إنرگيا (شركة)

S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
سابقاً
OKB-1
النوعPublic
رمز التداول
الصناعةSpace industry
Aerospace industry
Defense industry
تأسست16 مايو 1946; منذ 74 سنة (1946-05-16
المؤسسSergei Korolev
المقر الرئيسي،
RUS
المنتجاتBallistic missiles, Launch vehicles, Satellites, Spacecraft, Space stations
الدخلخطأ في التعبير: عامل < غير متوقع$NaN
ربح العملياتخطأ في التعبير: عامل < غير متوقع$NaN
خطأ في التعبير: عامل < غير متوقع$NaN
إجمالي الأصولخطأ في التعبير: عامل < غير متوقع$NaN
إجمالي الأنصبةخطأ في التعبير: عامل < غير متوقع$NaN
المالكUnited Rocket and Space Corporation (38.2%)[1]
الأقسامNPO Energomash
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.energia.ru/english/

PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (بالروسية: Ракетно-космическая корпорация «Энергия» им. С. П. Королёва), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components. The company is the prime developer and contractor of the Russian manned spaceflight program; it also owns a majority of Sea Launch.[2] Its name is derived from Sergei Korolev, the first chief of its design bureau, and the Russian word for energy.

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Overview

Energia is the largest company of the Russian space industry and one of its key players. It is responsible for all operations involving human spaceflight and is the lead developer of the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and the lead developer of the Russian end of the International Space Station. In the mid-2000s, the company employed 22,000—30,000 people.[3]

The enterprise has been awarded with 4 Orders of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution and Russian Federation President's Message of Thanks. In addition, 14 cosmonauts employed by the company have been awarded the title "Hero of the Russian Federation".[4]


Structure

Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in the museum of the Energia Rocket and Space Corporation

The company consists of the following subsidiaries and branches:[4]

  • Primary Design Bureau
  • Baikonur branch
  • ZAO Experimental Machine-building Plant
  • ZAO Volzhskoye DB
  • ZAO PO Kosmos

اعتبارا من 2009, 38% of the company's stock was owned by the Russian state.[4]

History

The company was founded on 16 May 1946 and has been known successively as:

  • Special Design Bureau number 1 of R&D Institute number 88 (بالروسية: ОКБ-1 НИИ-88 or OKB-1 of NII-88)
  • TsKBEM (Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine Building) [5]
  • NPO Energia
  • S. P. Korolev RSC Energia.

It is named after the first chief of its design bureau Sergei Korolev (1946–1966). His successors as chief designers were: Vasiliy Mishin (1966–1974), Valentin Glushko (1974–1989), Yuriy Semenov (1989–2005), Nikolay Sevastyanov (2005–2007). Its President and Chief designer was Vitaly Lopota, through August 1, 2014.[6]


Historic projects

Over the years the products of Energia and its predecessors included:

IRBMs and ICBMs

Including meteorological rockets as their modifications.

Launch vehicles


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Research, Observation and Communication Earth Satellites

Deep Space Exploration Spacecraft

Cargo spacecraft

Manned spacecraft

Earth space stations


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Lunar space stations


See also

== المراجع ==

  1. ^ "Список аффилированных лиц". e-disclosure.ru. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  2. ^ "Business briefs". Archived from the original on November 12, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-10. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  3. ^ Harvey, Brian (2007). "The design bureaus". The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program (1st ed.). Germany: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-71354-0.
  4. ^ أ ب ت "OAO Rocket and Space Corporation Energia after S.P. Korolev". OAO Energia. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
  5. ^ "Tragic Tangle". System Failure Case Studies. NASA. 4 (10). 2010. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة sd20140802

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