صنوبر صخري

هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
Not to be confused with Japanese umbrella-pine or Swiss stone pine

صنوبر صخري
Pinien La Brena2004.jpg
Stone pine forest
كوستا دى لا لوث، اسبانيا
التصنيف العلمي edit
أصنوفة غير معروفة (أصلحها): Pinus subsect. Pinaster
Species:
Binomial name
Template:Taxonomy/PinusPinus pinea
Pinus pinea range.svg
Distribution map

الصنوبر الصخري Pinus pinea ، وموطنه الأصلي البلاد التي تخيط بالبحر المتوسط. وهو يزرع للزينة ، وجذعه محمر اللون حرشفي ، ويتفرع عند القمة فقط ، مما يضفي على الشجرة شكلا مميزا يشبه المظلة. ويشذ هذا الصنوبر في أنه ينتج بذورا تسمى بذور الصنوبر، وتعتبر طعاما شهيا، يستخدم في عمل الحلوى.


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التوزيع

Stone pines in Tudela de Duero (Valladolid), Spain.


الاستخدامات

كغذاء

Pinus pinea has been cultivated extensively for at least 6,000 years for its edible pine nuts, which have been trade items since early historic times. The tree has been cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region for so long that it has naturalized, and is often considered native beyond its natural range.


شجرة زينة

In Italy, the stone pine has been an aesthetic landscape element since the Italian Renaissance garden period. The tree is among the symbols of Rome, where many historic Roman roads, such as the Via Appia, are embellished with lines of stone pines. Stone pines were planted on the hills of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul for ornamental purposes during the Ottoman period. In the 1700s, P. pinea began being introduced as an ornamental tree to other Mediterranean climate regions of the world, and is now often found in gardens and parks in South Africa, California, and Australia. It has naturalized beyond cities in South Africa to the extent that it is listed as an invasive species there. It is also planted in western Europe up to southern Scotland, and on the East Coast of the United States up to New Jersey.

In the United Kingdom it has won the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2][3]

Small specimens are used for bonsai, and also grown in large pots and planters. The year-old seedlings are seasonally available as table-top Christmas trees 20–30 centiمترs (7.9–11.8 بوصة) tall.

غيره

Other products of economic value include resin, bark for tannin extraction, and empty pine cone shells for fuel. Pinus pinea is also currently widely cultivated around the Mediterranean for environmental protection such as consolidation of coastal dunes, soil conservation and protection of coastal agricultural crops.[4]

الآفات

The introduced western conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis) was accidentally imported with timber to northern Italy in the late 1990s from western USA, and has spread across Europe as an invasive pest species since then. It feeds on the sap of developing conifer cones throughout its life, and its sap-sucking causes the developing seeds to wither and misdevelop. It has destroyed most of the pine nut seeds in Italy, threatening P. pinea in its native habitats there.[5]

المراجع

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Pinus pinea". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1998: e.T42391A10690403. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T42391A10690403.en. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  2. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Pinus pinea". Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  3. ^ "AGM Plants – Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 71. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  4. ^ Fady, B.; Finesch, S.; Vendramin, G. (2004), Italian stone pine − Pinus pinea: Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, http://www.euforgen.org/fileadmin//templates/euforgen.org/upload/Publications/Technical_guidelines/1036._Italian_stone_pine_Pinus_pinea.pdf 
  5. ^ PR (20 October 2010). "Italy's pine nut pest". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)


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وصلات خارجية

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Taxonbar على السطر 140: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).