السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة في الصين

السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة في الصين
قطار سكك حديد الصين CRH2C (يسار) وقطار سكك حديد الصين CRH3C (يمين) في تيان‌جين. القطار CRH2 هو تعديل على القطار السلسلة E2-1000 من شين‌كان‌سن. والقطار CRH3 مبني على تصميم قطار سيمنز ڤالـِرو.
قطار سكك حديد الصين CRH5 ذو الثماني عربات. القطار CRH5 مشتق من تصميم قطار ألستوم پندولينو ETR600.
التصميم الصيني الخالص CRH380A يغادر محطة هونگ‌چياو في شانغهاي.

السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة في الصين (الصينية المبسطة: 中国高速铁路الصينية التقليدية: 中國高速鐵路پن‌ين: Zhōngguó gāosù tiělù؛ بالإنگليزية: High-speed rail in China) تشير إلى أي خدمة قطارات تجارية في جمهورية الصين الشعبية بمتوسط سرعة 200 كم أو أسرع. بحسب هذا القياس، تمتلك الصين، أطول شبكة قطارات عالية السرعة في العالم يبلغ طولها أكثر من 10,000 كم من الخطوط في ديسمبر 2012،[1] متضمنة 1995 كم من خطوط السكك الحديدية ذات سرعة أعلى من 350 كم/س (220 ميل/س).[2] ومتضمنة أطول خط سكة حديد فائق السرعة في العالم، سكة حديد بـِيْ‌جنگ-گوانگ‌ژو–شن‌ژن-هونگ كونگ عالي السرعة الذي يبلغ طوله 2,298 كم بسرعة 350 كم/س.[3]

التاريخ

حملات "زيادة السرعة"

The building of the fourth line of the Guangshen Railway (pictured here in Feb. 2007) allows faster passenger train traffic to be separated from slower freight traffic. It is one of the earliest examples of a passenger dedicated line.

السكك الحديدية التقليدية وسكك حديد ماگلڤ

The Shanghai Maglev Train running on a special-maglev track, departing the Shanghai Pudong International Airport.
In 2002, the China Star (DJJ2) high-speed train set speed record of 292.8 كم/س (181.9 ميل/س) on the Qinshen Passenger Railway, but it was not ready for commercial use, and ultimately abandoned in favor of imported high speed train technology.

الحصول على التكنولوجيا الأجنبية


التوطين ورفع السرعة

التصميم الصيني CRH380A يحمل الرقم القياسي العالمي لأسرع قطار (منتج بالفعل) بسرعة 486.1 كم/س.[4] وهو أول قطار عالي السرعة يـُطوَّر في الصين.

تخفيض السرعة

الخطط التوسعية الحالية

The Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge in Nanjing (shown under construction in 2009) is a six-track railway bridge for the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, the Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu Railway, and Nanjing Subway.
Over 85% of track on the Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway is laid on viaducts (shown). Chinese builders use elevated lines to keep high-speed rail tracks straight and level over uneven terrain, and to save on land acquisition costs.
A prefabricated section of the elevated track being installed on the Harbin-Dalian High Speed Railway in October 2010.

