تايم (مجلة)

"TIME" تحوّل إلى هنا. لمطالعة استخدامات أخرى، انظر Time (disambiguation).
Time
Time Magazine logo.svg
Producer Richard Stengel
التصنيف Newsmagazine
التواتر Weekly
التوزيع 3,360,135
أول عدد March 3, 1923
الشركة Time Inc. (Time Warner)
البلد الولايات المتحدة
اللغة قالب:English
الموقع الإلكتروني www.time.com
ISSN 0040-781X

تايم (علامة تجارية في عواصم مثل تايم ) في أميريكا مجلة إخبارية.الطبعة الأوروبية (التايم الأوربية , سابقا كانت تعرف أطلانتك تايم) و كانت تنشر من لندن. أوروبا و تغطى الشرق الأوسط, أفريقيا و, منذ 2003, أميريكا اللاتينية. و الطبعة الآسيوية (تايم آسيا) و مقرهاهونج كونج . وبحلول 2009, تايم لم تعد تنشر الطبعة الأعلانية الكندية.[1] الطبعة جنوب المحيط الهادى , تغطى أستراليا, نيوزيلاند و جزر الباسيفيك, و مقرها سيدنى. وفي بعض الحملات الإعلانية, المجلة قد اقترح ، من خلال backronym فإن الأحرفT-I-M-E تشير إلىالمجلة الدولية للأحداث .

و من منتصف-2006,فإن ريتشارد شتينجيل هو المدير التحريرى .

التاريخ

مجلة »تايم« أنشئت في عام 1923 من قبل بريتون هادن و هنري لوس ، مما يجعلها أول مجلة إخبارية أسبوعية في الولايات المتحدة.[2] وهما معا قد عملا في السابق كمنصب رئيس ومدير التحرير ييل ديلى نيوز و إقترحا تسمية المجلة حقائق.[3] وكان هادن شخصا غير مبالى, الذى أحب إنتقاد لوس و يرى تايم كشيىء هام و لكن أيضا متعة. و ذلك يعزو لهجتها, التى مازال ينتقدها الكثيرون, أنها خفيفة وضحلة بالنسبة للأخبار الخطيرة وأكثر ملاءمة لتغطيتها الثقيلة عن المشاهير (بما في ذلك السياسيين),و تصدرت صناعة الترفيه, والثقافة الشعبية. لأنها تبين تغطية للأنباء عن طريق الناس , وعلى مدى عقود كثيرة كان غلاف المجلة عبارة عن صورة شخص واحد. العدد الأول من تايم قد نشر يوم مارس 3 1923 يظهر على غلافه جوزيف ج. كانون, المتحدث بإسم مجلس النواب الأميريكى المتقاعد ; رسالة بالفاكس من طبعة العدد رقم (1) ، بما في ذلك جميع المقالات والإعلانات الواردة في النص الأصلي, تم تضمين نسخ من عدد 28 فبراير 1938 والقضية باعتبارها الاحتفال بالذكرى السنوية الخامسة عشرة للمجلة .[4] و بوفاة هادن في 1929, أضحى لوس الرجل المهيمن في تايم وشخصية بارزة في تاريخ وسائل الاعلام للقرن العشرين .

وفقا لمؤسسة «تايم :التاريخ الحميم من مؤسسة النشر 1972-2004 روبرت إلسون , "روى إدوارد لارسون […]كان عليه أن يلعب دوراثانويا بعد دور "لوس", في تطور مؤسسة تايم. وفى كتابه , مسيرة تايم, 1935–1951, ريمون فيلدينغ و لوحظ أيضا أن لارسن كان "فى الأساس مديرا للتداول ومن ثم المدير العام لشركة تايم , وفيمابعد كان مديرا للنشر فىلايف, لسنوات عديدة ثم رئيسالمؤسسة تايم, .,وعلى مدى التاريخ الطويل للشركة كان الشخصية المؤثرة والفعالة في تايم بعد لوس."

Edith Cummings was the first woman athlete to appear on the cover of Time, a major step in women's athletic history.

