عقد 2000

هجمات 11 سبتمبراليوروغزو العراق 2003الحرب في أفغانستانSocial mediaاولمبياد بيجينگ 2008الأزمة المالية 2007–2010زلزال المحيط الهادي 2004
من اليسار، مع عقارب الساعة: برجا مركز التجارة العالمي، مشتعلان بعد هجمات 11 سبتمبر؛ اليورو يصبح العملة الاوروبية في 2002؛ تمثال صدام حسين يـُسـَط أثناء غزو العراق 2003؛ الحرب في أفغانستان؛ الإعلام الاجتماعي عبر الإنترنت ينتشر في أرجاء العالم؛ جندي صيني يحملق في بدء اولمبياد بيجينگ 2008؛ الأزمة الاقتصادية, الأكبر منذ الكساد الكبير, تضرب العالم في 2008؛ تسونامي من المحيط الهندي عقب زلزال يقتل أكثر من 250,000 في يوم الملاكمة، 2004.
الألفية: الألفية 3
القرون: القرن 20القرن 21القرن 22
العقود: عقد 1970 عقد 1980 عقد 1990عقد 2000عقد 2010 عقد 2020 عقد 2030
Years: 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
التصنيفات: المواليدالوفياتالعمارة
التأسيساتالانحلالات

عقد 2000 أو الألفينات كان العقد الذي بدأ في 1 يناير 2000 و انتهى في 31 ديسمبر 2009. إنه العقد الذي بدأ فيه كل من القرن 21 والألفية الثالثة.


فهرست

السياسات والحروب

The War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001.[1][2] The International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq war led to the end of Saddam Hussein's rule as Iraqi President and the Ba'ath Party in Iraq. Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. These acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, and the Mumbai attacks related to al-Qaeda in 2008. The European Union expanded its sanctions amid Iran's failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty and UN resolutions.

The War on Terror generated extreme controversy around the world, with questions regarding the justification for U.S. actions leading to a loss of support for the American government, both in and outside the United States.[3] Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah, then with Israel and the Hamas. The greatest loss of life due to natural disaster came from the 2004 tsunami, killing around a quarter-million people and displacing well over a million others. Cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property value came in 2005, when Hurricane Katrina flooded nearly the entire city of New Orleans. The resulting political fallout was severely damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its perceived failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States and became the first African-American U.S. president when he succeeded Bush in 2009.[4]

الهجمات الارهابية

The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001.

The most prominent terrorist attacks committed against civilian population during the decade include:

حروب

أبرز النزاعات المسلحة في هذا العقد، وتشمل:

حروب دولية

  • Arab–Israeli conflict (Early 20th century–present)
    • 2006 Lebanon War (summer 2006) – took place in southern Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli military. The war that began as military operation in response to the abduction of two Israeli reserve soldiers by the Hezbollah, gradually strengthened and became a wider confrontation.
    • Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Early 20th century–present)
      • Second Intifada (2000–2005) – After the signing of the Oslo Accords failed to bring about a Palestinian state, in September 2000 the Second Intifada (uprising) broke out, a period of intensified Palestinian-Israeli violence, which has been taking place until the present day. As a result of the significant increase of suicide bombing attacks within Israeli population centers during the first years of the Al-Aqsa Intifada,[7] in June 2002 Israel began the construction of the West Bank Fence along the Green Line border arguing that the barrier is necessary to protect Israeli civilians from Palestinian terrorism. The significantly reduced number of incidents of suicide bombings from 2002 to 2005 has been partly attributed to the barrier.[8] The barrier's construction, which has been highly controversial, became a major issue of contention between the two sides. The Second Intifada has caused thousands of victims on both sides, both among combatants and among civilians – The death toll, including both military and civilian, is estimated to be 5,500 Palestinians and over 1,000 Israelis, as well as 64 foreign citizens.[9] Many Palestinians consider the Second Intifada to be a legitimate war of national liberation against foreign occupation, whereas many Israelis consider it to be a terrorist campaign.[10]
      • 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict – the frequent Hamas Qassam rocket and mortar fire launched from within civilian population centers in Gaza towards the Israeli southern civilian communities led to an Israeli military operation in Gaza, which had the stated aim of reducing the Hamas rocket attacks and stopping the arms smuggling into the Gaza Strip. Throughout the conflict Hamas further intensified its rocket and mortar attacks against Israel, hitting civilian targets and reaching major Israeli cities Beersheba and Ashdod for the first time. The intense urban warfare in densely populated Gaza combined with the use of heavy firepower by the Israeli side[11] and the intensified Hamas rocket attacks towards populated Israeli civilian targets led to a high toll on the Palestinian side and among civilians.[12]

