|جزء من سلسلة عن|
BBIBP-CorV is one of two inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccines being developed by Sinopharm. As of December 2020, it is in Phase III trials in Argentina, Bahrain, Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, Peru, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with over 60,000 participants. By November 2020, nearly one million people had taken the vaccine through China's emergency use program. By December 2020, almost 100,000 people in the UAE had also received the vaccine as part of a voluntary program.
On 30 December 2020, Sinopharm announced the vaccine's efficacy was 79.34%, which was lower than the 86% announced by the United Arab Emirates on December 9. The UAE had based its results on an interim analysis of Phase III trials conducted from July. Both Bahrain and UAE have approved the vaccine for use. The UAE will provide BBIBP-CorV for free to all citizens and residents.
BBIBP-CorV uses a similar, more traditional technology as in CoronaVac and BBV152, other inactivated virus vaccines for COVID-19 being developed in Phase III trials. Such a technology has been successfully applied in many well known vaccines such as the rabies vaccine. but the lack of public data related to BBIBP-CorV could limit Sinopharm from distributing the vaccine within China and across a variety of other countries.
- 1 الأبحاث السريرية
- 2 التصنيع
- 3 التصريح باستخدام الطواريء
- 4 التسويق والانتشار
- 5 جدل
- 6 انظر أيضاً
- 7 المصادر
- 8 وصلات خارجية
المرحلة الأولى والثانية
In April 2020, China approved clinical trials for a candidate COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinopharm's Beijing Institute of Biological Products and the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products. Both vaccines are chemically-inactivated whole virus vaccines for COVID-19.
On October 15, the Beijing Institute of Biological Products published results of its Phase I (192 adults) and Phase II (448 adults) clinical studies for the BBIBP-CorV vaccine, showing BBIBP-CorV to be safe and well-tolerated at all tested doses in two age groups. Antibodies were elicited against SARS-CoV-2 in all vaccine recipients on day 42. These trials included individuals older than 60.
On August 13, the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products published interim results of its Phase I (96 adults) and Phase II (224 adults) clinical studies. The report noted the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine had a low rate of adverse reactions and demonstrated immunogenicity, but longer-term assessment of safety and efficacy would require Phase III trials.
BIBP-CorV may have characteristics favorable for vaccinating people in the developing world. While mRNA vaccines, such as the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and mRNA-1273 showed higher efficacy of +90%, mRNA vaccines present distribution challenges for some nations, as some may require deep-freeze facilities and trucks. By contrast, BIBP-CorV can be transported and stored at normal refrigeration temperatures. While Pfizer and Moderna are among developers relying on novel mRNA technology, manufacturers have decades of experience with the inactivated virus technology Sinopharm is using.
On July 16, Sinopharm began conducting a Phase III vaccine trial of 31,000 volunteers in the UAE in collaboration with G42 Healthcare, an Abu Dhabi-based company. By August, all volunteers had received their first dose and were to receive the second dose within the next few weeks. On December 9, UAE's Ministry of Health and Prevention announced the official registration of BBICP-CorV, after an interim analysis of the Phase III trial showed BBIBP-CorV to have a 86% efficacy against COVID-19 infection. The vaccine had a 99% sero-conversion rate of neutralizing antibodies and 100% effectiveness in preventing moderate and severe cases of the disease.
On September 2, Sinopharm began a Phase III trial in Casablanca and Rabat on 600 people. In September, Egypt opened registration for a Phase III trial to last one year and enroll 6,000 people.
In August 2020, Sinopharm began a Phase III clinical trial in Bahrain on 6,000 citizens and resident volunteers. In a November update, 7,700 people had volunteered in the Phase III trial. Also in late August, Sinopharm began a Phase III clinical trial in Jordan on 500 volunteers at Prince Hamzah Hospital.
In Pakistan, Sinopharm began working with the University of Karachi on a vaccine trial with 3,000 volunteers, which if successful would allow the country to receive enough doses early in distribution to vaccinate one-fifth of its population.
On September 10, Sinopharm began a Phase III trial in Peru with the long-term goal of vaccinating a total of 6,000 people between the ages of 18 and 75. In October, Phase III trials were expanded to include an additional 6,000 volunteers. On January 26, a volunteer who received a placebo in the vaccine trials died of COVID.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Sinopharm facility in Beijing will be able to produce 120 million doses per year while another facility in Wuhan will be able to produce 100 million doses per year. In an October update, Sinopharm said it may have the capacity to produce more than 1 billion doses in 2021.
