قائمة الجسيمات

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الجسيمات الأولية

الجسيمات الأولية عبارة عن جسيمات لا تملك بنية داخلية (مقيسة) قابلة للقياس . بمعنى انها لا تتكون من بني جسيمية أدنى منها فهي غير مركبة مما هو ادنى بل تشكل كيانا مستقلا تتألف منه بقية العناصر المادية المركبة من ذرات و جزيئات و عناصر . طبعا هذا التعريف لا يعتبر ما يدعى بالأوتار في نظرية الاوتار الفائقة . تعتبر الجسيمات الأولية المكونات الأساسية ضمن نظرية الحقل الكمومي . يمكن تصنيف هذه الجسيمات حسب السبين حيث تملك بعض الجسيمات سبينا نصف صحيح half-integer فتدعى فرميونات والبعض الآخر تملك سبينا صحيحا فتدعى بوزونات .


النموذج العياري

يمثل النموذج العياري أكثر الأشكال تكاملا لفهم فيزياء الجسيمات . جميع الجسيمات المذكورة في النموذج العياري تم رصدها تجريبيا باستخدام المسرعات باستثناء بوزون هيگز Higgs boson المسؤول عن قوة الثقالة .

الفرميونات

كواركات

الجيل Name/Flavor شحنة كهربائية (e) الكتلة (MeV) الكوارك المضاد
1 علوي (u) +2/3 1.5 to 4 antiup quark
سفلي (d) −1/3 4 to 8 antidown quark
2 غريب (s) −1/3 80 to 130 antistrange quark
فاتن (c) +2/3 1,150 to 1,350 anticharm quark
3 قعري Buttom (b) −1/3 4,100 to 4,400 antibottom quark
قمي TOP (t) +2/3 171,400 ± 2,100[1] antitop quark


ليبتونات

بوزون (سبين صحيح)

Name Charge (e) Spin Mass (GeV) Force mediated
Photon 0 1 0 Electromagnetism
W± ±1 1 80.4 Weak nuclear
Z0 0 1 91.2 Weak nuclear
Gluon 0 1 0 Strong nuclear
Graviton 0 2 0 Gravity
Higgs 0 0 >112 See below


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جسيمات افتراضية

نظريات التناظر الفائق تتوقع وجود المزيد من الجسيمات، إلا أن لم يتأكد تجريبياً وجود أي منهم حتى عام 2009.

Superpartners
Superpartner Superpartner of Spin Notes
neutralino neutral bosons 12 The neutralino is a superposition of the superpartners of neutral Standard Model bosons: neutral higgs boson, Z boson and photon.
The lightest neutralino is a leading candidate for dark matter.
The MSSM predicts 4 neutralinos
chargino charged bosons 12 The chargino is a superposition of the superpartners of charged Standard Model bosons: charged higgs boson and W boson.
The MSSM predicts two pairs of charginos.
photino photon 12 Mixing with zino, neutral wino, and neutral Higgsinos for neutralinos.
wino,zino W± and Z0 bosons 12 Charged wino mixing with charged Higgsino for charginos, for the zino see line above.
Higgsino Higgs boson 12 For supersymmetry there is a need for several Higgs bosons, neutral and charged, according with their superpartners.
gluino gluon 12 Eight gluons and eight gluinos.
gravitino graviton 32 Predicted by Supergravity (SUGRA). The graviton is hypothetical, too - see next table.
sleptons leptons 0 The superpartners of the leptons (electron, muon, tauon) and the neutrinos.
sneutrino neutrino 0 Introduced by many extensions of the Standard Model, and may be needed to explain the LSND results.
A special role has the sterile sneutrino, the supersymmetric counterpart of the hypothetical right-handed neutrino, called sterile neutrino
squarks quarks 0 The stop squark (superpartner of the top quark) is thought to have a low mass and is often the subject of experimental searches.

Note: Just as the photon, Z boson and W± bosons are superpositions of the B0, W0, W1, and W2 fields - the photino, zino, and wino± are superpositions of the bino0, wino0, wino1, and wino2 by definition.
No matter if you use the original gauginos or this superpositions as a basis, the only predicted physical particles are neutralinos and charginos as a superposition of them together with the Higgsinos.

Other theories predict the existence of additional bosons:

Other hypothetical bosons and fermions
Name Spin Notes
Higgs 0 Has been proposed to explain the origin of mass by the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the SU(2) gauge symmetry.
SUSY theories predict more than one Higgs bosons.
graviton 2 Has been proposed to mediate gravity in theories of quantum gravity.
graviscalar 0 Also known as radion
graviphoton 1 Also known as gravivector[2]
axion 0 A pseudoscalar particle introduced in Peccei-Quinn theory to solve the strong-CP problem.
axino 12 Superpartner of the axion. Forms, together with the saxion and axion, a supermultiplet in supersymmetric extensions of Peccei-Quinn theory.
saxion 0
branon ? Predicted in brane world models.
dilaton 0 Predicted in some string theories.
dilatino 12 Superpartner of the dilaton
X and Y bosons 1 These leptoquarks are predicted by GUT theories to be heavier equivalents of the W and Z.
W' boson 1
Z' boson 1
magnetic photon ?
majoron 0 Predicted to understand neutrino masses by the seesaw mechanism.
majorana fermion 12 ; 32 ?... Gluinos, neutralinos, or other

Mirror particles are predicted by theories that restore Parity symmetry.

Magnetic monopole is a generic name for particles with non-zero magnetic charge. They are predicted by some GUTs.

Tachyon is a generic name for hypothetical particles that travel faster than the speed of light and have an imaginary rest mass.

Preons were suggested as subparticles of quarks and leptons, but modern collider experiments have all but ruled out their existence.

Kaluza-Klein towers of particles are predicted by some models of extra dimensions. The extra-dimensional momentum is manifested as extra mass in four-dimensional space-time.



بوزونات إضافية :


جسيمات مركبة

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هادرونات

باريونات (فرميونات)

A combination of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 32 form the so-called baryon decuplet.
Proton quark structure: 2 up quarks and 1 down quark.
For a detailed list, see List of baryons.

ميزونات (بوزونات)

ميزونات ذات of spin 0 form a nonet


النويات الذرية

A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. In the nucleus, the protons are in red and neutrons are in purple. In reality, the nucleus is also spherically symmetrical.

Atomic nuclei consist of protons and neutrons. Each type of nucleus contains a specific number of protons and a specific number of neutrons, and is called a nuclide or isotope. Nuclear reactions can change one nuclide into another. See table of nuclides for a complete list of isotopes.


الذرات

الجزيئات

--المادة المكثفة==


غيرهم

مصنف حسب السرعة

طالع أيضاً


المصادر

  1. ^ "Top mass: now at 1.2% uncertainty". 2006-08-03. Retrieved 2006-10-15.
  2. ^ Roy Maartens, “Brane-World Gravity”, Living Rev. Relativity, 7, (2004), 7. [1], [2]