السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة في الصين

شبكات السكك الحديدية ██ high-speed lines ≥300 كم/س ██ high-speed lines 250–299 كم/س ██ high-speed lines 200–249 كم/س ██ conventional lines with CRH services 160 كم/س ██ conventional lines 160 كم/س
السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة في الصين
قطار سكك حديد الصين CRH2C (يسار) وقطار سكك حديد الصين CRH3C (يمين) في تيان‌جين. القطار CRH2 هو تعديل على القطار السلسلة E2-1000 من شين‌كان‌سن. والقطار CRH3 مبني على تصميم قطار سيمنز ڤالـِرو.
قطار سكك حديد الصين CRH5 ذو الثماني عربات. القطار CRH5 مشتق من تصميم قطار ألستوم پندولينو ETR600.
التصميم الصيني الخالص CRH380A يغادر محطة هونگ‌چياو في شانغهاي.
Shanghai Maglev Train الذي يربط Pudong Airport بالمدينة

السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة في الصين (الصينية المبسطة: 中国高速铁路الصينية التقليدية: 中國高速鐵路پن‌ين: Zhōngguó gāosù tiělù؛ بالإنگليزية: High-speed rail in China) is the world's longest high speed railway network and most extensively used -- with a total length of 37,900 km by the end of 2020.[1][2][3] The HSR network encompasses newly built rail lines with a design speed of 200–350 كم/س (120–220 ميل/س).[4] China's HSR accounts for two-thirds of the world's total high-speed railway networks.[5][6] Almost all HSR trains, track and service are owned and operated by the China Railway Corporation under the brand China Railway High-speed (CRH).

High-speed rail developed rapidly in China over the past 15 years. CRH was introduced in April 2007 and the Beijing-Tianjin intercity rail, which opened in August 2008, was the first passenger dedicated HSR line. HSR extends to all provincial-level administrative divisions[N 1][N 2] except Macau[N 3]. The HSR network reached just under 38,000 kم (24,000 ميل) in total length by the end of 2020.[8] The HSR building boom continues with the HSR network set to reach 70,000 kم (43,000 ميل) in 2035.[9]

China's early high-speed trains were imported or built under technology transfer agreements with foreign train-makers including Alstom, Siemens, Bombardier and Kawasaki Heavy Industries. Since the initial technological support, Chinese engineers have re-designed internal train components and built indigenous trains manufactured by the state-owned CRRC Corporation.

The advent of high-speed rail in China has greatly reduced travel time and has transformed Chinese society and economy. A World Bank study found "a broad range of travelers of different income levels choose HSR for its comfort, convenience, safety and punctuality."[10]

Notable HSR lines in China include the Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway which at 2298 km is the world's longest HSR line in operation, and the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway with the world's fastest operating conventional train services. The Shanghai Maglev is the world's first high-speed commercial magnetic levitation ("maglev") line, whose trains run on non-conventional track and reach a top speed of 430 كم/س (267 ميل/س).[11] In 2020, China started testing a maglev prototype train that runs at 600 km/h and planned a 2025 launch date.[12]


فهرست

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التاريخ

The Asia Express steam locomotive, which operated commercially from 1934 to 1943 in Manchuria could reach 130 كم/س (81 ميل/س) and was one of the fastest trains in Asia.


Precursor

The earliest example of higher-speed commercial train service in China was the Asia Express, a luxury passenger train that operated in Japanese-controlled Manchuria from 1934 to 1943.[13] The steam-powered train, which ran on the South Manchuria Railway from Dalian to Xinjing (Changchun), had a top commercial speed of 110 كم/س (68 ميل/س) and a test speed of 130 كم/س (81 ميل/س).[13] It was faster than the fastest trains in Japan at the time. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, this train model was renamed the SL-7 and was used by the Chinese Minister of Railways.

Early planning

حملات "زيادة السرعة"

The building of the fourth line of the Guangshen Railway (pictured here in Feb. 2007) allows faster passenger train traffic to be separated from slower freight traffic. It is one of the earliest examples of a passenger dedicated line.