In October, Dubai's G42 Healthcare reached manufacturing agreements with Sinopharm to provide UAE and other regional states with BBIBP-CorV, with the UAE producing 75 to 100 million doses in 2021.
In December, Egypt announced an agreement between Sinopharm and Egyptian Holding Company for Biological Products & Vaccines (VACSERA) for the vaccine to be manufactured locally, which would also be exported to African countries after being produced.
In December, the AP reported Morocco's initial vaccine doses will come from China, but that the country also plans to produce BBIBP-CorV locally.
التصريح باستخدام الطواريء
Sinopharm obtained an EUA for one of its COVID-19 vaccine candidates in July. In June, prior to the emergency use program, employees at state firms travelling overseas were allowed to take one of the two vaccines being developed by Sinopharm. In October, it began offering the vaccine for free to Chinese students going abroad for higher studies. In October, Zhejiang, a province with a population of 58.5 million near Shanghai, announced high-risk residents could receive vaccinations starting late November.
On November 3, Bahrain granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for the use of Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine for frontline workers, according to state news agency BNA. Several ministers and senior officials have received the vaccine in Bahrain, including Salman, Crown Prince of Bahrain.
On 14 September 2020, the UAE approved Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine for front-line workers following successful interim Phase III trials. "The results of studies during the final stages of the Phase III trial showed that the vaccine is effective and resulted in a strong response, and the generation of antibodies to the virus." said Minister of Health Abdulrahman Al Owais.
In December, Bahrain's National Health Regulatory Authority approved Sinopharm's vaccine, citing data from Phase III clinical trials that showed an 86% efficacy rate and saying Bahrain had participated in those trials.
In January, Cambodia Prime Minister Hun Sen said China would provide a million doses of BBIBP-CorV to vaccinate 500,000 people. The Health Ministry granted emergency use authorization on February 4.
In November, China received Sinopharm's regulatory application to launch its vaccine to the general market. On December 30, Sinopharm received conditional approval from the National Medical Products Administration, becoming the first COVID-19 vaccine approved for general use in China.
In January, Jordan approved of BBIBP-CorV for emergency use after previously approving the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Prime Minister Bisher Al-Khasawneh and several other members of the government received the vaccine candidate during its Phase III testing. Jordan started its vaccination campaign on January 13.
In January, Laos began vaccinations on medical workers at hospitals in Vientiane with BBIBP-CorV. Laos expects to vaccinate 1.5 million people in 2021 with doses from Sinopharm, Russia, and COVAX.
In December, Pakistan's announced it would purchase 1.2 million doses of BBIBP-CorV which would be provided free to frontline workers in the first quarter of 2021. Pakistan approved the vaccine for emergency use on January 18, and began its vaccination campaign with BBIBP-Corv on February 2.
In December, the United Arab Emirates officially registered BBIBP-CorV after it reviewed the results of the interim analysis. On December 14, Abu Dhabi, began widespread inoculation with BBIBP-CorV on a voluntary basis. Some UAE residents were reluctant to take the vaccine. By January 18, more than 1.8 million people in the UAE had received BBIBP-CorV, which is available for free to all citizens and residents.
Egypt plans to buy 40 million doses of Sinpharm's vaccine. On January 3, Egypt granted regulatory approval for use of BBIBP-CorV. President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced the commencement of vaccination in Egypt to be due in 24 January, with health officials being prioritized.
Morocco placed orders for 41 million vaccine doses from Sinopharm and 25 million from AstraZeneca, for a total of 66 million doses. Morocco granted emergency use approval for BBIBP-CorV on January 23, and the first 500,000 doses arrived in Morocco on January 27.
In January, Seychelles said it would begin administering vaccinations on January 10 with 50,000 doses it had received as a gift from the UAE. Health Minister Peggy Vidot said political leaders will be first vaccinated, then health workers.
In January, Peru's President Francisco Sagasti said the country will receive delivery of one million doses of BBIBP-CorV in January as part of a larger agreement to purchase 38 million doses of BBIBP-CorV. Peru granted emergency approval for BBIBP-CorV on January 27.
In January, Hungary became the European Union's first member state to approve BBIBP-CorV, signing a deal for 5 million doses to enable Hungary to inoculate 2.5 million people, about a quarter of its population. Prime Minister Viktor Orbán said the government had been monitoring the outcome of mass vaccinations using BBIBP-CorV in Serbia.