حروب أهلية وحروب عصابات

Irregular combatants in North Darfur. The Arabic text on the bumper reads "The Sudan Liberation Army" (SLA).
Darfur refugee camp in Chad
  • War in Darfur (2003–2009) – an armed conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The conflict began when the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Darfur took up arms, accusing the government of oppressing black Africans in favor of Arabs. One side was composed mainly of the Sudanese military and the Sudanese militia group Janjaweed, recruited mostly from the Afro-Arab Abbala tribes of the northern Rizeigat region in Sudan. The other side was made up of rebel groups, notably the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement, recruited primarily from the non-Arab Muslim Fur, Zaghawa, and Masalit ethnic groups. Millions of people were displaced from their homes during the conflict.[14] There are various estimates on the number of human casualties – Sudanese authorities claim a death toll of roughly 19,500 civilians[15] while certain non-governmental organizations, such as the Coalition for International Justice, controversially claim that over 400,000 people have been killed during the conflict.[16]
  • Mexican Drug War (2006 – present) – an armed conflict fought between rival drug cartels and government forces in Mexico. Although Mexican drug cartels, or drug trafficking organizations, have existed for quite some time, they have become more powerful since the demise of Colombia's Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market in the United States.[17] Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, have led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States.[18][19][20] Roughly more than 16,851 people in total were killed between December 2006 until November 2009.[21]
Map showing the districts where the Naxalite movement is active (2007)
  • In India, Naxalite–Maoist insurgency (1967– present) has grown alarmingly with attacks such as April 2010 Maoist attack in Dantewada, Jnaneswari Express train derailment, and Rafiganj train disaster. Naxalites are a group of far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. It is presently the longest continuously active conflict worldwide. In 2006 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh called the Naxalites "The single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country."[22] In 2009, he said the country was "losing the battle against Maoist rebels".[23] According to standard definitions the Naxalite–Maoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict[24] between Maoist groups, known as Naxalites or Naxals, and the Indian government.[22] On April 6, 2010, Maoist rebels killed 75 security forces in a jungle ambush in central India in the worst-ever massacre of security forces by the insurgents. On the same day, Gopal, a top Maoist leader, said the attack was a "direct consequence" of the government's Operation Green Hunt offensive. This raised some voices of use of Indian Air Force against Naxalites, which were however declined citing "We can't use oppressive force against our own people".[25]
  • The Colombian Armed Conflict continues causing deaths and terror in Colombia. Beginning in 1964, the FARC and ELN narcoterrorist groups were taking control of rural areas of the country by the beginning of the decade, while terrorist paramilitaries grew in other places as businesspeople and politicians thought the State would lose the war against guerrillas. However, after the failure of the peace process and the activation of Plan Colombia, Álvaro Uribe Vélez was elected President in 2002, starting a massive attack on terrorist groups, with cooperation from civil population, foreign aid