پلڤن

پلڤن

Плевен

Pleven
Top:A fountain in Vazrazhdane Square, Middle left:A monument of Alexander of Battenberg, Center:Saint George Mausoleum the Conqueror Chapel, Middle right:Pleven Epopee Museum, Bottom:Storgozia Fortless
Top:A fountain in Vazrazhdane Square, Middle left:A monument of Alexander of Battenberg, Center:Saint George Mausoleum the Conqueror Chapel, Middle right:Pleven Epopee Museum, Bottom:Storgozia Fortless
درع پلڤن
Coat of arms
پلڤن is located in بلغاريا
پلڤن
پلڤن
موقع پلڤن
الإحداثيات: 43°25′N 24°37′E / 43.417°N 24.617°E / 43.417; 24.617
البلدبلغاريا
المحافظة
(أوبلاست)
پلڤن
الحكومة
المساحة
 • المدينة85 كم² (33 ميل²)
المنسوب
116 m (381 ft)
التعداد
 (Census February 2011)[1]
 • المدينة106 954
 • Urban
131٬152
منطقة التوقيتUTC+2 (EET)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
5800
مفتاح الهاتف064
الموقع الإلكترونيOfficial website

پلڤن (بالبلغارية: Плевен pronounced [ˈplɛvɛn]؛ إنگليزية: Pleven) هي سابع أكبر مدينة تعداداً في بلغاريا. وتقع في الجزء الشمالي من البلد، وهي المركز الاداري لكل من محافظة پلڤن، وبلدية پلڤن.

وتشتهر عالمياً بسبب حصار پلڤنا في 1877، فإنها اليوم المركز الاقتصادي للشمال الغربي والشمال الأوسط لبلغاريا وهي ثالث أكبر مدينة في شمال بلغاريا بعد ڤارنا وروسه.

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الاسم

الاسم يأتي من الكلمة السلاڤية "پلڤنيا" ("barn") أو من "plevel"، وتعني "حشائش"، التي تشترك في نفس الجذر + اللاحقة السلاڤية -en.


الجغرافيا

Pleven is located in an agricultural region in the very heart of the سهل الدانوب, the historical region of Moesia, surrounded by low limestone hills, the Pleven Heights. The city's central location in Northern Bulgaria defines its importance as a big administrative, economic, political, cultural and transport centre. وتقع پلڤن على بعد 170 كم من العاصمة صوفيا، 320 كم غرب الساحل البلغاري على البحر الأسود و 50 كم جنوب الدانوب.

The river Vit flows near the town and the tiny Tuchenitsa river (commonly known in Pleven as Barata, literally "The Streamlet") يشقها.

المناخ

Pleven's climate is temperate continental. Winters are cold with much snow, sometimes temperatures fall below −20 °م (−4 °ف). Springs are warm with temperatures around 20 °م (68 °ف). Summers are very hot and temperatures can exceed 38–40 °م (100–104 °ف). The average annual temperature is around 13 °م (55.4 °ف).

بيانات مناخ پلڤن، بلغاريا
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 22.8
(73)
24.0
(75.2)
31.2
(88.2)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
38.4
(101.1)
42.5
(108.5)
41.8
(107.2)
40.8
(105.4)
38.3
(100.9)
28.8
(83.8)
23.4
(74.1)
42٫5
(108٫5)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 1.3
(34.3)
4.6
(40.3)
10.3
(50.5)
18.1
(64.6)
23.1
(73.6)
26.7
(80.1)
29.3
(84.7)
29.4
(84.9)
25.4
(77.7)
18.2
(64.8)
10.5
(50.9)
4.1
(39.4)
16٫75
(62٫15)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) -2.2
(28)
0.6
(33.1)
5.4
(41.7)
12.5
(54.5)
17.4
(63.3)
21.0
(69.8)
23.4
(74.1)
22.9
(73.2)
18.6
(65.5)
12.4
(54.3)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
11٫59
(52٫87)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -5.5
(22.1)
-3.3
(26.1)
0.9
(33.6)
6.8
(44.2)
11.5
(52.7)
14.8
(58.6)
16.7
(62.1)
16.1
(61)
12.3
(54.1)
7.2
(45)
2.9
(37.2)
-2.0
(28.4)
6٫53
(43٫76)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -28.3
(-18.9)
-22.2
(-8)
-18.9
(-2)
-5.7
(21.7)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
8.7
(47.7)
8.9
(48)
-0.6
(30.9)
-6.5
(20.3)
-20.4
(-4.7)
-24
(-11)
−28٫3
(−18٫9)
هطول mm (inches) 39
(1.54)
34
(1.34)
33
(1.3)
52
(2.05)
68
(2.68)
81
(3.19)
63
(2.48)
40
(1.57)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.73)
45
(1.77)
41
(1.61)
578
(22٫76)
Source: Stringmeteo[2]