In January, Serbia received one million doses of BBIBP-CorV, making it the first European country to receive BBIBP-CorV. On January 19, Serbia approved the vaccine and Health Minister Zlatibor Lončar became the first person to receive the vaccine.
افتقاد البيانات العامة والثقة
Unlike Moderna's MRNA-1273, Oxford-AstraZeneca's AZD1222, and Johnson & Johnson's Ad26.COV2.S, there is little public information about the Chinese vaccine's safety or efficacy. The UAE said it had reviewed Sinopharm's interim data analysis which showed the vaccine was 100% effective to prevent moderate and severe instances of COVID-19, but did not say whether it had independently analyzed the case data in its review. It was unclear how Sinopharm drew conclusions, since the UAE announcement of the approval for BBIBP-CorV noticeably lacked details such as the number of COVID-19 cases in the placebo or active group or the volunteers ages. Zhengming Chen, a University of Oxford epidemiologist, said, "It's difficult to tell how well the vaccine works. I hope it is real."
The lack of public data could limit Sinopharm from sending the vaccine to a variety of other countries, as confidence in BBIBP-CorV's safety and efficacy will be crucial to its successful rollout internationally. Chen said that to convince other countries to follow suit requires solid scientific evidence and robust data that are open to scrutiny. As of December 30, 2020, no detailed efficacy data of the vaccine has been released to the public. Jin said while China's recent approval could boost BBIBP-CorV's credibility, more data is needed if it is to take a share in the global market. A Sinopharm executive said detailed data would be released later and published in scientific journals in China and internationally.
Sinopharm president Wu Yonglin said the trial results exceeded the WHO's requirements, but a director at a large pharmaceutical company in Shanghai expressed skepticism over the trials and the expectation that drug regulators in Bahrain and the UAE would not hold the same standard as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Some people, including health professionals in China, intended to be cautious about the vaccine. A doctor at a leading hospital in Shandong said, "I am not going to get the vaccine over safety concerns", adding "It is still in clinical trials."
In January 2021, the government of the Philippines acknowledged the public's hesitation over safety concerns about COVID-19 vaccines and commented on a foreign news report about BBIBP-CorV, which listed 73 side effects, including loss of vision and taste as well as blood pressure increase. The government said the FDA would carefully review all documents, including the report on the 73 adverse reactions, should Sinopharm apply for clinical trial or emergency use.
الاستخدام الغير مصرح به في آسيا
On December 30, Philippine Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana said in an interview that at least one minister and president Rodrigo Duterte's bodyguards were provided BBIBP-CorV which were "smuggled" but that he felt what happened was "justified". Brigadier General Jesus Durante, head of the Presidential Security Guard (PSG), said he felt compelled and "took the risk" to have some of his men vaccinated because they provide close-in security to Duterte, who at 75 is highly vulnerable to COVID-19. Ingming Aberia, an author at The Manila Times commented that FDA director-general Enrique Domingo had reason to believe Sinopharm may cause harm to the consuming public given that no COVID-19 vaccine license was issued, but out of "self-preservation", he would not initiate charges against PSG.
On January 1, Mainichi Shimbun reported that 18 wealthy people, including several owners of leading Japanese companies, have been vaccinated with Sinopharm vaccines since November 2020. The vaccines were brought in by a Chinese consultant close to a senior member of the Chinese Communist Party. The Chinese embassy in Japan later expressed its dissatisfaction at the unverified claims by Japanese news media.
- ^ أ ب Reuters Staff (2020-11-19). "China Sinopharm's coronavirus vaccine taken by about a million people in emergency use". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
- ^ Mostafa Salem and Yong Xiong. "China's Sinopharm vaccine has 86% efficacy against Covid-19, says UAE". CNN. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
- ^ Nectar Gan. "China's Sinopharm says its coronavirus vaccine is 79% effective". CNN. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
- ^ أ ب ت Reuters Staff (2020-12-09). "UAE says Sinopharm vaccine has 86% efficacy against COVID-19". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
- ^ أ ب "Bahrain approves Chinese COVID-19 vaccine for use". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-12-13.
- ^ أ ب Kerr S (21 December 2020). "UAE rolls out free Chinese vaccines to all citizens and residents". Financial Times. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
- ^ Cohen J (December 2020). "China's vaccine gambit". Science. 370 (6522): 1263–1267. doi:10.1126/science.370.6522.1263. PMID 33303601.
