خاكوبو آربنز

هذا اسم إسباني; لا يتضمن اسم العائلة.
فخامة العقيد
Jacobo Árbenz
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman (oficial).jpg
25 رئيس گواتيمالا
في المنصب
15 مارس 1951 – 27 يونيو 1954
سبقه خوان خوسيه أريڤالو
خلفه كارلوس إنريكى دياز دى ليون
وزير الدفاع الوطني الأول
في المنصب
15 مارس 1945 – 15 مارس 1951
الرئيس خوان خوسيه أريڤالو
سبقه منصب مستحدث
خلفه كارلوس إنريكى دياز دى ليون
رأس دولة وحكومة گواتيمالا
في المنصب
20 أكتوبر 1944 – 15 مارس 1945
Serving with Francisco Javier Arana و Jorge Toriello
سبقه Federico Ponce Vaides
خلفه خوان خوسيه أريڤالو
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán
(1913-09-14)سبتمبر 14, 1913
كوِتزال‌تنانگو، گواتيمالا
توفي يناير 27, 1971(1971-01-27) (عن عمر 57 عاماً)
مدينة المكسيك، المكسيك
الحزب Revolutionary Action Party
الزوج María Cristina Villanova (ز. 1939–71)
الأنجال 3، منهم أرابلا
الجامعة الأم مدرسة البولي‌تكنيك
المهنة جندي
التوقيع
الموقع الإلكتروني الموقع الرسمي (لذكراه)
الخدمة العسكرية
الولاء  گواتيمالا
الخدمة/الفرع الجيش الگواتيمالي
سنوات الخدمة 1932–1954
الرتبة عقيد
الوحدة حرس الشرف
المعارك/الحروب الثورة الگواتيمالية
محاولة الانتفاضة العسكرية 1949
انقلاب گواتيمالا 1954
Jacobo Árbenz in military uniform
آربنز بالزي العسكري في 1945

العقيد خاكوبو آربنز گوزمان (Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán ؛ النطق الإسپاني: [xaˈkoβo ˈarβenz ɣuzˈman]؛ 14 سبتمبر 1913 – 27 يناير 1971)، كنيته الأشقر الكبير (بالاسپانية: El Chelón) أو السويسري (بالاسپانية: El Suizo) لأصوله السويسرية، كان ضابطاً گواتيمالياً وثاني رئيس لگواتيمالا منتخب ديمقراطياً، وشغل المنصب من 1951 حتى 1954. كما كان وزير الدفاع من 1944 حتى 1951. وقد كان شخصية بارزة في الثورة الگواتيمالية التي استمرت عشر سنوات، والتي مثلت بعض السنوات القليلة من الديمقراطية التمثيلية في تاريخ گواتيمالا. برنامج الإصلاح الزراعي ذائع الصيت، الذي شرّعه آربنز كرئيس كان له تأثير هائل في أرجاء أمريكا اللاتينية.[1]

وُلِد آربنز في 1913 في أسرة من الطبقة المتوسطة، أبوه ألماني سويسري وأمه گواتيمالية. وقد تخرج with high honors from a military academy in 1935, and served in the army until 1944, quickly rising through the ranks. During this period, he witnessed the violent repression of agrarian laborers by the الولايات المتحدة-backed dictator Jorge Ubico, and was personally required to escort chain-gangs of prisoners, an experience that radicalized him. In 1938 he met and married his wife María Villanova, who was a great ideological influence on him, as was José Manuel Fortuny, a Guatemalan communist. In October 1944 several civilian groups and progressive military factions led by Árbenz and Francisco Arana rebelled against Ubico's repressive policies. In the elections that followed, Juan José Arévalo was elected president, and began a highly popular program of social reform. Árbenz was appointed Minister of Defense, and played a crucial role in putting down a military coup in 1949.[2][3][4][5]

After the death of Arana, Árbenz contested the presidential elections that were held in 1950 and without significant opposition defeated Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes, his nearest challenger, by a margin of over 50%. He took office on March 15, 1951, and continued the social reform policies of his predecessor. These reforms included an expanded right to vote, the ability of workers to organize, legitimizing political parties, and allowing public debate.[6] The centerpiece of his policy was an agrarian reform law under which uncultivated portions of large land-holdings were expropriated in return for compensation and redistributed to poverty-stricken agricultural laborers. Approximately 500,000 people benefited from the decree. The majority of them were indigenous people, whose forebears had been dispossessed after the Spanish invasion.