السكك الحديدية التقليدية وسكك حديد ماگلڤ

The Shanghai Maglev Train running on a special-maglev track, departing the Shanghai Pudong International Airport.
In 2002, the China Star (DJJ2) high-speed train set speed record of 292.8 كم/س (181.9 ميل/س) on the Qinshen Passenger Railway, but it was not ready for commercial use, and ultimately abandoned in favor of imported high speed train technology.


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الحصول على التكنولوجيا الأجنبية


التوطين ورفع السرعة

التصميم الصيني CRH380A يحمل الرقم القياسي العالمي لأسرع قطار (منتج بالفعل) بسرعة 486.1 كم/س.[14] وهو أول قطار عالي السرعة يـُطوَّر في الصين.

تخفيض السرعة

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التوسع الحالي

China's high-speed rail expansion is entirely managed, planned and financed by the Chinese government.

ملف:京津城际铁路-天津北站.jpg
Over 85% of track on the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway is laid on viaducts. Chinese builders use elevated lines to keep high-speed rail tracks straight and level over uneven terrain, and to save on land acquisition costs.
A prefabricated section of the elevated track being installed on the Harbin-Dalian High Speed Railway in October 2010

سياسة المبررات

تمويل انشاء السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة

China's high-speed rail construction projects are highly capital intensive. About 40–50% of financing is provided by the national government through lending by state owned banks and financial institutions, another 40% by the bonds issued by the Ministry of Railway (MOR) and the remaining 10–20% by provincial and local governments.[15][16] The MOR, through its financing arm, the China Rail Investment Corp (CRIC), issued an estimated ¥1 trillion (US$150 billion in 2010 dollars) in debt to finance HSR construction from 2006 to 2010,[17] including ¥310 billion in the first 10 months of 2010.[18] CRIC has also raised some capital through equity offerings; in the spring of 2010, CRIC sold a 4.5 percent stake in the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway to the Bank of China for ¥6.6 billion and a 4.537 percent stake to the public for ¥6 billion.[17] CRIC retained 56.2 percent ownership on that line. As of 2010, the CRIC-bonds are considered to be relatively safe investments because they are backed by assets (the railways) and implicitly by the government.

ملف:Crossing Shape-Shangrao Railway Station.JPG
Shangrao railway station with a 380BL train serving the Hefei–Fuzhou HSR on the upper platforms and a 380A train serving the Hangzhou–Changsha HSR in the lower platform.

Large construction debt-loads require significant revenues from rider fares, subsidies, and/or other sources of income, such as advertising, to repay. Despite impressive ridership figures, virtually every completed line has incurred losses in its first years of operation. For example, the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway in its two full years of operation, delivered over 41 million rides. The line cost ¥20.42 billion to build, and ¥1.8 billion per annum to operate, including ¥0.6 billion in interest payments on its ¥10 billion of loan obligations.[37] The terms of the loans range from 5–10 years at interest rates of 6.3 to 6.8 percent.[37] In its first year of operation from August 1, 2008, to July 31, 2009, the line carried 18.7 million riders and generated ¥1.1 billion in revenues, which resulted in a loss of ¥0.7 billion. In the second year, ridership rose to 22.3 million and revenues improved to ¥1.4 billion, which narrowed losses somewhat to below ¥0.5 billion.[37] To break even, the line must deliver 30 million rides annually.[37] To be able to repay principal, ridership would need to exceed 40 million.[37] In September 2010, daily ridership averaged 69,000 or an annual rate of 25.2 million.[37] In 2013, ridership totaled 25.85 million.[38] The line has a capacity of delivering 100 million rides annually[39] and initial estimated repayment period of 16 years.[37]

The Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan PDL lost ¥0.8 billion in its first year and is set to lose ¥0.9 billion in 2010.[17] The Southeast HSR corridor lost ¥0.377 billion in its first year beginning August 2009.[17] The Zhengzhou-Xian HSR since opening in February 2010 was expected to generate revenues of ¥0.6 billion in its first full year but must make interest payments of ¥1.1 billion. In the first three quarters of 2012, the line lost ¥1.87 billion.[40] The losses must be covered by the operator, which is usually subsidized by local governments.[39] In December 2014, the Henan provincial government imposed a rule requiring municipal authorities pay 70% of the deficit incurred by Henan's intercity lines with the provincial authorities paying the remainder 30%.[41]