http://www.stringmeteo.com

التاريخ

قبل التاريخ والقِدم

The earliest traces of human settlement in the area date from the 5th millennium BC, the Neolithic.

The central streets of Pleven

Numerous archaeological findings, among them the Nikolaevo treasure found in Bulgaria, evidence for the rich culture of the Thracians, who inhabited the area for thousands of years.

In the beginning of the new era, the region became part of the Roman province of Moesia, and a road station called Storgosia arose near present-day Pleven on the road from Oescus (near modern Gigen) to Philippopolis (now Plovdiv). It later evolved into a fortress. One of the most valued archaeological monuments in Bulgaria from the period is the Early Christian basilica from the fourth century discovered near the modern city.

العصور الوسطى

During the Middle Ages, Pleven was a well-developed stronghold of the First and the Second Bulgarian Empire. When Slavs populated the region, they gave the settlement its contemporary name Pleven, it was first mentioned in a charter by Hungarian king Stephen V in 1270 in connection to a military campaign in the Bulgarian lands.

العهد العثماني

During the Ottoman rule, Pleven, known as پلڤنه in Ottoman Turkish, preserved its Bulgarian appearance and culture. Many churches, schools and bridges were built at the time of the Bulgarian National Revival. In 1825, the first secular school in the town was opened, followed by the first girls' school in Bulgaria in 1840, as well as the first boys' school a year later. Pleven was the place where the Bulgarian national hero Vasil Levski established the first revolutionary committee in 1869, part of his national revolutionary network.


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حصار پلڤنا

The city (then mostly known as Plevna outside Bulgaria) was a major battle scene during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 that Russian Tsar Alexander II held for the purpose of the liberation of Bulgaria. The joint Russian and Romanian army paid dearly for the victory, but it paved the path to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in this war, the restoration of Bulgaria as a state and the independence of Romania from the Ottoman Empire. It cost the Russians and Romanians 5 months and 38,000 casualties to take the town after four assaults, in what was one of the decisive battles of the war. The siege is remembered as a landmark victory of the Romanian War of Independence, as on 28 November 1877 the Plevna citadel capitulated, and Osman Pasha surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to the Romanian Colonel Mihail Cerchez.

Pleven Panorama, one of the town's best known sights

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition of 1911 concluded its lengthy entry on Pleven (transcribed as Plevna) with the memorable dictum:

Plevna is a striking example of the futility of the purely passive defence, which is doomed to failure however tenaciously carried out... Victories which are not followed up are useless. War without strategy is mere butchery.[3]

On the other hand, the Siege of Plevna stands out among other countless sieges and military actions in the region because of its significance.[4] Without this fortress slowing the Russian onslaught, which gave the Great Powers time to intercede, Constantinople would have been repossessed by a Christian army once more.

Plevna is one of the few engagements that changed the course of history.[5]

التاريخ الحديث

The events of the Russo-Turkish War proved crucial for the development of Pleven as a key town of central northern Bulgaria. The town experienced significant demographic and economic growth in the following years, gradually establishing itself as a cultural centre of the region.

The Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, a leading interwar party representing the Bulgarian peasantry, was founded in the town in December 1899.

Prior to the Bulgarian orthographic reform of 1945, the name of the town was spelled Плѣвенъ (with yat) in Cyrillic.

التعداد

The town hall of Pleven

According to census 2011, Pleven has a population of 106,954 inhabitants as of February 2011.[1] The ethnic breakdown is 97% Bulgarians among others. The number of the residents of the city reached its peak in the period 1988-1991 when exceeded 135,000.[6] The following table presents the change of the population after 1887.