- ^ أ ب Tan Y (16 December 2020). "Covid: What do we know about China's coronavirus vaccines?". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- ^ أ ب Yu, Sun (December 31, 2020). "China approves first domestic Covid-19 vaccine for general use". Financial Times. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
- ^ أ ب ت Cyranoski D (14 December 2020). "Arab nations first to approve Chinese COVID vaccine — despite lack of public data". Nature. 588 (7839): 548. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03563-z. PMID 33318701. S2CID 229178674. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
- ^ أ ب Xia S, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Wang H, Yang Y, Gao GF, et al. (October 2020). "Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 21: 39–51. doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30831-8. PMC 7561304. PMID 33069281.
- ^ أ ب Xia S, Duan K, Zhang Y, Zhao D, Zhang H, Xie Z, et al. (September 2020). "Effect of an Inactivated Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 on Safety and Immunogenicity Outcomes: Interim Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials". JAMA. 324 (10): 951–960. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15543. PMC 7426884. PMID 32789505.
- ^ أ ب "China State-Backed Covid Vaccine Has 86% Efficacy, UAE Says". Bloomberg.com. 2020-12-09. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
- ^ أ ب Maxwell C. "Coronavirus: UAE authorises emergency use of vaccine for frontline workers". The National. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- ^ "Coronavirus: 15,000 register as volunteers for Covid-19 vaccine trial in UAE". The National. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ "UAE: Ministry of Health announces 86 per cent vaccine efficacy". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
- ^ "Morocco orders R-Pharm Covid-19 vaccine | The North Africa Post". northafricapost.com. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- ^ "Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) - The world health organization international clinical trials registered organization registered platform". www.chictr.org.cn. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
- ^ "Egypt to start receiving volunteers for COVID-19 vaccine trials". Egypt Independent. 2020-09-12. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
- ^ "Bahrain starts Phase III trial of Sinopharm's Covid-19 vaccine". Clinical Trials Arena. 24 August 2020.
- ^ Manama TD. "Vaccine trial continues | THE DAILY TRIBUNE | KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN". DT News. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
- ^ أ ب ت Barrington L (3 November 2020). "Bahrain allows Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine candidate use in frontline workers". Reuters. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
- ^ Liu R (5 September 2020). "China's CNBG, Sinovac find more countries to test coronavirus vaccines". Reuters. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- ^ "Jordan starts phase 3 trial of China's COVID-19 vaccine". Jordan Times. 2020-08-30. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
- ^ "Coronavirus vaccine should be available in Pakistan 'within 6-8 weeks'". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
- ^ "China to supply potential coronavirus vaccine to Pakistan: WSJ report". Dawn. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ "Third Phase of Human Trials for Coronavirus Vaccine Underway in Peru | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
- ^ "6,000 additional volunteers required for trials of Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine" (in الإسبانية). Andina. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
- ^ Aquino, Marco (2021-01-27). "Peru volunteer in Sinopharm vaccine trial dies of COVID-19 pneumonia, university says". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
- ^ "Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety of the Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (COVID-19) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov". clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
- ^ Majumder BG (24 August 2020). "Herculean Task Ahead to Produce Coronavirus Vaccines For All; Will It Ever Cover 7 Billion People?". International Business Times. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ Liu R (20 October 2020). "Sinopharm says may be able to make over one billion coronavirus vaccine doses in 2021". Reuters. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ Greaves J (2020-10-08). "UAE company nears end of Chinese Covid-19 vaccine trial". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
- ^ "Chinese COVID-19 vaccine effective: Egypt's MoH". EgyptToday. 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
- ^ "Health Min: a new production line to produce Sinopharm's Chinese vaccine in Egypt and will be exported to African countries". EgyptToday. 2020-12-12. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
- ^ "Morocco acquires 65 million vaccine doses from China, UK". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
- ^ "Sinovac's coronavirus vaccine candidate approved for emergency use in China - source". Reuters. 2020-08-29. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
- ^ Vivek V (15 October 2020). "China's Sinopharm offers experimental COVID-19 vaccines to students: WSJ". Reuters. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- ^ Chen F (2020-10-20). "Chinese province set to roll out jabs against Covid". Asia Times. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
- ^ Reuters Staff (2021-01-15). "Cambodia says China donates 1 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
- ^ "Health Ministry grants Emergency Use Authorization to China's Sinopharm vaccine". Khmer Times (in الإنجليزية). 2021-02-04. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
- ^ hermesauto (2020-11-25). "China Covid-19 vaccine maker seeks approval for public use". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
- ^ "China gives conditional approval to coronavirus vaccine made by Sinopharm". Global News. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
- ^ أ ب Liu R (2020-12-31). "China gives its first COVID-19 vaccine approval to Sinopharm". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
- ^ Taufiqurrahman M. "Indonesia can be manufacturing hub for COVID-19 vaccine, says Chinese foreign minister". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- ^ Jangiz, Khazan. "Iraq approves the emergency use of two more COVID-19 vaccines". www.rudaw.net. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
- ^ "Algerian president returns to Germany to be treated for COVID-19 complications". Arab News. 2021-01-10. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
- ^ Thanabouasy, Phayboune (2021-01-27). "Laos Begins Vaccinations for Over 600 Medical Workers". Laotian Times. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
- ^ Peshimam GN (2020-12-31). "Pakistan to purchase 1.2 million COVID-19 vaccine doses from China's Sinopharm". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
- ^ Shahzad, Asif (2021-01-19). "Pakistan approves Chinese Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
- ^ Dawn.com (2021-02-02). "PM Imran kicks off Pakistan's Covid-19 vaccination drive". DAWN.COM (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2021-02-03.