في وقت قريب كانوا رفع دولار 100،000 من ييل الخريجين مثل جي بي مورجان وشركاه ، واستئجار والدعاية رجل مارتن إيغان وشركة مورغان مصرفي دوايت مورو ، هنري لوس وهادن بريطاني لارسن في عام 1922 -- على الرغم من أن لارسن كان هارفارد خريج وكانت لوسي وهادن خريج جامعة ييل. . After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc., using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, who was the head of the B.F. Keith theatre chain in New England. However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen," Time Inc.'s second-largest stockholder, according to "Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941". In 1929, Roy Larsen was also named a Time Inc. director and a Time Inc. vice-president.

By the time of Henry Luce's death in 1967, the Time Inc. stock which Luce owned was worth about US$109 million and yielded him a yearly dividend income of more than US$2.4 million, according to The World of Time Inc: The Intimate History Of A Changing Enterprise 1960–1989 by Curtis Prendergast. The value of the Larsen family's Time Inc. stock was now worth about $80 million during the 1960s and Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its Executive Committee, before serving as Time Inc.'s vice-chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10, 1979 issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65."

After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both "Time" magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925." Then, according to the same book, "In 1928 […] Larsen undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine […] which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout the الولايات المتحدة."

Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio programme, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week, the programme presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions previously unaware of its existence," according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History Of A Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941, leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's The March of Time radio programme was broadcast over CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC radio - except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired. People Magazine was based on Time's People page.

Time became part of Time Warner in 1989 when Warner Communications and Time, Inc. merged. Jason McManus succeeded Henry Grunwald in 1988 as Editor-in-Chief and oversaw the transition before Norman Pearlstine succeeded him in 1995.


2000s

Since 2000, the magazine has been part of AOL Time Warner, which subsequently reverted to the name Time Warner in 2003.

In 2007, Time moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered to subscribers on Saturday. The magazine actually began in 1923 with Friday publication.

During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for approximately a week due to "editorial changes." The changes included the job losses of 49 employees.[5]

In 2009, Time announced that they were introducing a personalised print magazine, Mine, mixing content from a range of Time Warner publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to be truly personal.[6]

Circulation

In 2007, Time's paid circulation dropped to 3.4 million.[7]

Time Magazine Paid Circulation by Year
Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Circulation (millions) 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.4 3.4

The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted from scanned images using optical character recognition technology. There are still minor errors in the text that are remnants of the conversion into text.

At the end of 2008, Time discontinued publication of its Canadian edition, which has been in existence for over 60 years.

Style

The distinctive Time writing style was parodied in 1936 by Wolcott Gibbs in an article in The New Yorker: "Backward ran sentences until reeled the mind […] Where it all will end, knows God!"  The early days of incessantly inverted sentences, "beady-eyed tycoons" and "great and good friends", however, have long since vanished.

Up until the mid-1970s or so,[8] Time had a weekly section called "Listings", which contained capsule summaries and/or reviews of then-current significant films, plays, musicals, television programs, and literary bestsellers, much like The New Yorker's section "Current Events".

Time is also known for its signature red border, introduced in 1927 and changed only twice since then. The issue released shortly after the September 11 attacks on the United States featured a black border to symbolize mourning. However, this edition was a special "extra" edition published quickly for the breaking news of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red border. The next time that Time would release a special edition magazine was in June 2009 following the death of Michael Jackson. Additionally, the April 28, 2008 issue of Time[9] featured a change from the signature red border: That 2008 Earth Day issue, dedicated to environmental issues, contained a green border.[10]

In 2007, Time engineered a style overhaul of the magazine. Among other changes, the magazine reduced the red cover border in order to promote featured stories, enlarged column titles, reduced the number of featured stories, increased white space around articles, and accompanied opinion pieces with photographs of the writers. The changes have met both criticism and praise.[11][12][13]

Legal controversy

On September 10, 2007, the Supreme Court of Indonesia awarded former Indonesian President Suharto damages against Time Asia magazine, ordering it to pay him one trillion rupiah for libel. The High Court reversed the judgment of the Appeal Court and Central Jakarta District Court (made in 2000 and 2001). Suharto claimed more than US$27 billion ($32bn) in the suit against US-based Time over a 1999 article which published that he transferred stolen money abroad.[14]