پلڤن
السنة 1887 1910 1934 1946 1956 1965 1975 1985 1992 2001 2005 2009 2011
السكان 14,307 23,049 31,520 39,059 57,555 78,933 107,883 129,863 130,747 121,880 113,700 111,426 106,954
أعلى رقم 130,747 في 1992
Sources: National Statistical Institute,[1][6][7] „citypopulation.de“,[8] „pop-stat.mashke.org“,[9] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences[10]

التركيبة العرقية واللغوية والدينية

According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows:[11][12]

  • بلغار: 95,386 (96.5%)
  • أتراك: 1,510 (1.5%)
  • Gypsies: 1,017 (1.0%)
  • غيرهم: 489 (0.5%)
  • غير معرّفين: 422 (0.4%)
    • غير معلنين: 8,130 (7.6%)

الإجمالي: 106,954

In Pleven Municipality 112,414 declared as Bulgarians, 4626 as Gypsies, 3204 as Turks and 10,384 did not declare their ethnic group.

An overwhelming majority of 90% of Pleven's residents are Eastern Orthodox Christian. The Diocese of Nikopol, of which Pleven is part, is one of the two Roman Catholic dioceses in Bulgaria, and another 5% of the residents are Roman Catholic by faith, a significant number compared to other Bulgarian cities.

Pleven has three Eastern Orthodox churches, the Bulgarian National Revival St Nicholas Church (1834) that was constructed at the place of a chapel from the Second Bulgarian Empire, the St Paraskeva Church (1934) and the Holy Trinity Church, built in 1870 at the place of a church mentioned as early as 1523 and inaugurated by Exarch Antim I. اعتبارا من 2005, a new Eastern Orthodox church is being built in the Strogoziya quarter.

The construction of a large Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of Fatima began in 2001. A mosque also exists in the town to serve the needs of the Muslim population, as well as a Methodist church that is situated on the site of the former local puppet theatre.

الاقتصاد

Two banks in central Pleven

A major centre of oil processing, metalworking, machinery construction, of light and food industries in Socialist times, after 1989 Pleven found itself in an economic crisis, with many of the major enterprises (such as the Plama Pleven oil refinery) closing or practically ceasing to work.[بحاجة لمصدر] However, the late 1990s and early 2000s saw a revival of light industry and the development of branches such as knitwear and store clothes production. Tourism, which had attracted many people from الاتحاد السوڤيتي prior to 1989, and had experienced a slump in the following years, is on the rise again.

In 2006, unemployment was 12.7%.[13]

The most important economic sectors in Pleven are chemical, textiles and foodstuffs industries, the manufacturing of cement and glass, machine building, tailoring, agriculture, retail and services.[13] The city has seen a number of major foreign investments in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Particularly noticeable is the mass construction of hypermarkets, with three Billa, two Kaufland, two Carrefour (in construction- first one to open in MALL PLEVEN in 2011), two penny markets (1 in construction), DM, Plus (in construction), ELEMAG, METRO, two LIDL (in construction) stores, a Praktiker, bauMax and a number of other hypermarkets being opened اعتبارا من 2006. The Pleven City Center and central mall pleven mall was opened in 2008. In 2005, the investments in the economy of Pleven amounted to around 250 million leva (around 125 million).

Transport

The international railway Sofia — Bucharest — Moscow runs through Pleven. The international road E 83 passes just north of the city. The national A2 Hemus highway Sofia — Varna is projected to pass 16 kم (52,493 قدم) south of Pleven. Over 90% of the inner city transportation in Pleven is maintained by trolleybuses. There are 14 trolleybus lines, and 75 kم (246,063 قدم) trolleybus network. The trolleybus fleet consist of ZIU-682 (1985–1988) and Skoda 26-TR Solaris trolleybuses, produced in 2014. A project for 12 kم (39,370 قدم) trolleybus routes extension is underway. When the extension is completed Pleven will become 100% covered by trolleybus transport.