His policies ran afoul of the شركة يونايتد فروتس, which lobbied the الولايات المتحدة government to have him overthrown. The US was also concerned by the presence of communists in the Guatemalan government, and Árbenz was ousted in the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état engineered by the US Department of State and the Central Intelligence Agency. Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas replaced him as president. Árbenz went into exile through several countries, where his family gradually fell apart. His daughter committed suicide, and he descended further into alcoholism, eventually dying in Mexico in 1971. In October 2011, the Guatemalan government issued an official apology for Árbenz's overthrow.

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النشأة

وُلِد آربنز في كتسال‌تنانگو، گواتيمالا، ثاني أكبر مدن البلد، في 1913. وكان أبوه صيدلياً ألماني سويسري، واسمه أيضاً خاكوبو آربنز،[7] هاجر إلى گواتيمالا في 1901. وكانت أمه من عرق اللادينو من الطقبقة الوسطى. عائلته كانت نسبياً ميسورة الحال من الطبقة العليا؛ وطفولته وُصِفت بأنها كانت "مرتاحة".[8] وفي وقت ما أثناء طفولته، أدمن أبوه المورفين وبدأ في إهمال شئون العائلة. He eventually went bankrupt, forcing the family to move to a rural estate that a wealthy friend had set aside for them "out of charity". Jacobo had originally desired to be an economist or an engineer, but since the family was now impoverished, he could not afford to go to a university. He initially did not want to join the military, but there was a scholarship available through the Escuela Politécnica for military cadets. He applied, passed all of the entrance exams, and entered as a cadet in 1932. His father committed suicide two years after Árbenz entered the academy.[8]


ثورة أكتوبر ووزارة الدفاع

الرئيس خورخى أوبيكو في ع1930. مثل سابقيه، فقد أصد عدداً من الامتيازات لـشركة يونايتد فروتس ودعم ممارساتهم القاسية بحق العمال. وقد أُجبر على ترك السلطة بانتفاضة شعبية في 1944.

ثورة أكتوبر

Árbenz, Toriello and Arana
آربنز و خورخى تورييلو (وسط)، و فرانشسكو أرانا (يمين) في 1944. الرجال الثلاثة شكلوا الطغمة التي حكمت گواتيمالا من ثورة أكتوبر حتى انتخاب أريڤالو.

الرئاسة

العقيد خاكوبو آربنز گوزمان يخطب في حشد بحفل تنصيبه رئيساً لگواتيمالا في 1951

الاصلاح الزراعي

Farmland in the Quetzaltenango Department، في غرب گواتيمالا.
مقال رئيسي: المرسوم 900

The biggest component of Árbenz's project of modernization was his agrarian reform bill.[9] Árbenz drafted the bill himself with the help of advisers that included some leaders of the communist party as well as non-communist economists.[10] He also sought advice from numerous economists from across Latin America.[9] The bill was passed by the National Assembly on June 17, 1952, and the program went into effect immediately. The focus of the program was on transferring uncultivated land from large landowners to their poverty-stricken laborers, who would then be able to begin a viable farm of their own.[9] Árbenz was also motivated to pass the bill because he needed to generate capital for his public infrastructure projects within the country. At the behest of the United States, the World Bank had refused to grant Guatemala a loan in 1951, which made the shortage of capital more acute.[11]


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العلاقة مع شركة يونايتد فروتس

Route Map of the Great White Fleet of the شركة يونايتد فروتس. The company had held the monopoly of freight and passenger maritime transportation to and from Puerto Barrios في گواتيمالا منذ 1903.
Map of railway lines في گواتيمالا والسلفادور. The lines were owned by the IRCA, the subsidiary of the United Fruit Company that controlled the railroad in both countries; the only Atlantic port was controlled by the Great White Fleet, also a UFC subsidiary.