The MOR faces a debt-repayment peak in 2014.[17] Some economists recommend further subsidies to lower fares and boost ridership and ultimately revenues.[39] Others warn that the financing side of the existing construction and operation model is unsustainable.[39] If the rail-backed loans cannot be fully repaid, they may be refinanced or the banks may seize ownership of the railways.[17] To prevent that eventuality, the MOR is trying to improve management of its rapidly growing HSR holdings.[17]

Overall, ridership is growing as the high-speed rail network continues to expand. High-speed rail is also becoming relatively more affordable as fares have remained stable while worker wages have grown sharply over the same period.[42] In 2016, the high-speed rail revenue was 140.9 billion RMB Yuan (20 billion USD), while the same term interest from at least 3300 billion debt of its construction was 156.8 billion RMB Yuan (22.4 billion USD).[43] According to the World Bank, a stable long term planning and standardization of technology and design used in the high-speed rail helps to reduce financial and operational cost. Standardization of designs and procedures such as train tracks, rolling stocks, signal systems keeps the construction cost down. Moreover, State-owned corporation also uses bulk purchasing to reduce material prices.[44]

Ticket cost comparisons

Currently, China's high-speed rail service costs significantly less than similar systems in other developed countries, but is considerably more expensive than conventional rail service.

Trip Distance Price Price US$/km Time
HSR trip from Beijing to Jinan 419 kم (260 ميل) CNY185 (US$30) 0.07 1 hour 22 minutes
HSR trip from Paris to Lyon 428 kم (266 ميل) CNY240 (US$39) 0.1 2 hours
HSR trip from Madrid to Valencia, Spain 391 kم (243 ميل) €33–58 (US$41–72) 0.11–0.18 1 hour 40 minutes
HSR train from Tokyo to Gifu-Hashima 396 kم (246 ميل) CNY270 (US$43) 0.11 1 hour 56 minutes

In comparison, high speed train tickets in France or Germany cost slightly over US$0.10 per kilometer and the various Shinkansen services hover above US$0.20 per kilometer.[45]

Impact on airlines

The spread of high-speed rail has forced domestic airlines in China to slash airfare and cancel regional flights.[46] The impact of high-speed rail on air travel is most acute for intercity trips under 500 kم (310 ميل).[46] By the spring of 2011, commercial airline service had been completely halted on previously popular routes such as Wuhan-Nanjing, Wuhan-Nanchang, Xi’an-Zhengzhou and Chengdu-Chongqing.[46] Flights on routes over 1,500 kم (930 ميل) are generally unaffected.[46] As of October 2013, high-speed rail was carrying twice as many passengers each month as the country's airlines.[42]

الشبكة

Maps of China's existing and planned high-speed rail network
Map showing the rail network of China and Taiwan with high-speed lines highlighted in color according to the speed of train service.
Map showing China's planned high-speed rail lines that form the national grid.

السكك الحديدية المحدثة

شبكة السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة الوطنية (4+4)

A CRH380A train leaving Shanghai's Hongqiao Station.


المسارات الأربعة من الشمال إلى الجنوب وخطوط التأسيسية

Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط
[corridor map]
وصف المسار Designed
Speed
(كم/س)

الطول
(كم)