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برج الارسال

Near Pleven, there is a large facility for medium wave and short wave broadcasting. Pleven medium wave transmitter, working on 594 kHz, uses as antenna two 250 مترs (820 قدم) tall guyed mast radiators insulated against ground. These masts belong to the tallest structures of Bulgaria.[14]

Museum of the Liberation of Pleven

المعالم

Most of the sights of the town are related to the Russo-Turkish War. The monuments related to the war alone are about 200. Some of the more popular include the St George the Conqueror Chapel Mausoleum in honour of the many Russian and Romanian soldiers who lost their lives during the Siege of Plevna and the ossuary in Skobelev Park. Another popular attraction is Pleven Panorama, created after (and reputedly larger than) the Borodino Panorama in Russia on the occasion of the anniversary of the Siege of Plevna.

الثقافة

The Pleven Regional Historical Museum is another popular tourist attraction, while the Svetlin Rusev Donative Exhibition, situated in the former public baths, exhibits works by Bulgarian artists, as well as noted Western European art figures.

The Ivan Radoev Dramatic Theatre is the centre of theatrical life in Pleven. A number of community centres (chitalishta) are also active in the city.

الرياضة والترويح

Pleven is often regarded as an important centre of sports in Bulgaria, with many noted Bulgarian sportspeople having been born and/or trained in the town, including Tereza Marinova and Galabin Boevski.

The city hosts two football clubs, Spartak Pleven and Belite orli, which have separate stadiums. Both teams play in the second Bulgarian league and haven't had any major successes in the past, although Spartak Pleven has been the first team for a couple of former Bulgarian internationals such as Plamen Getov.

Spartak Pleven is also a basketball team, a national championship winner in 1995 and national cup winner in 1996 (then named Plama Pleven). Other than that, the team is a regular first league participant.

Pleven is famous for its Kaylaka (where the ruins of the Storgosia fortification can be found) and Skobelev parks. The latter is home to the Pleven Panorama and is situated on the original location of the battle during the Russo-Turkish War.

الجيش

The Reserve Officers' School was located in Pleven from 1961 to its closing on May 28, 2008.[15]

أبرز أبنائها

العلاقات الدولية

بلدات توأم – مدن شقيقة

پلڤن twinned with:

تكريم

  • A city in Kansas and a town in Montana in the United States, as well as a village in Ontario, Canada were named after Pleven, or more precisely its historical name in English Plevna, the reason for which is the battle in 1877.
  • A road in Hampton, Middlesex, London is named Plevna, adjoining another called Varna Road both made up of Victorian terraced housing built in the 1870s and named after the battles in Bulgaria of the period.
  • Pleven Saddle on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Pleven.
  • In other countries there are five cities and towns named after Plevna, and eighteen Plevna streets in Britain alone[17]
  • In Romania, more than 10 large cities have a Plevna (Romanian for Pleven) street, as Pleven was the location for an important battle between the Ottoman Empire on a side, and on the other Russian Empire and Romania after which Romania gained independence.

معرض

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب ت (بلغارية) National Statistical Institute - Main Towns Census 2014
  2. ^ "Stringmeteo – Pleven Climate". Stringmeteo. 2011. Retrieved on June 20, 2012.
  3. ^ "Plevna". Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. 1911.
  4. ^ "The Balkan Wars", Andre Gerolymatos, 2002, Basic Books, p.204
  5. ^ "Struggle for Mastery", Taylor, pp.239–241
  6. ^ أ ب (بلغارية) National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992
  7. ^ (إنگليزية) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute
  8. ^ (إنگليزية) „WorldCityPopulation“
  9. ^ „pop-stat.mashke.org“
  10. ^ (بلغارية) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  11. ^ (بلغارية) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute
  12. ^ Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (بلغارية)
  13. ^ أ ب http://ec.europa.eu/eures/main.jsp?catId=9425&acro=lmi&lang=en&countryId=BG&regionId=BG3&nuts2Code=BG31&nuts3Code=BG314
  14. ^ "Predavatel • Радио и телевизия в Плевен, Radio & Television in Pleven". www.predavatel.com. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  15. ^ bg:Школа за запасни офицери
  16. ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  17. ^ www.davidkidd.net/20Plevna.html.

انظر أيضاً

*[[Pleven Computers]]]

الهامش

وصلات خارجية

Coordinates: 43°25′N 24°37′E / 43.417°N 24.617°E / 43.417; 24.617