الانقلاب

مذكرة من وكالة المخابرات المركزية بتاريخ مايو 1975 التي تصف دور الوكالة في الاطاحة بالحكومة الگواتيمالية للرئيس خاكوبو آربنز گوزمان في يونيو 1954 (1–5)

حياته اللاحقة

بداية المنفى

انتحار ابنته ووفاته

After the Cuban Revolution of 1959, a representative of the Fidel Castro government asked Árbenz to come to Cuba, to which he readily agreed, sensing an opportunity to live with fewer restrictions on himself. He flew to Havana in July 1960, and, caught up in the spirit of the recent revolution, began to participate in public events.[12] His presence so close to Guatemala once again increased the negative coverage he received in the Guatemalan press. He was offered the leadership of some revolutionary movements in Guatemala but refused, as he was pessimistic about the outcome.[12]


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اعتذار الحكومة الگواتيمالية

In May 2011 the Guatemalan government signed an agreement with Árbenz's surviving family to restore his legacy and publicly apologize for the government's role in ousting him. This included a financial settlement to the family. The formal apology was made at the National Palace by Guatemalan President Alvaro Colom on October 20, 2011, to Jacobo Árbenz Villanova, the son of the former president, and a Guatemalan politician.[13] Colom stated, "It was a crime to Guatemalan society and it was an act of aggression to a government starting its democratic spring."[13] The agreement established several forms of reparation for the next of kin of Árbenz Guzmán. Among other measures, the state:[13][14]

  • held a public ceremony recognizing its responsibility
  • sent a letter of apology to the next of kin
  • named a hall of the National Museum of History and the highway to the Atlantic after the former president
  • revised the basic national school curriculum (Currículo Nacional Base)
  • established a degree program in Human Rights, Pluriculturalism, and Reconciliation of Indigenous Peoples
  • held a photographic exhibition on Árbenz Guzmán and his legacy at the National Museum of History
  • recovered the wealth of photographs of the Árbenz Guzmán family
  • published a book of photos
  • reissued the book Mi esposo, el presidente Árbenz (My Husband President Árbenz)
  • prepared and published a biography of the former President, and
  • issued a series of postage stamps in his honor.

The official statement issued by the government recognized its responsibility for "failing to comply with its obligation to guarantee, respect, and protect the human rights of the victims to a fair trial, to property, to equal protection before the law, and to judicial protection, which are protected in the American Convention on Human Rights and which were violated against former President Juan Jacobo Árbenz Guzman, his wife, María Cristina Villanova, and his children, Juan Jacobo, María Leonora, and Arabella, all surnamed Árbenz Villanova."[14]

الذكرى

A mural celebrating Jacobo Árbenz, his agrarian reform, and the "Ten Years of Spring"


انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

الهامش

  1. ^ Gleijeses 1992, p. 3.
  2. ^ Martínez Peláez 1990, p. 842.
  3. ^ LaFeber 1993, p. 77–79.
  4. ^ Forster 2001, p. 81–82.
  5. ^ Friedman 2003, p. 82–83.
  6. ^ Hunt 2004, p. 255.
  7. ^ Garcia Ferreira 2008, p. 60.
  8. ^ أ ب Gleijeses 1992, p. 134–137.
  9. ^ أ ب ت Immerman 1982, pp. 64–67.
  10. ^ Gleijeses 1992, pp. 144–146.
  11. ^ Gleijeses 1992, pp. 149–164.
  12. ^ أ ب Garcia Ferreira 2008, p. 72–73.
  13. ^ أ ب ت Malkin 2011.
  14. ^ أ ب IACHR 2011.

المصادر

للاستزادة

الكتب

تقارير حكومية وغير حكومية

الأخبار

وصلات خارجية

مناصب سياسية
سبقه
خوان خوسيه أريڤالو
Coat of arms of Guatemala.svg
رئيس گواتيمالا

1951–1954
تبعه
كارلوس إنريكى دياز دى ليون

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