سياسة المبررات

تمويل انشاء السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة

250 km/h HSR

Line Length Construction cost (Total) Construction cost (per km)
Qinshen PDL 404 km 15.7 billion RMB (2.4 billion USD) 38.9 million RMB (5.9 million USD)[5]
Hening PDL 166 km 25 billion RMB (3.8 billion USD) 150.6 million RMB (22.7 million USD)[6]
Jiaoji PDL 364 km 11 billion RMB (1.7 billion USD) 30.21 million RMB (4.6 million USD)[7]
Shitai PDL 190 km 17.075 billion RMB (2.57 billion USD) 89.87 million RMB (13.5 million USD)[8]
Hewu PDL 351 km 16.8 billion RMB (2.53 billion USD) 47.86 million RMB (7.21 million USD)[9]
Yongtaiwen PFL 268 km 16.28 billion RMB (2.45 billion USD) 60.75 million RMB (9.16 million USD)[10]
Wenfu PFL 298 km 18 billion RMB (2.71 billion USD) 60.4 million RMB (9.1 million USD)[11]
Fuxia PFL 275 km 15.259 billion RMB (2.3 billion USD) 55.49 million RMB (8.36 million USD)[12]
Chengguan PDL 65 km 13.3 billion RMB (2 billion USD) 204.62 million RMB (30.8 million USD)[13]
Changjiu ICL 131 km 5.832 billion RMB (0.88 billion USD) 44.52 million RMB (6.7 million USD)[14]
Changji ICL 111 km 9.6 billion RMB (1.5 billion USD) 86.49 million RMB (13.15 million USD)[15]
Hainan ER ICL 308 km 20.2 billion RMB (3.1 billion USD) 65.58 million RMB (9.97 million USD)[16]

350 km/h HSR

Line Length Construction cost (Total) Construction cost (per km)
Jingjin ICL 115 km 21.5 billion RMB (3.24 billion USD) 186.96 million RMB (28.17 million USD)[17]
Wuguang PDL 968 km 116.6 billion RMB (17.57 billion USD) 120 million RMB (18.08 million USD)[18]
Zhengxi PDL 455 km 35.31 billion RMB (5.32 billion USD) 77.6 million RMB (11.7 million USD)[19]
Huning HSR 301 km 50 billion RMB (7.5 billion USD) 166.11 million RMB (25 million USD)[20]
Huhang PDL 150 km 29.29 billion RMB (4.4 billion USD) 195.27 million RMB (29.4 million USD)[21]

الشبكة

Maps of China's existing and planned high-speed rail network
Map showing the rail network of China and Taiwan with high-speed lines highlighted in color according to the speed of train service.
Map showing China's planned high-speed rail lines that form the national grid.

السكك الحديدية المحدثة

شبكة السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة الوطنية (4+4)

A CRH380A train leaving Shanghai's Hongqiao Station.


المسارات الأربعة من الشمال إلى الجنوب وخطوط التأسيسية

Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط
[corridor map]
وصف المسار Designed
Speed
(كم/س)

الطول
(كم)

تاريخ بدء
الانشاء

تاريخ الافتتاح
Beijing-Harbin Line.png
Beijing-Harbin PDL
(Jingha Passenger Designated Line)
main HSR corridor of Northeast China, consisting of the Beijing-Shenyang & Harbin-Dalian PDLs and the Panjin-Yinkou spur. 350 1700 2007-08-23 2014
Beijing-Shenyang PDL
(Jingshen Passenger Designated Line)
Beijing-Shenyang segment of Jingha PDL, via Chengde, Fuxin and Chaoyang 350 684 2010 2014
Harbin-Dalian PDL
(Hada Passenger Designated Line)
PDL from Harbin to Dalian via Shenyang & Changchun 350 904 2007-08-23 2011-10
Panjin-Yingkou PDL
(Panying Passenger Designated Line)
Connects Yingkou to Qinhuangdao-Shenyang HSR at Panjin 350 89 2009-05-31 2012
Beijing-Shanghai Line.png
Beijing-Shanghai PDL
(Jinghu Passenger Designated Line)
Main north-south high speed railway of eastern China, connecting Beijing, Jinan, Tai'an, Xuzhou, Bengbu, Nanjing & Shanghai 380 1302 2008-04-18 2011-06
Hefei-Bengbu PDL
(Hebeng Passenger Designated Line)
Extends Jinghu PDL from Bengbu to Hefei 350 131 2008-01-08 2012
Beijing-Hong Kong Line.png
Beijing-Guangzhou PDL
(Jinggang Passenger Designated Line)
Main north-south high speed rail corridor through central China, consisting of four segments between Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Wuhan, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong. 200-
350
2229 2005-09-01 2012
Beijing-Shijiazhuang PDL
(Jingshi Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Beijing to Shijiazhuang 350 281 2008-10-08 2012-10-01
Shijiazhuang-Wuhan PDL
(Shiwu Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Shijiazhuang to Wuhan via Zhengzhou 350 838 2008-10-15 2012-10-01
Wuhan-Guangzhou PDL
(Wuguang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Wuhan to Guangzhou via Changsha 350 968 2005-09-01 2009-12-26
Shanghai-Shenzhen Line.png
Southeast Coast HSR Corridor
High-speed railway linking coastal cities from Shanghai through Hangzhou to Shenzhen, built in five segments. With future additional link between Shanghai and Ningbo through a railway bridge across Hangzhou Bay before 2020 [22]. 200-
350
1450 2005-08-01 2011
Hangzhou-Ningbo PDL
(Hangyong Passenger Designated Line)
High-speed PDL from Hangzhou to Ningbo 350 152 2009-04 2011-12
Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
(Yongtaiwen Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Zhejiang Province. 250 268 2005-10-27 2009-09-28
Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway
(Wenfu Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line from Wenzhou to Fuzhou. 250 298 2005-01-08 2009-09-28
Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway
(Fuxia Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Fujian Province from Fuzhou to Xiamen via Putian & Quanzhou. 250 275 2005-10-01 2010-04-26
Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway
(Xiashen Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Fujian and Guangdong via Zhangzhou, Shantou & Huizhou. 250 502 2007-11-23 late 2012

المسارات الأربعة من الشرق إلى الغرب وخطوط التأسيسية

Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط
[corridor map]
وصف المسار Designed
Speed
(كم/س)

الطول
(كم)

تاريخ بدء
الإنشاء

تاريخ الافتتاح
Qingdao-Taiyuan Line.png
Qingdao-Taiyuan PDL
(Qingtai Passenger Designated Line)
HSR across north China consisting of three segments connecting Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang, Jinan and Qingdao. 250 873 2005-06-01 2012
Qingdao-Jinan PDL
(Jiaoji Line)
PDL connecting Qingdao and Jinan 250 364 2007-01-28 2008-12-20
Shijiazhuang-Jinan PDL
(Shiji Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shijiazhuang & Jinan via Dezhou 250 319 2009 2012
Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan PDL
(Shitai Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shijiazhuang & Taiyuan. 250 190 2005-06-11 2009-04-01
Xuzhou-Lanzhou Line.png
Xuzhou-Lanzhou PDL
(Xulan Passenger Designated Line)
HSR across the Yellow River Valley of central China, consisting of four segments connecting Xuzhou, Zhengzhou, Xian, Baoji and Lanzhou. 350 1363 2005-06-01 -
Zhengzhou-Xuzhou PDL
(Zhengxu Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Xuzhou & Zhengzhou 350 357 2010 2013
Zhengzhou-Xian PDL
(Zhengxi Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Zhengzhou & Xian 350 455 2005-09-01 2010-02-06
Xian-Baoji PDL
(Xibao Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Xian & Baoji 350 148 2009-11-22 2012
Baoji-Lanzhou PDL
(Baolan Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Baoji & Lanzhou 350 403 planning planning
Shanghai-Chengdu Line.png
Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu HSR Corridor
(Huhanrong High-Speed Rail Corridor)
HSR corridor through the Yangtze Valley, consisting of the Shanghai-Nanjing section of the Beijing-Shanghai PDL, and 7 mixed-use HSR segments connecting Nanjing, Hefei, Wuhan, Yichang, Lichuan, Chongqing, Suining & Chengdu. 200-
350
2078 2003-12-01 2012
Hefei-Nanjing HSR
(Hening HSR)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Nanjing & Hefei 250 166 2005-06-11 2008-04-19
Hefei-Wuhan Railway
(Hewu Passenger Designated Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Hefei & Wuhan 250 351 2005-08-01 2009-04-01
Hankou-Yichang Railway
(Hanyi Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Wuhan & Yichang 250 293 2008-09-17 2012-01-01
Yichang-Wanzhou Railway
(Yiwan Railway, Yichang-Lichuan section)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Yichang & Lichuan[23] 200 377 2003-12-01 2010-12-23
Chongqing-Lichuan Railway
(Yuli Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Lichuan & Chongqing 200 264 2008-12-29 2012
Suining-Chongqing Railway*
(Suiyu Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Chongqing & Suining 200 132 2009-01-18 2012-01
Dazhou-Chengdu Railway*
(Dacheng Railway, Suining-Chengdu section)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Suining & Chengdu. 200 148 2005-05 2009-06-30
Shanghai-Kunming Line.png
Shanghai-Kunming PDL
(Shanghai-Kunming Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting eastern, central and southwestern China. It consists of three sections connecting Shanghai, Hangzhou, Changsha and Kunming. 350 2066 2008-12-28 2014
Shanghai-Hangzhou PDL
(Huhang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shanghai Hongqiao & Hangzhou East. 350 150 2009-02-26 2010-10-26
Hangzhou-Changsha PDL
(Hangchang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Hangzhou & Changsha. 350 926 2009-12-22 2013-06-30
Changsha-Kunming PDL
(Changkun Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Changsha & Kunming 350 1175 2010-03-26 2013-06-30

خطوط أخرى

Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط
[corridor map]
وصف المسار Designed
Speed
(كم/س)

الطول
(كم)

تاريخ بدء<brالانشاء
تاريخ الافتتاح
Guangzhou Shenzhen Hongkong Express Rail Link en.svg
Guangzhou-Hong Kong PDL(Jinggang Passenger Designated Line)
Main HSR corridor on east side of the Pearl River Delta, consisting of two segments between Guangzhou and Hong Kong. 200-
350
142 2008-08-20 2016
Guangshengang XRL
(Mainland Section)
HSR from Guangzhou to Shenzhen 350 116 2008-08-20 2011-07
Guangshengang XRL
(Hong Kong Section)
HSR from Shenzhen to Hong Kong 200 26 2010 2016
Tianjin-Shenyang Line.png
Tianjin-Shenyang PDL
(Jinshen Passenger Designated Line)
Originally part of the Jingha PDL. An important linkage between Tianjin and Shenyang through Qinhuangdao. 250 665 1999 2012
Tianjin-Qinhuangdao PDL
(Jinqin Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Tianjin & Qinhuangdao. 350 261 2008 2012
Qinhuangdao-Shenyang PDL
(Qinshen Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Qinhuangdao & Shenyang. 250 404 1999 2003-07-01
Chengdu-Guangzhou Line.png
Chengdu-Guangzhou PDL (Chengguang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from the Pearl River Delta to the Sichuan Basin via Guiyang & Guilin. 300-350 1376 2008-10-13 2014
Chengdu-Guiyang PDL
(Chenggui Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Chengdu & Guiyang via Leshan, Yibin & Bijie. 350 519 2010 2014
Guiyang-Guangzhou PDL
(Guiguang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Guiyang & Guangzhou. 300 857 2008-10-13 2014
Lanzhou-Ürümqi Line.png
Lanzhou-Xinjiang PDL
(Lanxin Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Lanzhou to Ürümqi via Xining & Zhangye, Jiuquan, Jiayuguan, Hami & Turpan 300 1776 2010 2014
Hefei-Fuzhou Line.png
Hefei-Fuzhou PDL
(Hefu Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from the Hefei to Fuzhou via Huangshan, Shangrao & Wuyishan. 250 806 2010-04-27 2014
Datong-Xian PDL
(Daxi Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Datong to Xi'an via Taiyuan. 250 859 2009-12-03 2013
Xian-Chengdu HSR
(Xicheng High-Speed Railway)
HSR from Xian to Chengdu via Hanzhong and Guangyuan. 250 510 2010 2015
Shangqiu-Hangzhou PDL
(Shanghang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Shangqiu to Hangzhou via Fuyang Hefei & Wuhu. 350 770 2010? -
Yunnan-Guangxi HSR
(Yungui High-speed railway)
HSR from Nanning to Kunming via Bose. 200-250 710 2010-12-27 2016[24]
Tianjin-Baoding HSR
(Jinbao High-speed railway)
HSR from Tianjin to Baoding via Bazhou & Baiyangdian. 250 158 2011-03-18 2013[25]
Nanjing-Hangzhou HSR
(Ninghang High-speed railway)
HSR from Nanjing to Hangzhou via Liyang, Yixing and Huzhou. 350 249 2008-12-27 2011-12-31[26]
A map showing the projected high-speed rail network in China by 2020 and the travel time by rail from Beijing to each of the provincial capitals.
Class I high speed railways
الخطوط الطول (كم) السرعة (كم/س) تاريخ بدء الانشاء تاريخ الافتتاح
Longyan-Xiamen 171 200 2006-12-25 2011
Xiangtang (Nanchang)-Putian (Fuzhou) 604 250 2007-11-23 2011
Nanping-Sanming-Longyan 247 250 2010-12-25 2014 [27]
Guangzhou-Nanning 577 250 2008-09-11 2013
تحت التخطيط

خطوط السكك الحديدية عالية السرعة بين المدن

Map showing some of China's intercity railways, including lines already operational (red) and lines under construction.
Construction of the Hainan East Ring Intercity Rail in 2009.

Intercity railways are designed to provide regional high-speed rail service between large cities and metropolitan areas that are generally within the same province. Intercity HSR service speeds range from 200 to 350 km/h.


جدول الانشاء Operational lines are marked with green background.

الخط الطول
(كم)
السرعة
(كم/س)
تاريخ بدء الانشاء تاريخ الافتتاح
Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Rail 115 350 2005-04-07 2008-08-01
Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway 65 220 2008-11-04 2010-05-12
Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway 301 350 2008-07-01 2010-07-01
Nanchang-Jiujiang Intercity Rail 131 250 2007-06-28 2010-09-20
Hainan East Ring Intercity Rail 308 250 2007-09-29 2010-12-30
Changchun-Jilin Intercity Rail 111 250 2007-05-13 2010-12-30[28]
Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit 117 200 2005-12-18 2011-01-07
Nanjing-Anqing Intercity Rail 257 250 2008-12-28 2012-06
Nanjing-Hangzhou Intercity Rail 251 350 2008-12-28 2012-12-28
Jiangyou-Mianyang-Chengdu-Leshan Intercity Rail 319 200 2008-12-30 2012-12-30
Wuhan Megalopolis Intercity Rail
(Wuhan-Xiaogan, Huangshi, Xianning and Huanggang
160 200 2009-03-22 2011-10-01, 2013
Beijing-Tangshan Intercity Rail 160 350 2009 2012
Tianjin-Baoding Intercity Rail 145 250 2009 2012
Qingdao-Rongcheng Intercity Rail 299 250 2009-11-30 2012-12
Harbin-Qiqihar Intercity Rail 286 250 2008-11-25 2011
Beijing-Zhangjiakou Intercity Rail 174 200 2009 2014[29]
Chongqing-Wanzhou Intercity Rail 250 350 2009 2013
Shenyang-Dandong Intercity Rail 208 350 2009 2013-9
Chengdu-Chongqing Intercity Rail 305 300 2009 2014
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Intercity Rail 95.5 200 2010-07-02 2014-07-02
Hangzhou-Huangshan High Speed Railway 262 250 2010-xx-xx 2013-xx-xx

الخدمة

الركاب

عدد الركاب في السنة (بالمليون راكب)
2007 2008 2009 2010
ركاب خدمة القطارات عالية السرعة 61.21 127.73 179.58 290.54

خدمة القطارات عالية السرعة على الخطوط المطورة

CRH service on the upgraded Xiaoshan-Ningbo Railway.


خدمة القطارات عالية السرعة على الخطوط السريعة

التقنية

Rolling stock

Two coupled 8-car CRH1A electric multiple unit train sets in Nanchang.
First class cabin inside Beijing-Tianjin Intercity CRH3 Train.
A coach compartment inside a CRH1 train.


تقنية المسار

سكك بدون دقشوم في الصين.

تصدير التكنولوجيا


خطوط ماگلڤ عالية السرعة


أسرع قطارات الصين

The Shanghai Maglev train, at top speed of 431 كم/س (268 ميل/س), is the fastest train in China. The maglev train has remained confined its original 30 kم (98,000 قدم) track as state planners chosen high-speed trains that run on conventional track for the national HSR network.


قضايا السلامة والفساد

انتحار رئيس سكك حديد الصين

باي ژونگ‌رن، 53، رئيس سكك حديد الصين، الذي انتحر في 5 يناير 2014.

في 5 يناير 2014، انتحر "باي ژونگ‌رن"، 53 عاماً، رئيس سكك حديد الصين، الذي جدد 10,000 كم من الشبكة لسرعة 350 كم/س في ست سنوات. سبب الانتحار: اكتئاب بسبب أجور العمال.[30]

انظر أيضا

هوامش

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  2. ^ http://news.china.com.cn/rollnews/2010-07/02/content_2986085.htm
  3. ^ "WORLD'S LONGEST FAST TRAIN LINE OPENS IN CHINA". AP. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  4. ^ http://www.peoplerail.com/xinwen/20101027/n324636648.html
  5. ^ "我国首条快速客运专线"秦沈客运专线"开通". news.sina.com.cn (in chinese). 12 October 2003.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  6. ^ "合宁铁路今天通车运营". ah.people.com.cn (in chinese). 18 April 2008.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. ^ "胶济铁路客运专线施工进入决战阶段".
  8. ^ "石太铁路客运专线".
  9. ^ "合武铁路昨建成通车".
  10. ^ "甬台温铁路客运专线8月1日开通".
  11. ^ "温福铁路温州段明天通货运 温州将迎来高铁时代".
  12. ^ "福厦高铁正式开通运营 打造绿色环保"快车道"".
  13. ^ "成灌快铁开通四川迈入快铁时代".
  14. ^ "昌九城际高铁今日开通 江西迈入高铁时代".
  15. ^ "东北首条城际高速铁路开通 总投资达96亿(组图)".
  16. ^ "东环铁今开通 本报今推《东环铁乘车指南》".
  17. ^ "京津城际铁路通车新闻发布会".
  18. ^ "武广快线驶出中国新速度".
  19. ^ "郑西高速铁路昨成功试运行".
  20. ^ "沪宁城际高铁通车 沪宁对开客运列车每日近百对".
  21. ^ "沪杭高铁简介及线路站点图示".
  22. ^ "Railway Bridge to Cross Hangzhou Bay". HighBeam Business.
  23. ^ "Yiwan Railway: a project with 253 bridges and 159 tunnels". Xinhua. 2010-12-23. Retrieved 2010-12-23.
  24. ^ (Chinese) 云桂铁路开工建设 2010-12-27
  25. ^ (Chinese) 津保高铁预计2013年通车 从天津到保定1小时 2011-03-18
  26. ^ (Chinese) 年底南京到杭州坐高铁只需50分钟 2011-03-04
  27. ^ "南(平)三(明)龙(岩)高铁动工" 2010-12-26
  28. ^ "New intercity railway opens in NE China". China Daily. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  29. ^ People's Daily, "Beijing-Zhangjiakou High-Speed Intercity Rail To Open In 2014", 25 January 2011.
  30. ^ Sreeja VN (2014-01-06). "China Railway Group President Bai Zhongren's Death From An Unspecified Accident Might Be A Suicide: Local Media". IBTimes.

وصلات خارجية