شخصية العام

المقالة الرئيسية: "تايم" شخصية العام

Time's most famous feature throughout its history has been the annual "Person of the Year" (formerly "Man of the Year") cover story, in which Time recognizes the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest effect on the year's news. Despite the title, the recipient is not necessarily individuals or even human beings - for instance, on January 3, 1983 the personal computer was recognized as "Machine of the Year" (Time.com). In 1989 "Endangered Earth" was named as "Planet Of The Year." In 1999, Albert Einstein was chosen by Time as Person of the Century.

Controversy has occasionally arisen because of the designation of alleged dictators and warmongers as "Persons of the Year". The distinction is supposed to go to the person who, for good or ill, has most affected the course of the year; it is therefore not necessarily an honor or a reward. In the past, such figures as Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin have been Man of the Year. In 2001, Time was accused of giving way to political correctness when it named Rudy Giuliani Person of the Year. Corazon Aquino who restored Democracy in the Philippines and impressed the U.S. Congress with her speeches is one of four women to grace Time as Woman of the Year.

In 2006 the Person of the Year was designated as "You", a move that was met with split reviews. Some thought the concept was creative; others wanted an actual person of the year. Others stated, again, that it was due to perceptions of misguided patriotism for many assumed the just bearer of the title to be the President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez. Editor Stengel reflected that, if it had been a mistake, "we're only going to make it once."[15]

In 2008, the person of the year was Barack Obama, with Sarah Palin as a runner up.


Time 100

المقالة الرئيسية: Time 100

In recent years, Time has assembled an annual list of the 100 most influential people of the year. Originally, they had made a list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. These issues usually have the front cover filled with pictures of people from the list and devote a substantial amount of space within the magazine to the 100 articles about each of the people on the list. There have, in some cases, been over 100 people, when two people have made the list together, sharing one spot.

Time For Kids

المقالة الرئيسية: Time For Kids

Written by young reporters, Time For Kids is a division magazine of Time that is especially published for children and is mainly distributed in classrooms. TFK contains some national news, a "Cartoon of the Week", and a variety of articles concerning popular culture. An annual issue concerning the environment is distributed near the end of the U.S. school term. The publication hardly ever reaches above fifteen pages front and back. It is used in many libraries.

Notable contributors

  • Aravind Adiga, Time correspondent for three years, winner of the 2008 Man Booker Prize for fiction
  • James Agee
  • Margaret Carlson was the first female columnist for Time.
  • Whittaker Chambers was editor of Time for a while.
  • Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel are film critics for the magazine. Schickel has been with the magazine since 1972 while Corliss has been with it since 1980.
  • Ana Marie Cox writes the Ana Log (a compilation of political tidbits) for the magazine. She is also an acclaimed blogger and author.
  • Nancy Gibbs, essayist and editor-at-large; has written more than 100 Time cover stories
  • Lev Grossman, brother of Bathsheba and Austin, writes primarily about books for the magazine.
  • Robert Hughes has been Time's art critic since 1970.
  • Michael Kinsley is a well traveled American journalist and is an essayist for the magazine.
  • Joe Klein is an author (Primary Colors) and a columnist for the magazine who writes the "In the Arena" column for the magazine.
  • Charles Krauthammer is a commentator for the Washington Post. He also contributes essays to Time.
  • Nathaniel Lande, author, filmmaker, and former creative director of Time.
  • Will Lang Jr. 1936-1968, Time Life International}
  • Michael Schuman is an American author and journalist who specializes in Asian economics, politics and history. He is currently the Asia business correspondent for TIME Magazine based in Hong Kong.
  • Robert D. Simon 1950-1987, Time Life International
  • Joel Stein is a sometimes controversial writer for the magazine who wrote the Joel 100 just after Time Magazine's Most Influential issue in 2006.

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الهامش

Further reading

  • The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine, Isaiah Wilner, HarperCollins, New York, 2006


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