and legal armed forces. The AUC paramilitary organization disbanded in 2006, while ELN guerrillas have been weakened. The Popular Liberation Army demobilized while the country's biggest terrorist group, FARC has been weakened and most of their top commanders have been killed or died during the decade. During the second half of the decade, a new criminal band has been formed by former members of AUC who did not demobilize, calling themselves Aguilas Negras. Although the Colombian State has taken back control over most of the country, narcoterrorism still causes pain in the country. Since 2008, the Internet has become a new field of battle. Facebook has gained nationwide popularity and has become the birthplace of many civil movements against narcoterrorism such as "Colombia Soy Yo" (I am Colombia) or "Fundación Un Millón de Voces" (One Million Voices Foundation), responsible for the international protests against illegal groups during the last years.
  • The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002) came to an end when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) finally laid down their arms. More than two million people were displaced from their homes because of the conflict (well over one-third of the population) many of whom became refugees in neighboring countries. Tens of thousands were killed during the conflict.[26]
  • The Sri Lankan Civil War (1983–2009) came to an end after the government defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Over 80,000 people were killed during the course of the conflict.[27]
  • War in North-West Pakistan (2004–present) – an armed conflict between the Pakistani Armed Forces and Islamic militants made up of local tribesmen, the Taliban, and foreign Mujahideen (Holy Warriors). It began in 2004 when tensions rooted in the Pakistani Army's search for al-Qaeda members in Pakistan's mountainous Waziristan area (in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) escalated into armed resistance by local tribesmen. The violence has displaced 3.44 million civilians[28] and led to more than 7,000 civilians being killed.[29]
  • The Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), once a major proxy conflict of the Cold War, the conflict ended after the anti-Communist organization UNITA disbanded to become a political party. By the time the 27-year conflict was formally brought to an end, an estimated 500,000 people had been killed.[30]
  • Sa'dah insurgency (2004 – present) – a civil war in the Sa'dah Governorate of Yemen. It began after the Shī‘a Zaidiyyah sect launched an uprising against the Yemeni government. The Yemeni government has accused Iran of directing and financing the insurgency.[31] Thousands of rebels and civilians have been killed during the conflict.[32][33]
  • Somali Civil War (1991–present)
  • Conflict in the Niger Delta (2004 – present) – an ongoing conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The conflict was caused due to the tensions between the foreign oil corporations and a number of the Niger Delta's minority ethnic groups who felt they were being exploited, particularly the Ogoni and the Ijaw. The competition for oil wealth has led to an endless violence cycle between innumerable ethnic groups, causing the militarization of nearly the entire region that was occupied by militia groups as well as Nigerian military and the forces of the Nigerian Police.
  • Algerian Civil War (1991–2002) – the conflict effectively ended with a government victory, following the surrender of the Islamic Salvation Army and the 2002 defeat of the Armed Islamic Group. It is estimated that more than 100,000 people were killed during the course of the conflict.
  • Civil war in Chad (1998–present)