تاريخ بدء
الانشاء

تاريخ الافتتاح
Beijing-Harbin Line.png
Beijing-Harbin PDL
(Jingha Passenger Designated Line)
main HSR corridor of Northeast China, consisting of the Beijing-Shenyang & Harbin-Dalian PDLs and the Panjin-Yinkou spur. 350 1700 2007-08-23 2014
Beijing-Shenyang PDL
(Jingshen Passenger Designated Line)
Beijing-Shenyang segment of Jingha PDL, via Chengde, Fuxin and Chaoyang 350 684 2010 2014
Harbin-Dalian PDL
(Hada Passenger Designated Line)
PDL from Harbin to Dalian via Shenyang & Changchun 350 904 2007-08-23 2011-10
Panjin-Yingkou PDL
(Panying Passenger Designated Line)
Connects Yingkou to Qinhuangdao-Shenyang HSR at Panjin 350 89 2009-05-31 2012
Beijing-Shanghai Line.png
Beijing-Shanghai PDL
(Jinghu Passenger Designated Line)
Main north-south high speed railway of eastern China, connecting Beijing, Jinan, Tai'an, Xuzhou, Bengbu, Nanjing & Shanghai 380 1302 2008-04-18 2011-06
Hefei-Bengbu PDL
(Hebeng Passenger Designated Line)
Extends Jinghu PDL from Bengbu to Hefei 350 131 2008-01-08 2012
Beijing-Hong Kong Line.png
Beijing-Guangzhou PDL
(Jinggang Passenger Designated Line)
Main north-south high speed rail corridor through central China, consisting of four segments between Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Wuhan, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong. 200-
350
2229 2005-09-01 2012
Beijing-Shijiazhuang PDL
(Jingshi Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Beijing to Shijiazhuang 350 281 2008-10-08 2012-10-01
Shijiazhuang-Wuhan PDL
(Shiwu Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Shijiazhuang to Wuhan via Zhengzhou 350 838 2008-10-15 2012-10-01
Wuhan-Guangzhou PDL
(Wuguang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Wuhan to Guangzhou via Changsha 350 968 2005-09-01 2009-12-26
Shanghai-Shenzhen Line.png
Southeast Coast HSR Corridor
High-speed railway linking coastal cities from Shanghai through Hangzhou to Shenzhen, built in five segments. With future additional link between Shanghai and Ningbo through a railway bridge across Hangzhou Bay before 2020 [47]. 200-
350
1450 2005-08-01 2011
Hangzhou-Ningbo PDL
(Hangyong Passenger Designated Line)
High-speed PDL from Hangzhou to Ningbo 350 152 2009-04 2011-12
Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
(Yongtaiwen Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Zhejiang Province. 250 268 2005-10-27 2009-09-28
Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway
(Wenfu Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line from Wenzhou to Fuzhou. 250 298 2005-01-08 2009-09-28
Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway
(Fuxia Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Fujian Province from Fuzhou to Xiamen via Putian & Quanzhou. 250 275 2005-10-01 2010-04-26
Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway
(Xiashen Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Fujian and Guangdong via Zhangzhou, Shantou & Huizhou. 250 502 2007-11-23 late 2012

المسارات الأربعة من الشرق إلى الغرب وخطوط التأسيسية

Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط
[corridor map]
وصف المسار Designed
Speed
(كم/س)

الطول
(كم)

