زلزال وتسونامي سنداي 2011

تسونامي وزلزال سنداي 2011
2011 Sendai earthquake and tsunami
آثار زلزال اليابان 11 مارس 2011.jpg
زلزال وتسونامي سنداي 2011 is located in اليابان
زلزال وتسونامي سنداي 2011
التاريخ11 مارس 2011
وقت الأصل05:46:23 UTC
(14:46 JST)
المقدار8.9 Mw
العمق15.2 ميل (24 kم)
المركز38°19′19″N 142°22′08″E / 38.322°N 142.369°E / 38.322; 142.369Coordinates: 38°19′19″N 142°22′08″E / 38.322°N 142.369°E / 38.322; 142.369
النوعزلزال تسبب في تسونامي
المناطق المتأثرةاليابان (بصفة أساسية)
دول متعددة (تسونامي)
إجمالي الضررأعاصير، إنزلاقات أرضية، حرائق، دمار البنية التحتية والمباني، حوادث نووية
التسارع الأوجي0.35g
التسوناميYes
الإنزلاقاتYes
توابع الزلزال315 على الأقل (30 فوق 6.0 MW)
الطائرات الخفيفة والسيارات في مطار سنداي بعد زلزال اليابان مارس 2011.

تسونامي وزلزال سنداي 2011 (東北地方太平洋沖地震, Tōhoku Chihō Taiheiyō-oki Jishin[1], حرفيا "زلزال ساحل المحيط الهادي" منطقة توهوكو) هو زلزال بقوة 8.9-م. د. ع. نتج عنه موجات تسونامي لمسافة أكثر من 10 كم.[2] بلغت درجته 7[3] حسب وكالة الأرصاد اليابانية لقياس قوة الزلازل في محافظة مي‌ياگي الشمالية، اليابان، [3] وحذرت وكالة الأرصاد اليابانية من إمكانية تكون تسونامي اذا ما بلغ الزلزال 8.4 درجة،[4] عدلت فيما بعد إلى 8.8.[5] كان مركز الزلزال في شبه جزيرة اوشيكا، على الشاطئ الغربي لتوهوكو في 11 مارس 2011، في الساعة .5:46 حسب التوقيت المحلي العالمي (14:46 التوقيت المحلي) على عمق 24.4 كم.[6]

ويعتبر زلزال سنداي 2011 أقوى زلزال ضرب اليابان في التاريخ المسجل.[2] وسابع أقوى زلزال في العالم منذ بدء التسجيل.[7][8] ويعتقد أنه أقوى زلزال ضرب اليابان أثناء 1,200 عام مضت.[9]

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الزلزال

أعقب الزلزال الرئيسي مجموعة توابع، بدأت بقوة 7.2 في 9 مارس، ثم زلزال في 11 مارس، وتبعه ثلاثة آخرون في نفس اليوم يفوقون M6 في الشدة.[2]

وقع الزلزال في غرب المحيط الهادي، على بعد 120 كم من سندي، هونشو، اليابان. كان مركز الزلزال على بعد 373 من طوكيو، حسب المسح الجيولوجي الأمريكي (USGS). حدثت مجموعة من التوابع بعد زلزال بقوة 8.8 في الساعة 14.46 بالتوقيت المحلي. ووقع تابع آخر بقوة 7.0 في الساعة 15.06 بالتوقيت المحلي.[10] ثم أكثر من 40 تابع بقوة 5.0 أو أكثر في الساعات القليلة التالية بعد الزلزال الرئيسي.

خريطة زلزال سنداي 2011

كانت قوة الزلزال في البداية 7.9 حسب المسح الجيولوجي الأمريكي ثم ارتفع قوته سريعا إلى 7.9، 8.8، إلى أن وصلت إلى 8.9.[2]

This earthquake occurred in the Japan Trench. A quake of this size usually has a rupture length of at least 480 kiloمترs (300 mi) and requires a long, relatively straight fault line. Because the plate boundary and subduction zone in this region is not so straight, earthquakes in this region are usually expected to be with magnitudes up to 8 to 8.5, and the magnitude of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists.[11]

The quake registered a maximum 7 on the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale in كوري‌هارا، مي‌ياگي.[3][12] Three other prefectures—فوكوشيما, إيباراكي وتوچيگي—recorded upper 6 on the JMA scale. Seismic stations in Iwate, Gunma, Saitama and Chiba Prefecture measured lower 6, recording upper 5 in Tokyo.

A local official at the hardest-hit city of كوري‌هارا في محافظة مي‌ياگي, in a telephone interview by Agence France-Presse (AFP) said:

We were shaken so strongly for a while that we needed to hold on to something in order not to fall. We couldn't escape the building immediately because the tremors continued... City officials are now outside, collecting information on damage.[13]

An earthquake measured magnitude of 6.7 by JMA occurred at 18:59 UTC, 11 March (03:59, 12 March local time).[14] Its epicenter was in Niigata Prefecture. The quake was recorded upper 6 on the JMA intensity scale in محافظة ناگانو and lower 6 in Niigata.