انقلابات

أبرز الانقلابات في هذا العقد، وتشمل:

تهديدات نووية

Anti-aircraft guns guarding Natanz Nuclear Facility in Iran


سيادة وطنية

ديمقراطية

أحداث سياسية

التعديلات والإضافات المدعومة بمراجع مرحب بها.
جورج دبليو بوش، رابع رؤساء الولايات المتحدة، 2001-2009.
Barack Obama, the first biracial president of the United States, was inaugurated in 2009


اغتيالات

أبرز الاغتيالات في هذا القرن:

كوارث

كوارث طبيعية

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004 earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.


زلازل (وتشمل التسونامي)

أوبئة

أشخاص في المكسيك يرتدون أقنعة في قطار بسبب وباء إنفلونزا الخنازير، أبريل 2009.

كوارث غير طبيعية

تحطم طائرات

شتات

الاقتصاد

المقالة الرئيسية: عقد 2000 في الاقتصاد


النمو الاقتصادي في العالم

Shanghai becomes a symbol of the recent economic boom of China.


العولمة وتأثيراتها

Offshore outsourcing of jobs, such as this call centre in India, significantly increased during the decade as many multinational corporations moved their manufacturing and services from western countries to developing countries.


عصر الاضطرابات

People queuing outside a Northern Rock bank branch in Birmingham, United Kingdom on September 15, 2007, to withdraw their savings because of the Subprime mortgage crisis.


أزمة الطاقة

المقالة الرئيسية: أزمة الطاقة عقد 2000
Increase in oil prices
Gas prices in late May 2008.

صعود اليورو

أصبح اليور العملة الرسمية لأعضاء منطقة اليورو.

العلوم والتكنولوجيا

العلوم

استكشاف الفضاء

Artist Concept of a NASA Mars Exploration Rover on Mars
These images show water in a very young lunar crater on the side of the moon that faces away from Earth.


علم الأحياء

أخرى

التكنولوجيا

الحوسبة والإنترنت

المقالة الرئيسية: خط زمني للحوسبة 2000–2009
أصبح گوگل أكثر مواقع الإنترنت زيارة.
Various iPod digital audio players


الڤيديو

الاتصالات

The popularity of mobile phones and text messaging surged in the 2000s in the Western world.



الروبوت

السيارات


النقل

أخرى

الأديان

للمزيد من المعلومات: الإلحاد في الولايات المتحدة



Mugshot of Mel Gibson taken on 28 July 2006.

القضايا السكانية والاجتماعية

Environment and climate change

Scientific studies on climate helped establish a consensus.


الحراك الدولية

Additional notable world-wide events

US Airways Flight 1549, January 15, 2009

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

الثقافة

الفنون الجميلة

الأدب

العمارة

الثقافة الشعبية

السينما

انظر أيضاً: عقد 2000 في السينما


The highest-grossing film of the decade was Avatar (2009)


الموسيقى


التلفزيون


الإذاعة

ألعاب الڤيديو

PlayStation 2 was released in 2000 and became the best-selling gaming console of all time


الرياضة

المقالة الرئيسية: عقد 2000 في الرياضة
The opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics, held in Beijing, China.



الكتابة

انظر أيضاً: عقد 2000 في الأدب

الموضة

المقالة الرئيسية: 2000–2009 في الموضة
Slim-fitting jeans remained popular through the decade, especially on women

الإعلام المطبوع

الصحافة


أشخاص

قادة العالم

السياسة

  • عبد العزيز عثمان التويجري, Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
  • Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, European Union
  • Mohamed al-Madani al-Azhari, Secretary-general Community of Sahel-Saharan States
  • Nikolay Nikolayevich Bordyuzha, Secretary-general Collective Security Treaty Organization
  • Klaus Bühler, President of the Interim European Security and Defense Assembly
  • Edwin W. Carrington, Secretary-general Caribbean Community
  • محمد بن شمباس, President of the Commission, Economic Community of West African States
  • جاك ضيوف, Director-general Food and Agriculture Organization
  • Karl von Habsburg, Executive Director Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
  • Enrique V. Iglesias, Secretary-general Ibero-American Cooperation Secretariat
  • Anders B. Johnsson, Secretary-general Inter-Parliamentary Union
  • Jakob Kellenberger, President International Committee of the Red Cross
  • أحمد محمد علي المدني, President Islamic Development Bank
  • Philippe Maystadt, President of the European Investment Bank
  • Ledum Mitee, President of the General Assembly Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
  • Hélène Pelosse, Director-general International Renewable Energy Agency
  • Marco Perduca, Treasurer Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
  • Sergio Piazzi, Secretary-general Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean
  • هرمان ڤان رومپوي، رئيس المجلس الاوروپي
  • Vassilios Skouris, President of the Court of Justice, European Union
  • Javier Solana Madariaga, High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, European Union
  • Juan Somavia Santa Cruz, Director-general International Labour Organization
  • Louis Sylvain-Goma, Secretary-general Economic Community of Central African States
  • Hélder Jorge Vaz Gomes Lopes, Director-general Community of Portuguese Language Countries
  • Robert Walter, President of the European Security and Defense Assembly