تاريخ بدء
الإنشاء

تاريخ الافتتاح
Qingdao-Taiyuan Line.png
Qingdao-Taiyuan PDL
(Qingtai Passenger Designated Line)
HSR across north China consisting of three segments connecting Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang, Jinan and Qingdao. 250 873 2005-06-01 2012
Qingdao-Jinan PDL
(Jiaoji Line)
PDL connecting Qingdao and Jinan 250 364 2007-01-28 2008-12-20
Shijiazhuang-Jinan PDL
(Shiji Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shijiazhuang & Jinan via Dezhou 250 319 2009 2012
Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan PDL
(Shitai Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shijiazhuang & Taiyuan. 250 190 2005-06-11 2009-04-01
Xuzhou-Lanzhou Line.png
Xuzhou-Lanzhou PDL
(Xulan Passenger Designated Line)
HSR across the Yellow River Valley of central China, consisting of four segments connecting Xuzhou, Zhengzhou, Xian, Baoji and Lanzhou. 350 1363 2005-06-01 -
Zhengzhou-Xuzhou PDL
(Zhengxu Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Xuzhou & Zhengzhou 350 357 2010 2013
Zhengzhou-Xian PDL
(Zhengxi Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Zhengzhou & Xian 350 455 2005-09-01 2010-02-06
Xian-Baoji PDL
(Xibao Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Xian & Baoji 350 148 2009-11-22 2012
Baoji-Lanzhou PDL
(Baolan Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Baoji & Lanzhou 350 403 planning planning
Shanghai-Chengdu Line.png
Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu HSR Corridor
(Huhanrong High-Speed Rail Corridor)
HSR corridor through the Yangtze Valley, consisting of the Shanghai-Nanjing section of the Beijing-Shanghai PDL, and 7 mixed-use HSR segments connecting Nanjing, Hefei, Wuhan, Yichang, Lichuan, Chongqing, Suining & Chengdu. 200-
350
2078 2003-12-01 2012
Hefei-Nanjing HSR
(Hening HSR)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Nanjing & Hefei 250 166 2005-06-11 2008-04-19
Hefei-Wuhan Railway
(Hewu Passenger Designated Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Hefei & Wuhan 250 351 2005-08-01 2009-04-01
Hankou-Yichang Railway
(Hanyi Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Wuhan & Yichang 250 293 2008-09-17 2012-01-01
Yichang-Wanzhou Railway
(Yiwan Railway, Yichang-Lichuan section)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Yichang & Lichuan[48] 200 377 2003-12-01 2010-12-23
Chongqing-Lichuan Railway
(Yuli Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Lichuan & Chongqing 200 264 2008-12-29 2012
Suining-Chongqing Railway*
(Suiyu Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Chongqing & Suining 200 132 2009-01-18 2012-01
Dazhou-Chengdu Railway*
(Dacheng Railway, Suining-Chengdu section)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Suining & Chengdu. 200 148 2005-05 2009-06-30
Shanghai-Kunming Line.png
Shanghai-Kunming PDL
(Shanghai-Kunming Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting eastern, central and southwestern China. It consists of three sections connecting Shanghai, Hangzhou, Changsha and Kunming. 350 2066 2008-12-28 2014
Shanghai-Hangzhou PDL
(Huhang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shanghai Hongqiao & Hangzhou East. 350 150 2009-02-26 2010-10-26
Hangzhou-Changsha PDL
(Hangchang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Hangzhou & Changsha. 350 926 2009-12-22 2013-06-30
Changsha-Kunming PDL
(Changkun Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Changsha & Kunming 350 1175 2010-03-26 2013-06-30

خطوط أخرى

Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط
[corridor map]
وصف المسار Designed
Speed
(كم/س)

الطول
(كم)

