ساعة القيامة

ساعة يوم القيامة تشير عقاربها إلى "دقيقتين قبل منتصف الليل".

ساعة القيامة Doomsday Clock، هي ساعة رمزية تم إحداثها عام 1947 من قبل مجلس إدارة مجلة علماء الذرة التابعة لجامعة شيكاغو.[1][2][3] تُنذر هذه الساعة بقرب نهاية العالم بسبب السباق الجاري بين الدول النووية، حيث إن وصول عقارب الساعة إلى وقت منتصف الليل يعني قيام حرب نووية تُفني البشرية، ويُشير عدد الدقائق التي قبل منتصف الليل إلى احتمال نشوب حرب نووية، أما توقيتها الآن فهو دقيقتين قبل منتصف الليل.

تغير توقيت الساعة 22 مرة منذ وضعها، استجابةً للأحداث الدولية، ووصلت ذروتها عندما بدأ كل من الولايات المتحدة والاتحاد السوڤيتي بتجربة القنابل الهيدروجينية لمدة 9 أشهر متواصلة، ووقعت هذه الأزمة سنة 1953 وكانت بهذا أقرب مرة تصل فيها عقارب الساعة إلى أقل من دقيقتين من نصف الليل والتي إذا ما وصلت العقارب إلى نصف الليل يُفترض أن تقع حينها حرب عالمية نووية (حرب عالمية ثالثة).

في 14 يناير 2012 تم تحريكها إلى خمس دقائق قبل منتصف الليل بسبب عدم الجدية في مكافحة السلاح النووي، والنزاعات العالمية، وأحداث الربيع العربي، وخطر سقوط الأسلحة النووية بأيدي إرهابيين أو احتمال قيام نزاع مسلح في الشرق الأوسط بالإضافة إلى التغير المناخي. وفي مطلع عام 2013 تمت مراجعة التوقيت للنظر في إمكانية التغيير إلا أنه لم يغير، أما التعديل الأخير فقد كان بتحريك الساعة دقيقتين ونصف بحيث أصبحت على بعد دقيقتين ونصف من منتصف الليل وذلك في 2017 بسبب فوز الرئيس الأمريكي دونالد ترمپ، مما قد يُنذر بكارثة كونية وشيكة، وقد تم تقديمها مرة أخرى في يناير 2018 بمقدار 30 ثانية نتيجة لتهديدات كوريا الشمالية بالإضافة إلى خطر ارتفاع درجة حرارة الأرض.[4]

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التاريخ

Cover of the 1947 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists issue, featuring the Doomsday Clock at "seven minutes to midnight".

غلاف عدد نشرة علماء الذرة عام 1947، تشير ساعة القيامة فيها إلى "سبعة دقائق قبل منتصف الليل".]]