تسونامي

Tsunami ocean energy distribution forecast map for the 2011 Sendai earthquake from the U.S. NOAA

الزلزال استدعى اطلاق انذار تسونامي لساحل اليابان على المحيط الهادي وعلى الأقل 20 دولة، تتضمن كامل الساحل الأمريكي على المحيط الهادي من ألاسكا إلى تشيله.[15][16][17][18] The tsunami warning issued by Japan was the most serious on its warning scale, implying that the wave was expected to be 10 مترs (33 ft) high.[19] According to Kyodo news agency, a wave that high was observed at 3:55pm JST flooding Sendai Airport, which is located near the coast of محافظة مي‌ياگي,[20][21] with waves sweeping aside cars and flooding various buildings as they traveled inland.[22] Kyodo news agency has reported a four-meter-(13 ft) high tsunami hitting Iwate Prefecture in Japan. A 0.5-متر (20 in)-high wave hit Japan's northern coast.[23][13] Reports indicate that the wall of water was higher than some Pacific islands and the danger of tsunami flooding prompted warnings for almost the entire Pacific basin.[24]

في بيان صحفي، من مركز التحذير من تسونامي في المحيط الهادي:

An earthquake of this size has the potential to generate a destructive tsunami that can strike coastlines near the epicentre within minutes and more distant coastlines within hours.[13]

The United States West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning for the coastal areas of كاليفورنيا واوريگون from Point Conception, California to the Oregon-Washington border.[18] Residents in Seaside and Astoria, Oregon were notified by reverse 911 and sirens in early morning hours to evacuate low-lying areas; public schools were closed for the day.[25] In Crescent City, California, one death was reported from the tsunami with another person missing, along with significant damage to the local harbor.[26]

When the tsunami hit Guam, two U.S. attack submarines were pulled from their moorings but they were soon taken under tow.[27] The tsunami was as much as 1.5-2 m (6–7 feet high) in parts of Hawaii with the surge reaching at least 30 m (100 feet) inland on the south side of the Big Island but no damage was reported.[28]

توقع الأوقات المقدرة لانتشار التسونامي

مناطق أخرى متأثرة

المنطقة الإخلاء انذار التسونامي ارتفاع التسونامي الخسائر المصادر
تايوان نعم نعم 10 سم 0 [29]
گوام، الولايات المتحدة نعم نعم 40 سم 0 [30][31][32]
ماريانا الشمالية نعم نعم 40 سم 0 [30][31]
هاواي (معظم الأماكن)، الولايات المتحدة نعم نعم 2.1 متر 0 [33][34]
الفلپين (معظم الأماكن) نعم نعم 1 متر 0 [35][36]
مالوكو الشمالية، الفلپين نعم نعم 10 سم 0 [35][37]
پالو (بعض الأجزاء) نعم نعم 11 سم 0 [35][38][39][40][41][42][43]
توڤالو، Nanumea island نعم نعم "موجتان صغيرتان" 0 [44]
Indonesia's North Sulawesi and Maluku islands نعم نعم 10 سم 0 [35][45][29]
Russia's Sea of Okhotsk's coastline غير معروف غير معروف 3.4 متر 0 [46]
جزر الكوريل الروسية نعم نعم 3.3 متر 0 [46][47]
جزيرة ميدواي، الولايات المتحدة لا (غير مأهولة) لا (غير مأهولة) 1.5 متر 0 [48][48]
Maui, Hawaii, USA نعم نعم 2.1 متر 0 [49][48]
Shemya, Alaska, USA نعم نعم 1.5متر 0 [48]
Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA نعم نعم متر 0 [48]
شاطئ كونا، بيگ أيلاند، هاواي، الولايات المتحدة نعم نعم متر 0 [48]
واك أيلاند، هاواي، الولايات المتحدة نعم نعم 1.8 متر 0 [48][50]
كاليفورنيا، الولايات المتحدة نعم نعم 2 متر 5 [51]
المكسيك، شاطئ المحيط الهادي غير معروف نعم 70 سم 0 [52]

حالة التنبيه الحالية

Since 5:55 UTC the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has been issuing frequently updated tsunami warnings and estimated arrival times.[53][54]

Arrival times for Pacific islands
3
The unnamed parameter 2= is no longer supported. Please see the documentation for {{columns-list}}.

ما بعد الزلزال

منظر للمباني المحترقة في طوكيو
ما بعد الزلزال في طوكيو

الخسائر

نظام إذاعة طوكيو (TBS) أكد 1,597[55] dead and another 1,481[55] missing in six different prefectures.[56][23]

By 09:30 March 11 UTC, Google Person Finder, which was previously used in the Haiti, Chile, and Christchurch earthquakes, was collecting information about survivors and their locations.[57][58]

It has been confirmed that two passenger trains containing an unknown number of passengers have disappeared on a coastal area during the tsunami.[59]

It has also been confirmed that a ship carrying 100 people was swept away by the tsunami. The current status of the ship is still unknown.[60]

البنية التحتية

The effects of the quake included visible smoke rising from a building in the ميناء طوكيو with parts of the port areas being flooded, including soil liquefaction in Tokyo Disneyland's carpark.[61][13] Shinkansen bullet train services in and out of Tokyo were suspended, though there were no derailments; Narita and Haneda Airport both suspended operations after the quake, with most flights diverted to other airports until further notice.[13] Various train services around Japan were also cancelled, with JR East suspending all services for the rest of the day.[62]

According to Tohoku Electric, around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity.[63] Several nuclear and conventional power plants went offline after the earthquake.