تاريخ بدء<brالانشاء
تاريخ الافتتاح
Guangzhou Shenzhen Hongkong Express Rail Link en.svg
Guangzhou-Hong Kong PDL(Jinggang Passenger Designated Line)
Main HSR corridor on east side of the Pearl River Delta, consisting of two segments between Guangzhou and Hong Kong. 200-
350
142 2008-08-20 2016
Guangshengang XRL
(Mainland Section)
HSR from Guangzhou to Shenzhen 350 116 2008-08-20 2011-07
Guangshengang XRL
(Hong Kong Section)
HSR from Shenzhen to Hong Kong 200 26 2010 2016
Tianjin-Shenyang Line.png
Tianjin-Shenyang PDL
(Jinshen Passenger Designated Line)
Originally part of the Jingha PDL. An important linkage between Tianjin and Shenyang through Qinhuangdao. 250 665 1999 2012
Tianjin-Qinhuangdao PDL
(Jinqin Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Tianjin & Qinhuangdao. 350 261 2008 2012
Qinhuangdao-Shenyang PDL
(Qinshen Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Qinhuangdao & Shenyang. 250 404 1999 2003-07-01
Chengdu-Guangzhou Line.png
Chengdu-Guangzhou PDL (Chengguang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from the Pearl River Delta to the Sichuan Basin via Guiyang & Guilin. 300-350 1376 2008-10-13 2014
Chengdu-Guiyang PDL
(Chenggui Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Chengdu & Guiyang via Leshan, Yibin & Bijie. 350 519 2010 2014
Guiyang-Guangzhou PDL
(Guiguang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Guiyang & Guangzhou. 300 857 2008-10-13 2014
Lanzhou-Ürümqi Line.png
Lanzhou-Xinjiang PDL
(Lanxin Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Lanzhou to Ürümqi via Xining & Zhangye, Jiuquan, Jiayuguan, Hami & Turpan 300 1776 2010 2014
Hefei-Fuzhou Line.png
Hefei-Fuzhou PDL
(Hefu Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from the Hefei to Fuzhou via Huangshan, Shangrao & Wuyishan. 250 806 2010-04-27 2014
Datong-Xian PDL
(Daxi Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Datong to Xi'an via Taiyuan. 250 859 2009-12-03 2013
Xian-Chengdu HSR
(Xicheng High-Speed Railway)
HSR from Xian to Chengdu via Hanzhong and Guangyuan. 250 510 2010 2015
Shangqiu-Hangzhou PDL
(Shanghang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Shangqiu to Hangzhou via Fuyang Hefei & Wuhu. 350 770 2010? -
Yunnan-Guangxi HSR
(Yungui High-speed railway)
HSR from Nanning to Kunming via Bose. 200-250 710 2010-12-27 2016[49]
Tianjin-Baoding HSR
(Jinbao High-speed railway)
HSR from Tianjin to Baoding via Bazhou & Baiyangdian. 250 158 2011-03-18 2013[50]
Nanjing-Hangzhou HSR
(Ninghang High-speed railway)
HSR from Nanjing to Hangzhou via Liyang, Yixing and Huzhou. 350 249 2008-12-27 2011-12-31[51]
A map showing the projected high-speed rail network in China by 2020 and the travel time by rail from Beijing to each of the provincial capitals.
Class I high speed railways
الخطوط الطول (كم) السرعة (كم/س) تاريخ بدء الانشاء تاريخ الافتتاح
Longyan-Xiamen 171 200 2006-12-25 2011
Xiangtang (Nanchang)-Putian (Fuzhou) 604 250 2007-11-23 2011
Nanping-Sanming-Longyan 247 250 2010-12-25 2014 [52]
Guangzhou-Nanning 577 250 2008-09-11 2013
تحت التخطيط

خطوط السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة بين المدن

Map showing some of China's intercity railways, including lines already operational (red) and lines under construction.
Construction of the Hainan East Ring Intercity Rail in 2009.

Intercity railways are designed to provide regional high-speed rail service between large cities and metropolitan areas that are generally within the same province. Intercity HSR service speeds range from 200 to 350 km/h.


جدول الانشاء Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط الطول
(كم)
السرعة
(كم/س)
تاريخ بدء الانشاء تاريخ الافتتاح
Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Rail 115 350 2005-04-07 2008-08-01
Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway 65 220 2008-11-04 2010-05-12
Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway 301 350 2008-07-01 2010-07-01
Nanchang-Jiujiang Intercity Rail 131 250 2007-06-28 2010-09-20
Hainan East Ring Intercity Rail 308 250 2007-09-29 2010-12-30
Changchun-Jilin Intercity Rail 111 250 2007-05-13 2010-12-30[53]
Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit 117 200 2005-12-18 2011-01-07
Nanjing-Anqing Intercity Rail 257 250 2008-12-28 2012-06
Nanjing-Hangzhou Intercity Rail 251 350 2008-12-28 2012-12-28
Jiangyou-Mianyang-Chengdu-Leshan Intercity Rail 319 200 2008-12-30 2012-12-30
Wuhan Megalopolis Intercity Rail
(Wuhan-Xiaogan, Huangshi, Xianning and Huanggang
160 200 2009-03-22 2011-10-01, 2013
Beijing-Tangshan Intercity Rail 160 350 2009 2012
Tianjin-Baoding Intercity Rail 145 250 2009 2012
Qingdao-Rongcheng Intercity Rail 299 250 2009-11-30 2012-12
Harbin-Qiqihar Intercity Rail 286 250 2008-11-25 2011
Beijing-Zhangjiakou Intercity Rail 174 200 2009 2014[54]
Chongqing-Wanzhou Intercity Rail 250 350 2009 2013
Shenyang-Dandong Intercity Rail 208 350 2009 2013-9
Chengdu-Chongqing Intercity Rail 305 300 2009 2014
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Intercity Rail 95.5 200 2010-07-02 2014-07-02
Hangzhou-Huangshan High Speed Railway 262 250 2010-xx-xx 2013-xx-xx