التغييرات

ضبط التغيير

نقد

تغير وقت ساعة القيامة منذ صنعها سنة 1947 إلى آخر تعديل لها سنة 2018.
خط زمني لساعة القيامة[5]
السنة الدقائق قبل منتصف الليل التغير (دقيقة) السبب
1947 7  — اضبط الأولي لساعة القيامة Doomsday clock (7 minutes).svg
1949 3 −4 The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, the RDS-1, officially starting the nuclear arms race. Doomsday clock (3 minutes).svg
1953 2 −1 The United States tests its first thermonuclear device in November 1952 as part of Operation Ivy, before the Soviet Union follows suit in August. This is the Clock's closest approach to midnight since its inception, later matched in 2018. Doomsday clock (2 minutes).svg
1960 7 +5 In response to a perception of increased scientific cooperation and public understanding of the dangers of nuclear weapons (as well as political actions taken to avoid "massive retaliation"), the United States and Soviet Union cooperate and avoid direct confrontation in regional conflicts such as the 1956 Suez Crisis. Scientists from various countries help establish the International Geophysical Year, a series of coordinated, worldwide scientific observations between nations allied with both the United States and the Soviet Union, and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, which allow Soviet and American scientists to interact. Doomsday clock (7 minutes).svg
1963 12 +5 The United States and the Soviet Union sign the Partial Test Ban Treaty, limiting atmospheric nuclear testing. Doomsday clock (12 minutes).svg
1968 7 −5 The involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War intensifies, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 takes place, and the Six-Day War occurs in 1967. France and China, two nations which have not signed the Partial Test Ban Treaty, acquire and test nuclear weapons (the 1960 Gerboise Bleue and the 1964 596, respectively) to assert themselves as global players in the nuclear arms race. Doomsday clock (7 minutes).svg
1969 10 +3 Every nation in the world, with the notable exceptions of India, Israel, and Pakistan, signs the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Doomsday clock (10 minutes).svg
1972 12 +2 The United States and the Soviet Union sign the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) and the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. Doomsday clock (12 minutes).svg
1974 9 −3 India tests a nuclear device (Smiling Buddha), and SALT II talks stall. Both the United States and the Soviet Union modernize multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs). Doomsday clock (9 minutes).svg
1980 7 −2 Unforeseeable end to deadlock in American–Soviet talks as the Soviet–Afghan War begins. As a result of the war, the U.S. Senate refuses to ratify the SALT II agreement. Doomsday clock (7 minutes).svg
1981 4 −3 The Clock is adjusted in early 1981.[6] The Soviet war in Afghanistan toughens the U.S.' nuclear posture. U.S. President Jimmy Carter withdraws the United States from the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow. The Carter administration considers ways in which the United States could win a nuclear war. Ronald Reagan becomes President of the United States, scraps further arms reduction talks with the Soviet Union, and argues that the only way to end the Cold War is to win it. Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union contribute to the danger of the nuclear annihilation. Doomsday clock (4 minutes).svg
1984 3 −1 Further escalation of the tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, with the ongoing Soviet–Afghan War intensifying the Cold War. U.S. Pershing II medium-range ballistic missile and cruise missiles are deployed in Western Europe.[6] Ronald Reagan pushes to win the Cold War by intensifying the arms race between the superpowers. The Soviet Union and its allies (except Romania) boycott the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, as a response to the U.S-led boycott in 1980. Doomsday clock (3 minutes).svg
1988 6 +3 In December 1987, the Clock is moved back three minutes as the United States and the Soviet Union sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, to eliminate intermediate-range nuclear missiles, and their relations improve.[7] Doomsday clock (6 minutes).svg
1990 10 +4 The Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Iron Curtain, along with the reunification of Germany, mean that the Cold War is nearing its end. Doomsday clock (10 minutes).svg
1991 17 +7 The United States and Soviet Union sign the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), and the dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 26. This is the furthest from midnight the Clock has been since its inception. Doomsday clock (17 minutes).svg
1995 14 −3 Global military spending continues at Cold War levels amid concerns about post-Soviet nuclear proliferation of weapons and brainpower. Doomsday clock (14 minutes).svg
1998 9 −5 Both India (Pokhran-II) and Pakistan (Chagai-I) test nuclear weapons in a tit-for-tat show of aggression; the United States and Russia run into difficulties in further reducing stockpiles. Doomsday clock (9 minutes).svg
2002 7 −2 Little progress on global nuclear disarmament. United States rejects a series of arms control treaties and announces its intentions to withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, amid concerns about the possibility of a nuclear terrorist attack due to the amount of weapon-grade nuclear materials that are unsecured and unaccounted for worldwide. Doomsday clock (7 minutes).svg
2007 5 −2 North Korea tests a nuclear weapon in October 2006,[8] Iran's nuclear ambitions, a renewed American emphasis on the military utility of nuclear weapons, the failure to adequately secure nuclear materials, and the continued presence of some 26,000 nuclear weapons in the United States and Russia.[9] After assessing the dangers posed to civilization, climate change was added to the prospect of nuclear annihilation as the greatest threats to humankind.[10] Doomsday clock (5 minutes).svg
2010 6 +1 Worldwide cooperation to reduce nuclear arsenals and limit effect of climate change.[5] New START agreement is ratified by both the United States and Russia, and more negotiations for further reductions in the American and Russian nuclear arsenal are already planned. The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen results in the developing and industrialized countries agreeing to take responsibility for carbon emissions and to limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius. Doomsday clock (6 minutes).svg
2012 5 −1 Lack of global political action to address global climate change, nuclear weapons stockpiles, the potential for regional nuclear conflict, and nuclear power safety.[11] Doomsday clock (5 minutes).svg
2015 3 −2 Concerns amid continued lack of global political action to address global climate change, the modernization of nuclear weapons in the United States and Russia, and the problem of nuclear waste.[12] Doomsday clock (3 minutes).svg
2017 −½ Rise of neo-nationalism, United States President Donald Trump's comments over nuclear weapons, the threat of a renewed arms race between the U.S. and Russia, and the expressed disbelief in the scientific consensus over climate change by the Trump Administration.[13][14][15][16][17] This is the first use of a fraction in the time. Doomsday clock (2.5 minutes).svg
2018 2 −½ The failure of world leaders to deal with looming threats of nuclear war and climate change. This is the Clock's closest approach to midnight, matching that of 1953.[18] Doomsday clock (2 minutes).svg


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في الثقافة العامة

انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ خطأ في استخدام القالب ساعة القيامة: يجب تحديد المعاملات مسار و عنوان
  2. ^ "Science and Security Board". The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://thebulletin.org/science-and-security-board. 
  3. ^ خطأ في استخدام القالب ساعة القيامة: يجب تحديد المعاملات مسار و عنوان
  4. ^ عقارب "ساعة القيامة" على بعد دقيقتين من "النهاية" http://www.bbc.com/arabic/world-42827559
  5. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :0
  6. ^ أ ب "Doomsday Clock at 3'til midnight". The Daily News. December 21, 1983. 
  7. ^ "Hands of the 'Doomsday Clock' turned back three minutes". The Reading Eagle. December 17, 1987. 
  8. ^ "The North Korean nuclear test". The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 2009. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved August 4, 2009. 
  9. ^ "'Doomsday Clock' Moves Two Minutes Closer To Midnight". The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. 17 January 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  10. ^ "Nukes, climate push 'Doomsday Clock' forward". MSNBC. 2012-01-15. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  11. ^ "Doomsday Clock moves to five minutes to midnight". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 2013-06-29. 
  12. ^ Casey, Michael (22 January 2015). "Doomsday Clock moves two minutes closer to midnight". CBS News. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  13. ^ Science and Security Board Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. "It is two and a half minutes to midnight" (PDF). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved January 26, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Board moves the Clock ahead". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (in الإنجليزية). 26 January 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017. 
  15. ^ Holley, Peter; Ohlheiser, Abby; Wang, Amy B. "The Doomsday Clock just advanced, ‘thanks to Trump’: It’s now just 2½ minutes to ‘midnight.’". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  16. ^ Bromwich, Jonah Engel (26 January 2017). "Doomsday Clock Moves Closer to Midnight, Signaling Concern Among Scientists". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  17. ^ Chappell, Bill. "The Doomsday Clock Is Reset: Closest To Midnight Since The 1950s". NPR.org (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  18. ^ Bever, Lindsey; Kaplan, Sarah; Ohlheiser, Abby (January 25, 2018). "The Doomsday Clock is now just 2 minutes to ‘midnight,’ the symbolic hour of the apocalypse". Retrieved January 28, 2018 – via www.WashingtonPost.com. 

وصلات خارجية