Fire at the Cosmo Oil refinery in Ichihara

An oil refinery of Cosmo Oil Company was set on fire by the quake at Ichihara Chiba Prefecture to the east of Tokyo.[64]

Japan's transport network suffered as well. Many sections of Tohoku expressway serving northern Japan have been damaged.[65] Many railways services were suspended in Tokyo, with an estimated 20,000 people stranded at major stations across Tokyo. In the hours after the earthquake, some train services were resumed.[66]

According to an unnamed official from Chunghwa Telecom, the earthquake has caused "some damage" to an undersea cable near Kita on the eastern coast of Japan but data transmission hasn't been interrupted.[67]

Fires were reported "sweeping across" the town of Kesennuma, Japan.[68]


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وحدات الطاقة النووية

The cooling systems of the Fukushima nuclear plant were damaged, and are running on backup battery power alone. A nuclear emergency has been declared for the area by the Japanese government.

في أعقاب الزلزال، تم إغلاق محطات الطاقة النووية التالية تلقائيا؛ محطة الطاقة النووية اوناگاوا، فوكوشيما 1، فوكوشيما 2، ومحطات توكاي للطاقة النووية. محطة الطاقة النووية هيگاشيدوري والتي تقع على الساحل الشمالي الشرقي، أغلقت تلقائيا بالفعل للتفيش الدوري. محطة روكاشو للمعالجة النووية، وتقع على الساحل أيضا، تم تشغيلها بمولدات الطوارئ التي تعمل بالديزل.[69]

بصفة منفصلة، حدث حريق في محطة اوناگاوا.[69] The blaze was in a building housing the turbine, which is sited separately from the plant's reactor.[70]

فوكوشيما

According to the Associated Press Japan has declared a state of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.[71] Officials say there has been no leak of radiation or radioactive material.[72]

One facility in Fukushima developed a mechanical failure in the reactor cooling system after it was shut down and emergency power supply failed but there was no radiation leak.[73] Past midnight local time, it was reported that The Tokyo Electric Power Company was considering venting out superhot gas from the reactor vessel into the atmosphere, which could result in the release of radioactives.[74] The core of the reactor remains hot however, so cooling is still required. Unnamed officials at the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency reported that due to lack of electricity the emergency cooling system is currently powered by a battery, which lasts about eight hours. Another six batteries have been secured, and the government may use military helicopters to fly them in.[75] A precautionary state of emergency has been declared.[70] More than 2,000 residents living within a 3-kiloمتر (1.9 mi) radius of the plant were evacuated, while residents living within a zone 3 to 10 kiloمترs (1.9 to 6.2 mi) away were asked to evacuate.[76][77]

Japanese officials have announced their intentions to vent "slightly radioactive" gas to relieve pressure within the reactor vessel.[78][79]

كسنـّوما، مي‌ياگي

حدثت حرائق كبيرة في مدينة كسنـّوما، مي‌ياگي، والتي يصل عدد سكانها إلى 73,403.[80][81]

الأسواق المالية

Japan’s Nikkei saw its futures slide 5% in after-market trading.[82] Other stock markets around the world were also affected;[83] the German DAX lost 1.2% and fell to 6,978 points within minutes.[84] Bombay Stock Exchange or Sensex (India) has also plunged by 0.84%[83] Oil prices have also dropped as a result of the earthquake in Japan, as well as the ongoing violence in Libya and expected demonstrations in Saudi Arabia, seeing US crude drop as low as $99.01 from $100.08 by lunchtime, along with Brent crude falling $2.62 to $112.81.[85] In Hong Kong, the Financial Secretary John Tsang warned investors to "take extra care" as the earthquake may have a short term impact on the local stock market. [86]

ردود الفعل

ردود الفعل الحكومية

Prime Minister Naoto Kan announced the government has mobilized the Japanese Self-Defense Forces in various earthquake disaster zones.[87] He asked the Japanese public to act calmly and tune into various media for updated information.[87][88] He also reported numerous nuclear power plants have automatically shut down to prevent damage and radiation leaks.[87] PM Kan also setup emergency headquarters in his office to coordinate the government's response.[88]

Central banks have vowed to do their utmost to ensure financial market stability.[89]

ردود الفعل الدولية

Japan received condolence messages and offers of assistance from a range of international leaders. The United States moved naval vessels closer to Japan for the purposes of providing aid.[90] According to the United Nations, search and rescue teams from 45 countries had been offered to Japan. Japan specifically requested teams from Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and the US.[91]

انظر أيضا


المصادر

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