الرياضة

كرة القدم

الملاكمة

التنس

كرة السلة

أخرى

انظر أيضاً

بوابة عقد 2000بوابة عقد 2000

خط زمني

المقالات التالية تحتوي على خطوط زمنية موجزة لأبراز الأحداث التي وقعت في هذا العقد:


2000200120022003200420052006200720082009

الهوامش

المصادر

  1. ^ "Security Council Condemns, 'In Strongest Terms', Terrorist Attacks on the United States". United Nations. September 12, 2001. Archived from the original on 9 September 2006. Retrieved September 11, 2006. The Security Council today, following what it called yesterday's "horrifying terrorist attacks" in New York, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania, unequivocally condemned those acts, and expressed its deepest sympathy and condolences to the victims and their families and to the people and Government of the United States. 
  2. ^ "Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11". CBC News. October 29, 2004. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved January 11, 2009. al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden appeared in a new message aired on an Arabic TV station Friday night, for the first time claiming direct responsibility for the 2001 attacks against the United States. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Losing War on Terror". NPR. August 21, 2007. Retrieved Jun 1, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Historic moment as Obama sworn in". BBC News. January 20, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  5. ^ "U.S. troops' death toll in Afghanistan doubles in 2009". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Hussein's Iraq and al Qaeda not linked, Pentagon says". CNN. March 13, 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Questions and Answers". Israel's Security Fence. The State of Israel. February 22, 2004. Retrieved April 17, 2007. The Security Fence is being built with the sole purpose of saving the lives of the Israeli citizens who continue to be targeted by the terrorist campaign that began in 2000. The fact that over 800 men, women and children have been killed in horrific suicide bombings and other terror attacks clearly justifies the attempt to place a physical barrier in the path of terrorists. It should be noted that terrorism has been defined throughout the international community as a crime against humanity. As such, the State of Israel not only has the right but also the obligation to do everything in its power to lessen the impact and scope of terrorism on the citizens of Israel. 
  8. ^ Nissenbaum, Dion (January 10, 2007). "Death toll of Israeli civilians killed by Palestinians hit a low in 2006". Washington Bureau. McClatchy Newspapers. Retrieved April 16, 2007. Fewer Israeli civilians died in Palestinian attacks in 2006 than in any year since the Palestinian uprising began in 2000. Palestinian militants killed 23 Israelis and foreign visitors in 2006, down from a high of 289 in 2002 during the height of the uprising. Most significant, successful suicide bombings in Israel nearly came to a halt. Last year, only two Palestinian suicide bombers managed to sneak into Israel for attacks that killed 11 people and wounded 30 others. Israel has gone nearly nine months without a suicide bombing inside its borders, the longest period without such an attack since 2000[...] An Israeli military spokeswoman said one major factor in that success had been Israel's controversial separation barrier, a still-growing 250-mile (400 km) network of concrete walls, high-tech fencing and other obstacles that cuts through parts of the West Bank. ‘The security fence was put up to stop terror, and that's what it's doing,’ said Capt. Noa Meir, a spokeswoman for the Israel Defense Forces. [...] Opponents of the wall grudgingly acknowledge that it has been effective in stopping bombers, though they complain that its route should have followed the border between Israel and the Palestinian territories known as the Green Line. [...] IDF spokeswoman Meir said Israeli military operations that disrupted militants planning attacks from the West Bank also deserved credit for the drop in Israeli fatalities. 
  9. ^ B'Tselem – Statistics – Fatalities, B'Tselem.
  10. ^ "Israel, the Conflict and Peace: Answers to FAQ."[dead link] Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. November 3, 2003. April 20, 2009.
  11. ^ "Goldstone report: Israel and Palestinians respond to UN". BBC. January 29, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Confirmed figures reveal the true extent of the destruction inflicted upon the Gaza Strip; Israel’s offensive resulted in 1,417 dead, including 926 civilians, 255 police officers, and 236 fighters." (Press release). Palestinian Centre for Human Rights. March 19, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2009. [dead link]
  13. ^ GlobalSecurity.org, Second Chechnya War – 1999–???
  14. ^ de Montesquiou, Alfred (October 16, 2006). "African Union Force Ineffective, Complain Refugees in Darfur". Washington Post. Retrieved November 30, 2011. 
  15. ^ Nkrumah, Gamal (December 6, 2006). "Old dogs, new tricks". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  16. ^ Lacey, Marc (May 11, 2005). "Tallying Darfur Terror: Guesswork with a Cause". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  17. ^ Cook, Colleen W., ed. (October 16, 2007). "Mexico's Drug Cartels" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 7 
  18. ^ "Progress in Mexico drug war is drenched in blood". Associated Press. March 10, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2012. 
  19. ^ "High U.S. cocaine cost shows drug war working: Mexico". Reuters. September 14, 2007. Retrieved April 1, 2009. 
  20. ^ Sullivan, Mark P., ed. (December 18, 2008). "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF). Mexico – U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress (PDF). Congressional Research Service. pp. 2, 13, 14 
  21. ^ The attorney general's office says that 9 of 10 victims are members of organized-crime groups."Briefing: How Mexico is waging war on drug cartels.". The Christian Science Monitor. August 16, 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  22. ^ أ ب "Armed Conflicts Report – India-Andhra Pradesh". Ploughshares.ca. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009. 
  23. ^ "India is 'losing Maoist battle'". BBC News. September 15, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  24. ^ "India's Naxalites: A spectre haunting India". The Economist. April 12, 2006. Retrieved July 13, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Chhatisgarh attack 'consequence' of Green Hunt: Maoist leader". Hindustan Times. India. April 6, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  26. ^ White, Matthew (October 2010). "Mid-Range Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Users.erols.com. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  27. ^ Sri Lanka military, rebels trade death toll claims Reuters India – March 1, 2008.
  28. ^ "Red Cross 'gravely concerned' about conditions in Swat Valley". CNN. May 31, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Pakistan Assessment 2011". SATP.org. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  30. ^ Madsen, Wayne (May 17, 2002). "Report Alleges U.S. Role in Angola Arms-for-Oil Scandal". CorpWatch. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2008. 
  31. ^ Yemen Accuses Iran of Meddling in its Internal Affairs[dead link]
  32. ^ Ploughshares.com[dead link]
  33. ^ "Yemeni military battles Shi'ite rebels". The Age (Australia). March 20, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2011. 
  34. ^ Sheikh, Abdi (September 16, 2008). "Nearly 9,500 Somalis die in insurgency-group". Reliefweb.int. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  35. ^ Wallis, Daniel (December 11, 2008). Ireland, Louise, ed. "Sharif back in Mogadishu as death toll hits 16,210". Reuters. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  36. ^ allafrica More Than 1,700 Killed in Clashes in 2009, January 1, 2010
  37. ^ "Chad wants Sudan to disarm rebels". Al Jazeera. January 12, 2006. Retrieved November 30, 2011. 
  38. ^ Ed Douglas. "Inside Nepal's Revolution..... (just to check..!!!)". National Geographic Magazine, p. 54, November 2005. Douglas lists the following figures: "Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996 to 2005: 4,500. Nepalis killed by government in same period: 8,200."
  39. ^ Allen, Karen (November 30, 2006). "Eastern DR Congo rebels to disarm". BBC. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  40. ^ Gibbs N (2009). "Tiller's murder: The logic of extremism on abortion". Time. Retrieved February 9, 2010.

قراءات إضافية

  • London, Herbert I. The Transformational Decade: Snapshots of a Decade from 9/11 to the Obama Presidency (Lanham: University Press of America, 2012) 177 pp.

وصلات خارجية