إريش لودن‌دورف

General der Infanterie

Erich Ludendorff
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2005-0828-525 Erich Ludendorff (cropped)(b).jpg
Ludendorff in 1915
First Quartermaster General of the
Great General Staff
في المنصب
29 August 1916 – 26 October 1918
Serving with Paul von Hindenburg
(as Chief of the German General Staff)
العاهلWilhelm II
سبقهHugo von Freytag-Loringhoven
خلفهWilhelm Groener
التفاصيل الشخصية
وُلِد
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff

(1865-04-09)9 أبريل 1865
Kruszewnia, Province of Posen, Kingdom of Prussia, (now Kruszewnia, Poland)
توفي20 ديسمبر 1937(1937-12-20) (عن عمر 72 عاماً)
Munich, Nazi Germany
الحزبNational Socialist German Workers Party
ارتباطات
سياسية أخرى
DVFP
NSFB
الزوجMargarethe Schmidt (ز. 1909; ط. 1925)
Mathilde von Kemnitz (ز. 1925)
الوالدانAugust Wilhelm Ludendorff (father)
Klara Jeanette Henriette von Tempelhoff (mother)
الأقاربHans Ludendorff (brother)
Heinz Pernet (stepson)
التوقيع
الخدمة العسكرية
الولاءFlag of الإمبراطورية الألمانية الإمبراطورية الألمانية
الفرع/الخدمةKaiserstandarte.svg Imperial German Army
سنوات الخدمة1883–1918
الرتبةGeneral der Infanterie
المعارك/الحروبWorld War I
German Revolution
الأوسمةPour le Mérite
Iron Cross First class

Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, politician and military theorist. He achieved fame during World War I for his central role in the German victories at Liège and Tannenberg in 1914. Upon his rise to First Quartermaster-general (بالألمانية: Erster Generalquartiermeister) of the Imperial Army's Great General Staff in 1916, he became the chief policymaker in a de facto military dictatorship that dominated Germany for the rest of the war. After Germany's defeat, he emerged as a leading figure in the nation's right-wing fringe and contributed significantly to the Nazis' rise to power.

Erich Ludendorff was born on April 9, 1865 to a family of lower nobility in Kruszewnia near the Prussian province of Posen. After completing his education as a cadet, he received his commission as a junior officer in 1885. Later in 1893, Ludendorff received admission to the prestigious German War Academy and was recommended by its commandant to the General Staff Corps only a year later. By 1904, he had rapidly risen through the ranks to become a member of the Army's Great General Staff where he oversaw the development of the Schlieffen Plan.

Despite temporarily being removed from the Great General Staff for intervening in politics, Ludendorff restored his standing in the army through his success as a commander during World War I. On 16 August 1914, he led the successful German assault on Liège, a feat for which he received the Pour le Mérite. Ludendorff was then transferred to the Eastern Front under the command of General of the Infantry Paul von Hindenburg. There, he was instrumental in inflicting a series of crushing defeats against the Russians such as Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes. By August 1916, he successfully lobbied for Hindenburg's appointment as Chief of the Great General Staff while having himself named First-Quartermaster General. Once he and Hindenburg established a military dictatorship in all but name, Ludendorff became the architect behind Germany's entire military strategy and war effort. In this capacity, he secured Russia's defeat in the East and launched a new wave of offensives in the West resulting in advances not seen since the war's outbreak. However, by the end of 1918, any improvements in Germany's fortunes were reversed after its forces were decisively defeated in the Second Battle of the Marne and the Allies' Hundred Days Offensive. Faced with defeat and the prospect of revolution, the German Emperor, Wilhelm II, forced Ludendorff to resign.

After the war, Ludendorff became a prominent nationalist leader, and a promoter of the Stab-in-the-back myth, which posited that Germany's defeat resulted from its army's betrayal by Marxists, Freemasons and Jews who were likewise responsible for the emasculating settlement reached in the Treaty of Versailles. He also took part in the failed 1920 Kapp Putsch and 1923 Beer Hall Putsch before unsuccessfully running for President against his former wartime superior, Paul von Hindenburg. Thereafter, he retired from politics and devoted his final years to the study of military theory. His most famous work in this field was Der totale Krieg (The Total War) where he argued that a nation's entire physical and moral resources should remain poised for mobilization because peace was merely an interval between wars.[1] On 20 December 1937, he died of liver cancer in Munich.


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السيرة العسكرية قبل الحرب

لودن‌دورف في عمر 17 في 1882


انظر أيضاً

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Erich Ludendorff (German general) : Introduction – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 20 December 1937. Retrieved 16 May 2012.

Bibliography


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Primary sources

German studies

  • Amm, Bettina: Ludendorff-Bewegung. In: Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Judenfeindlichkeit in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Band 5: Organisationen, Institutionen, Bewegungen. De Gruyter, Berlin 2012. page 393 ff. ISBN 978-3-598-24078-2.
  • Gruchmann, Lothar: Ludendorffs „prophetischer“ Brief an Hindenburg vom Januar/Februar 1933. Eine Legende. In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. Band 47, 1999. pages 559–562.
  • Nebelin, Manfred: Ludendorff. Diktator im Ersten Weltkrieg. Siedler, München 2011. ISBN 978-3-88680-965-3.
  • Pöhlmann, Markus: Der moderne Alexander im Maschinenkrieg. In: Stig Förster (Hrsg.): Kriegsherren der Weltgeschichte. 22 historische Porträts. Beck, München 2006. ISBN 3-406-54983-7 pages 268–286.
  • Puschner, Uwe; Vollnhals, Clemens (Hrgb.); Die völkisch-religiöse Bewegung im Nationalsozialismus; Göttingen 2012 ISBN 978-3-525-36996-8.
  • Schwab, Andreas: Vom totalen Krieg zur deutschen Gotterkenntnis. Die Weltanschauung Erich Ludendorffs. In: Schriftenreihe der Eidgenössischen Militärbibliothek und des Historischen Dienstes. Nr. 17, Bern 2005.
  • Thoss, Bruno: Ludendorff, Erich. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Bd. 15, Berlin قالب:NDB/Jahr, S. 285–290.
  • Wegehaupt, Phillip: "Ludendorff, Erich". In: Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Bd. 2: Personen. De Gruyter Saur, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-44159-2, page 494 ff. (retrieved über Verlag Walter de Gruyter Online).

وصلات خارجية

قالب:EB1922 Poster

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مناصب عسكرية
سبقه
Hugo von Freytag-Loringhoven
First Quartermaster-General of the German Army
29 أغسطس 1916 – 26 أكتوبر 1918
تبعه
ڤلهلم گرونر
جوائز وانجازات
سبقه
وودرو ولسون
غلاف مجلة تايم
19 نوفمبر 1923
تبعه
هيو گبسون

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