- ^ Vyshnavy (2021-01-27). "China to donate 300,000 vaccine doses to Sri Lanka | Colombo Gazette". Retrieved 2021-01-29.
- ^ أ ب "Abu Dhabi starts COVID-19 vaccinations". Arab News. 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-17.
- ^ Kumar A (December 12, 2020). "UAE Covid-19 vaccine: Private hospitals start giving the jab". Khaleej Times. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- ^ Turak, Natasha (2021-01-18). "The UAE is on track to have half its population vaccinated by the end of March". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
- ^ أ ب "Egypt approves Chinese COVID vaccine, roll-out likely this month". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-01-03.
- ^ Reuters Staff (2021-01-24). "Sisi says Egypt to begin COVID-19 vaccinations on Sunday". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
- ^ Eljechtimi, Ahmed (2021-01-26). "Morocco prepares to launch COVID-19 vaccination programme". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
- ^ "Moroccan health ministry grants emergency approval to Sinopharm's Covid-19 vaccine". wam. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
- ^ Dumpis, Toms (2021-01-27). "Morocco Receives Half a Million Doses of Chinese Sinopharm Vaccine". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2021-01-28.
- ^ "Seychelles to start vaccinations with Chinese-made Sinopharm". AP NEWS. 2021-01-08. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
- ^ Staff, Reuters (2021-02-04). "Zimbabwe to get 200,000 COVID-19 doses from China's Sinopharm". Reuters (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2021-02-04.
- ^ Reuters Staff (2021-01-06). "Peru inks deals with Sinopharm, AstraZeneca for coronavirus vaccines -president". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-07.
- ^ Aquino, Marco (2021-01-27). "Peru grants 'exceptional' approval for Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine - government sources". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-28.
- ^ "Hungary signs deal for Chinese Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine, first in EU". nationalpost. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
- ^ "Montenegro to receive first doses China's COVID-19 vaccine in Jan - health min". seenews.com. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
- ^ "N. Macedonia in talks to buy Chinese COVID-19 vaccines". seenews.com. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
- ^ Reuters Staff (2021-01-16). "Serbia receives million doses of China's Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
- ^ "Serbia Becomes First European Nation To Use China's Sinopharm Vaccine". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
- ^ Wee SL (9 December 2020). "Chinese Covid-19 Vaccine Gets Key Push, but Doubts Swirl". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
- ^ "Gov't. vows strict vaccine screening after poll result on public hesitancy, report on Sinopharm". CNN Philippines. January 8, 2021. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
- ^ Dancel R. "Philippine officials under fire from critics, health authorities for unsanctioned Covid-19 vaccinations". The Straits Times.
- ^ Aberia, Ingming (6 January 2021). "Did Sinopharm forget that Duque exists?". The Manila Times. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- ^ "水面下で出回る中国ワクチン 富裕層から永田町へ？ 狙われる日本市場". Mainichi Daily News (in اليابانية). 2020-12-31. Retrieved 2021-01-02.
- ^ Elmer, Keegan (January 3, 2021). "Beijing responds to claims Japanese were given unapproved Sinopharm jabs". South China Morning Post. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
- "How the Sinopharm Covid-19 Vaccine Works". The New York Times.