الخدمة

الركاب

عدد الركاب في السنة (بالمليون راكب)
2007 2008 2009 2010
ركاب خدمة القطارات عالية السرعة 61.21 127.73 179.58 290.54

خدمة القطارات عالية السرعة على الخطوط المطورة

CRH service on the upgraded Xiaoshan-Ningbo Railway.


خدمة القطارات عالية السرعة على الخطوط السريعة

التقنية

Rolling stock

Two coupled 8-car CRH1A electric multiple unit train sets in Nanchang.
First class cabin inside Beijing-Tianjin Intercity CRH3 Train.
A coach compartment inside a CRH1 train.


تقنية المسار

سكك بدون دقشوم في الصين.

تصدير التكنولوجيا


خطوط ماگلڤ عالية السرعة


أرقام قياسية

The Shanghai Maglev train, with a top speed of 431 كم/س (268 ميل/س), is the fastest train in China. The maglev train has remained confined to its original 30 kم (98,000 قدم) track as state planners chose high-speed trains that run on conventional tracks for the national HSR network.

أسرع قطارات الصين

The "fastest" train commercial service can be defined alternatively by a train's top speed or average trip speed.

  • The fastest commercial train service measured by peak operational speed is the Shanghai Maglev Train which can reach 431 كم/س (268 ميل/س). Due to the limited length of the Shanghai Maglev track (30 km)(18.6 mi), the maglev train's average trip speed is only 245.5 كم/س (152.5 ميل/س).
  • The fastest commercial train service measured by average train speed is the CRH express service on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway, which reaches a top speed of 350 كم/س (220 ميل/س) and completes the 1,302 kم (809 ميل) journey between Shanghai Hongqiao and Beijing South, with two stops, in 4 hours and 24 min for an average speed of 291.9 كم/س (181.4 ميل/س), the fastest train service measured by average trip speed in the world.[55][56][57]
  • The fastest timetabled start-to-stop runs between a station pair in the world are trains G17/G39 on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway averaging 317.7 كم/س (197.4 ميل/س) running non-stop between Beijing South to Nanjing South before continuing to other destinations.[58]
  • The top speed attained by a non-maglev train in China is 487.3 كم/س (302.8 ميل/س) by a CRH380BL train on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway during a testing run on January 10, 2011.[59]

Longest service distance

The G403/404, and G405/406 Beijing West (Beijingxi)-Kunming South (Kunmingnan) train (2760 km, about 12–13 hours), which began service on January 1, 2017, became the longest high-speed rail service in the world.[60] It overtook the G529/530 قالب:Station-قالب:Station (Beihai Railway Station ()) train (2697 km, 15 1/2 hours for southbound train, 15 3/4 hours for northbound train), which had set the previous record on July 1, 2016.[61]


قضايا السلامة والفساد

انتحار رئيس سكك حديد الصين

باي ژونگ‌رن، 53، رئيس سكك حديد الصين، الذي انتحر في 5 يناير 2014.

في 5 يناير 2014، انتحر "باي ژونگ‌رن"، 53 عاماً، رئيس سكك حديد الصين، الذي جدد 10,000 كم من الشبكة لسرعة 350 كم/س في ست سنوات. سبب الانتحار: اكتئاب بسبب أجور العمال.[62]

انظر أيضا

ملاحظات

  1. ^ Taiwan High Speed Rail is not under the jurisdiction of China Railways (CR) nor is it connected with CR's network. However, official CR news reports now count Taiwan along with THSR in the figure.
  2. ^ Sichuan–Tibet railway is incorporated into the national high-speed rail service with the China Railway CR200J high-speed train.[7]
  3. ^ Zhuhai Station served by high-speed railways is close to Mainland-Macau border.

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وصلات خارجية

الكلمات الدالة: