بي‌ام‌پي-1

(تم التحويل من BMP-1)
BMP-1
BMP-1 03.jpg
BMP-1 at US Bolling Air Force Base, 1 October 1986.
النوع Infantry fighting vehicle
مكان الصنع Flag of الاتحاد السوڤيتي الاتحاد السوڤيتي
تاريخ الخدمة
في الخدمة 1966–present
اسُتخدم من قبل Soviet Union, Russia, Poland, Egypt, Syria, China, Afghanistan, India, Iraq, Germany, Greece, and Sweden.
الحروب See Service history and Combat history
تاريخ الانتاج
المصمم Pavel Isakov (Design Bureau of the ChTZ)[1]
صُمم 1961–1965
المُصنع Kurgan Engineering Works (KMZ) (USSR)[1]
ZTS Dubnica nad Váhom (Czechoslovakia)
Military Motorization Works No. 5 (Poland)
See also Production history section for details.
صنعت 1966–1983 (USSR)
unknown–1988 (Poland)
عدد المصنوعات More than 20,000 of all variants (USSR)[2]
More than 3,000 of all variants (PRC)[3]
1,994 (Czechoslovakia)
274 (Poland)
~800 (India)[4]
التنويعات BMP-1, BMP-2, MLI-84, Boragh, see also BMP-1 variants.
المواصفات

(Ob'yekt 765Sp3)

الوزن 13.2 طن متري (13.0 طن كبيرs; 14.6 طن صغيرs)[5][6]
الطول 6.735 م (22 قدم 1.2 بوصة)[5]
العرض 2.94 م (9 قدم 8 بوصة)[5]
الإرتفاع 2.068 م (6 قدم 9.4 بوصة)
1.881 م (6 قدم 2.1 بوصة) to turret top[5][6]
الطاقم 3 (commander, driver and gunner) + 8 passengers

التدريع 6–33 mم (0.020–0.108 قدم) welded rolled steel
التسليح
الرئيسي
73 mm 2A28 Grom low pressure smoothbore short-recoil semi-automatic gun (40 rounds)[5]
9S428 ATGM launcher for 9M14 Malyutka (4 + 1 rounds)[5][6][7]
التسليح
الثانوي
7.62 mm PKT coaxial machinegun (2,000 rounds)
المحرك UTD-20, 6-cylinder 4-stroke V-shaped airless-injection water cooled multifuel 15.8 liter diesel
300 hp (224 kW) at 2,600 rpm[5][6]
القوة/الوزن 22.7 hp/tonne (17.0 kW/tonne)
التعليق individual torsion bar with hydraulic shock absorbers on the 1st and 6th road wheels
الخلوص الأرضي 370 mم (1.21 قدم) [5][6]
Fuel capacity 462 ل (102 غالون إمب; 122 غال-أمريكي)[6]
المدى العملي 600 kم (2,000,000 قدم) road[8]
500 kم (1,600,000 قدم) off-road[6]
السرعة 65 كم/س (40 ميل/س) road
45 كم/س (28 ميل/س) off-road
7–8 كم/س (4.3–5.0 ميل/س) water[6][7]

بي‌ام‌پي-1 BMP-1 هي مركبة قتال مشاة مجنزرة برمائية سوڤيتية. بي‌ام‌پي BMP هي اختصار Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty (بالروسية: Боевая Машина Пехоты), meaning "fighting vehicle of infantry").[9] The BMP-1 was the world's first mass-produced infantry fighting vehicle (IFV).[6][10] It was called the M-1967, BMP and BMP-76PB by NATO before its correct designation was known.[11][12]

It was a revolutionary design combining the properties of an armored personnel carrier (APC) and a light tank. The Soviet military leadership saw any future wars as being conducted with nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, where unprotected infantry would soon be either killed or incapacitated by radiation or chemical and biological agents. A vehicle like the BMP would allow infantry to operate from the relative safety of its armored, radiation shielded interior in contaminated areas and to fight alongside it in uncontaminated areas. It would increase infantry squad mobility, provide fire support to them, and also be able to fight alongside main battle tanks.[13]

The BMP-1 was first tested in combat in the 1973 Yom Kippur War where it was used by Egyptian and Syrian forces. Based on lessons learned from this conflict and early experiences in the Soviet War in Afghanistan, a version with improved fighting qualities, the BMP-2 was developed. It was accepted into service in August 1980.

In 1987, the BMP-3, a radically redesigned vehicle with a completely new weapon system, entered service in limited numbers with the Soviet Army.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التطوير

Mechanized infantry tactics during the 1950s were similar to الحرب العالمية الثانية methods in which APCs were used as "battle taxis"; they brought their infantry up to the front line where they then dismounted and fought on foot while the APC provided suppressive fire from its on-board armament.[13]


الموديلات

A large number of variants of the BMP-1 were produced. The most notable IFV variants based on the BMP-1 were: BMP-2, MLI-84 and Boragh.

جدول الموديلات

خصائص الموديلات الرئيسية لعائلة المركبات بي‌ام‌پي
بي‌ام‌پي
(اوبـْيـِكت 765Sp1)
بي‌ام‌پي-1
(اوبـْيـِكت 765Sp2)
بي‌ام‌پي-1
(اوبـْيـِكت 765Sp3)
بي‌ام‌پي-1P
(اوبـْيـِكت 765Sp4/5)
بي‌ام‌پي-1D بي‌ام‌پي-2 بي‌ام‌پي-3
الوزن
(طن)
12.6 13.0 13.2 13.4 14.5 14.0 18.7
الطاقم 3+8 3+7
المدفع الرئيسي 73 مم 2A28 "Grom" low pressure smoothbore مدفع نصف آلي 30 مم 2A42 مدفع آلي مدفع/قاذف صواريخ آلي
100 مم 2A70
30 مم 2A72 مدفع آلي
المدفع 7.62 مم PKT coaxial 3 × 7.62 mm PKT
(1 coaxial, 2 bow mounted)
ص.م.م.د.
(تسمية الناتو)
9M14 "ماليوتكا"
(AT-3 Sagger)
وتنويعات
9M113 "كونكورس"
(AT-5 Spandrel)
or
9M111 "Fagot"
(AT-4 Spigot)
وتنويعات
9M14 "ماليوتكا" أو
9M113 "كونكورس" or
removed (on most vehicles)[14]
9M113 "كونكورس"
(AT-5 Spandrel)
or
9M111 "Fagot"
(AT-4 Spigot)
وتنويعات
9M117 "Bastion"
(AT-10 Stabber)
المحرك UTD-20 6-cylinder 4-stroke V-shaped
ديزل مبرد بماء حقن لاهوائي
ينتج 300 حصان (224 kW) عند 2,600 rpm
UTD-20S1 diesel
ينتج
300 حصان (224 kW)
at 2,600 rpm
UTD-29M 10-cylinder diesel
ينتج
500 حصان (375 kW)
عند 2,600 rpm
نسبة القدرة إلى الوزن
حصان/طن
(kW/طن)
23.8
(17.8)
23.1
(17.2)
22.7
(17.0)
22.4
(16.7)
20.7
(15.5)
21.4
(16.0)
26.7
(20.0)

Description

The BMP-1 is a fully amphibious tracked vehicle, with a front-engined chassis developed especially for it, a welded steel hull with a sharp, sloping front with a conspicuously ridged surface, a centrally located, flat, truncated cone turret and a troop compartment at the rear.[15]

مكان السائق

Two Bulgarian Army soldiers man the driver's and gunner's stations while a US Army soldier occupies the commander's position of a Bulgarian BMP-1 IFV.


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مكان القائد

البرج

Gunner's station of a BMP-1 training turret at Parola Tank Museum, Finland. Note the ammunition stowage.

مكان المدفعجي

التسليح

Gun
Detailed view of the BMP-1's turret at Bolling Air Force Base.

Main armament is the 73 mm 2A28 "Grom" low pressure smoothbore semi-automatic gun. It is fed from a forty round magazine located around the turret ring.[16] Cyclic rate of fire is 8 to 10 rounds per minute, with the gun returning to an elevation of +3° 30' to reload after each shot if the autoloader is used.


مقصورة القوات

The BMP-1's firing ports location and firing arcs.
BMP-1 with eight passengers


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القدرة على المناورة

القدرة البرمائية

Two US Marines lower the trim vane on the front of an Iraqi BMP-1 captured during Operation Desert Storm, March 17, 1991

حماية التدريع

Armor[7]

مشاكل في الحماية

Iraqi BMP-1 in a field after being hit several times and burnt out during Operation Desert Storm, February 1, 1991.


The rear doors are hollow fuel tanks, each has a periscope at the top, and the left door has a firing port.
One side of the troop compartment. Seats are back to back with a fuel tank between them. Fume extractors can be seen on the hull to the right, these clip on to weapons when they are used through the firing ports.

المشغلون

Poland, مصر, سوريا, الصين, أفغانستان, الهند, العراق, ألمانيا, Greece, and السويد.

انظر أيضاً

مركبات مقارنة

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Z&S7-8
  2. ^ "БОЕВЫЕ МАШИНЫ ПЕХОТЫ (БМП) И СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫЕ МАШИНЫ НА ИХ БАЗЕ". militaryparitet.com (in Russian). Retrieved 13 December 2009.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Deagel BMP-1
  4. ^ Army Equipment
  5. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Tanks in Russia
  6. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ "Боевая машина пехоты БМП-1" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2007-12-18.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. ^ أ ب ت خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Janes
  8. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Global Security
  9. ^ "Soderzhaniye" (PDF). Military Parade. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-27.
  10. ^ BMP-1 fas.org BMP-1
  11. ^ Warfare.ru
  12. ^ "A Brief Guide to Russian Armored Fighting Vehicles". Archived from the original on 2001-12-08.
  13. ^ أ ب Zaloga and Sarson 1994, p. 6.
  14. ^ БМП-1Д
  15. ^ "BMP-1". armscontrol.ru. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
  16. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Z&S22
  17. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Czołgi Świata (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 18

المصادر

  • Боевая машина пехоты БМП-1. Памятка экипажу по эксплуатации (Infantry Fighting Vehicle BMP-1. Service Instruction for a Crew) (in Russian). The Ministry of Defence of USSR. 1974.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Боевая машина пехоты БМП-1. Техническое описание и инструкция по эксплуатации (Infantry Fighting Vehicle BMP-1. Technical Description and Service Instruction) (in Russian). The Ministry of Defence of USSR. 1979.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Fedoseev S.L. (2001). Иллюстрированный справочник. Боевые машины пехоты (Illustrated Guide. Infantry Fighting Vehicles) (in Russian). Astrel', AST. ISBN 5-17-008788-8.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Foss, Christopher F. (2005). Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 9780710626868.
  • Grau, Lester W. (January 1997). "Russian-Manufactured Armored Vehicle Vulnerability in Urban Combat: The Chechnya Experience". Red Thrust Star, US Army.
  • Holyavskiy G.L. (2001). Энциклопедия бронетехники. Гусеничные боевые машины (Encyclopedia of Armoured Vehicles. Tracked Fighting Vehicles) (in Russian). Harvest. ISBN 985-13-0035-7.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Hull/Markov/Zaloga (1999). Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices: 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.
  • Karpenko A.V. (1996). Обозрение отечественной бронетанковой техники (1905-1995 г.г.) (Overview of Native Armoured Vehicles, 1905-1995) (in Russian). Nevskiy Bastion.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Malyshev S. (2002). Боевая машина пехоты БМП-1 (1964-2000) (Infantry Fighting Vehicle BMP-1, 1964-2000) (in Russian). Russian Motor Books. ISBN 5-09-873406-4 Check |isbn= value: checksum (help).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Szulc, Tomasz (2000). "Modernizacje bojowego wozu piechoty BMP-1 cz.I" (in Russian). Nowa Technika Wojskowa. ISSN 1230-1655. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Tsouras, P.G. (1994). Changing Orders: The evolution of the World's Armies, 1945 to the Present. Facts On File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-3122-3.
  • Witkowski, Igor (1993). Lekkie i średnie opancerzone wozy bojowe (in Russian). WiS. ISBN 83-86028-02-5.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Zaloga S., Sarson P. (1994). BMP Infantry Fighting Vehicle, 1967-94. New Vanguard 14. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1855324336.

وصلات خارجية