsar Samuil (10905002456).jpg مملكة صامويل (976-1018)
Coat of arms of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg First Bulgarian Empire (836-976)
Flag of الإمبراطورية البيزنطية الإمبراطورية البيزنطية (330-836)
Augustus Aureus infobox version.png Roman Empire (148BC-330AD)

الهامش

المصادر

  • Srpsko geografsko društvo (1972). Glasnik 52 (in Serbian). Srpsko geografsko društvo.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Kumanovo قالب:Airports in the Republic of Macedonia