طب وقائي

الوقاية من المرضPreventive medicine هي الإجراءات التي تتخذ لحماية الإنسان من المرض. وتسمى أيضا العلاج الوقائي. وهو على عكس العلاج التقويميأو الشفائي الذي يعطى عندما يكون الشخص مصاباً بمرض أو في حالة غير صحية. والإجراءات الوقائية أمر ضروري لتحسين الصحة ووقف انتشار الأمراض. وقد برهنت الوسائل التي اكتشفهاإدوارد جنر، وروبرت كوش، ولويس باستير، وآخرون أنه من الممكن زيادة مناعة الجسم ضد أمراض معينة باستعمال لقاحات. والوقاية الجماعية هي الطب الوقائي في مجال الصحة العامة. فاتباع القوانين الصحية، والتحصين الشامل ضد الأمراض، على سبيل المثال، يساعدان على حماية المجتمعات من أمراض كثيرة.

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مستويات

Level Definition
Primary prevention avoids the development of a disease.[1] Most population-based health promotion activities are primary preventive measures.
Secondary prevention activities are aimed at early disease detection, thereby increasing opportunities for interventions to prevent progression of the disease[2] and emergence of symptoms.
Tertiary prevention reduces the negative impact of an already established disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications.[3]
Quaternary prevention is the set of health activities that mitigate or avoid the consequences of unnecessary or excessive interventions in the health system.


Universal, selective, and indicated

Tier Definition
Universal prevention addresses the entire population (national, local community, school, district) and aim to prevent or delay the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. All individuals, without screening, are provided with information and skills necessary to prevent the problem.
Selective prevention focuses on groups whose risk of developing problems of alcohol abuse or dependence is above average. The subgroups may be distinguished by characteristics such as age, gender, family history, or economic status. For example, drug campaigns in recreational settings.
Indicated prevention involves a screening process, and aims to identify individuals who exhibit early signs of substance abuse and other problem behaviours. Identifiers may include falling grades among students, known problem consumption or conduct disorders, alienation from parents, school, and positive peer groups etc.

المهنيين

الوقاية

السبب الرئيسي للوفاة يمكن الوقاية منها

Cause Number of deaths resulting (millions per year)
Hypertension 7.8
Smoking 5.0
High cholesterol 3.9
Malnutrition 3.8
Sexually transmitted infections 3.0
Poor diet 2.8
Overweight and obesity 2.5
Physical inactivity 2.0
Alcohol 1.9
Indoor air pollution from solid fuels 1.8
Unsafe water and poor sanitation 1.6
Cause Number of deaths resulting
Tobacco Smoking 435,000 deaths or 18.1% of the total deaths
Overweight and Obesity 365,000 deaths or 15.2% of the total deaths.
Alcohol consumption 85,000 deaths or 3.5% of the total deaths.
Infectious diseases 75,000 deaths or 3.1% of the total deaths.
Toxicants 55,000 deaths or 2.3% of the total deaths.
Traffic collisions 43,000 deaths or 1.8% of the total deaths.
Incidents involving firearms 29,000 deaths or 1.2% of the total deaths.
Sexually transmitted diseases 20,000 deaths or 0.8% of the total deaths.
Drug abuse 17,000 deaths or 0.7% of the total deaths.

انظر أيضاً


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المصادر

ملاحظات

الترميزات

وصلات خارجية