أنشوجة

Anchovies
Anchovy closeup.jpg
التصنيف العلمي
مملكة: الحيوان
Phylum: الحبليات
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Clupeiformes
Family: Engraulidae
Genera

Amazonsprattus
Anchoa
Anchovia
Anchoviella
Cetengraulis
Coilia
Encrasicholina
Engraulis
Jurengraulis
Lycengraulis
Lycothrissa
Papuengraulis
Pterengraulis
Setipinna
Stolephorus
Thryssa

الأنشــوجة Anchovy سمك يستخدم طعامًا وهو شبيه بسمك الرنجة. تُستخدم أسماك الأنشوفة في السَّلطة والبيتزا والحساء وغالبًا ما يتم تعليبها وتجفيفها وتصنيعها في نوع من العجينة. ويأكل بعض الناس هذه الأسماك وهي مطبوخة طازجة.

تحتوي هذه الأسماك على لحم زيتي وطريِّ. ويبلغ طول معظم هذه الأسماك أقل من 10سم، ويوجد لهذه الأسماك عيون كبيرة وأنف طويل بارز بشكل واضح إلى ما بعد فكها السفلي. ولون سمك الأنشوفة فضي من الناحية السُفلى وأخضر أو أزرق من ناحية الظهر.

يسبح سمك الأنشوفة في جماعات كبيرة، وتعيش معظم هذه الأسماك في مياه ساحلية ضحلة، في المناطق المدارية الدافئة. ويتم صيد أعداد هائلة من هذا السمك في البحر الأبيض المتوسط وعلى طول ساحل بيرو في أمريكا الجنوبية. ويُدعى السمك الذي يتم صيده على ساحل بيرو من هذا النوع من الأنشوفة باسم الأنسوفيتا.

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الاستهلاك

في ماليزيا والأسيان تعتبر الأنشوفي كالملح في كل مكان, وتحفظ مجففة ومقلية, وتستخدم الأنشوفي في أشهر الأطباق الأسيوية مثل "ناسي ليماك".

أما في بلاد المتوسط فغالبا تملح وتحفظ في الزيت, وهي مشهورة بعدة أكلات في مصر واليونان وإيطاليا وأسبانيا.


Anchovies at the Monterey Bay Aquarium.
Workers cleaning dried anchovies at a market in Mae Sot, تايلند


الأجناس

Genera in the family Engraulidae
Genera Species Comment Genera Species Comment
Amazonsprattus 1 Anchoa 35
Anchovia 3 Anchoviella 4
Cetengraulis 2 Coilia 13
Encrasicholina 5 Engraulis 9 Type genus for anchovy: This genus contains all the commercially significant anchovy.
Jurengraulis 1 Lycengraulis 4
Lycothrissa 1 Papuengraulis 1
Pseudosetipinna 1 Pterengraulis 1
Setipinna 8 Stolephorus 20
Thryssa 24

الخصائص

European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus

Anchovies are small, green fish with blue reflections due to a silver-colored longitudinal stripe that runs from the base of the caudal (tail) fin. They range from 2 to 40 cم (0.79 to 15.75 بوصة) in adult length,[1] and their body shapes are variable with more slender fish in northern populations.

The snout is blunt with tiny, sharp teeth in both jaws. The snout contains a unique rostral organ, believed to be sensory in nature, although its exact function is unknown.[2] The mouth is larger than that of herrings and silversides, two fish which anchovies closely resemble in other respects. The anchovy eats plankton and recently hatched fish.

التوزيع

Anchovies are found in scattered areas throughout the world's oceans, but are concentrated in temperate waters, and are rare or absent in very cold or very warm seas. They are generally very accepting of a wide range of temperatures and salinity. Large schools can be found in shallow, brackish areas with muddy bottoms, as in estuaries and bays. The European anchovy is abundant in the Mediterranean, particularly in the Alboran Sea,[3] Aegean Sea and the Black Sea.

This species is regularly caught along the coasts of Crete, Greece, Sicily, Italy, France, Turkey, Northern Iran, Portugal and Spain. They are also found on the coast of northern Africa. The range of the species also extends along the Atlantic coast of Europe to the south of Norway. Spawning occurs between October and March, but not in water colder than 12 °C (54 °F). The anchovy appears to spawn at least 100 kم (62 ميل) from the shore, near the surface of the water.

البيئة

The anchovy is a significant food source for almost every predatory fish in its environment, including the California halibut, rock fish, yellowtail, shark, chinook, and coho salmon. It is also extremely important to marine mammals and birds; for example, breeding success of California brown pelicans[4] and elegant terns is strongly connected to anchovy abundance.


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سلوك التغذي

Anchovies, like most clupeoids (herrings, sardines and anchovies), are filter-feeders that open their mouths as they swim. As water passes through the mouth and out the gills, food particles are sieved by gill rakers and transferred into the esophagus.[5]

الأنواع التجارية

قالب:Common fish

Commercially significant species
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAO ITIS IUCN status
European anchovy* Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) 20.0 cم (7.9 بوصة) 13.5 cم (5.3 بوصة) kg 5 years 3.11 [6] [7] [8] Not assessed
Argentine anchoita Engraulis anchoita (Hubbs & Marini, 1935) 17.0 cم (6.7 بوصة) cm 0.025 kغ (0.88 أونصة) years 2.51 [9] [10] [11] Not assessed
Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax (Girard, 1856) 24.8 cم (9.8 بوصة) 15.0 cم (5.9 بوصة) 0.068 kغ (2.4 أونصة) years 2.96 [12] [13] [14] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[15]
Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) 18.0 cم (7.1 بوصة) 14.0 cم (5.5 بوصة) 0.045 kغ (1.6 أونصة) 4 years 2.60 [16] [17] [18] Not assessed
Peruvian anchoveta Engraulis ringens (Jenyns, 1842) 20.0 cم (7.9 بوصة) 14.0 cم (5.5 بوصة) kg 3 years 2.70 [19] [20] [21] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[22]
Southern African anchovy Engraulis capensis (Gilchrist, 1913) 17.0 cم (6.7 بوصة) cm kg years 2.80 [23] [24] [25] Not assessed

* Type species

مصايد الأسماك

Global capture of anchovy in tonnes reported by the FAO
Capture of all anchovy reported by the FAO (green indicates Peruvian anchoveta)[26]
↑  Peruvian anchoveta 1950–2010[26]
↑  Other anchovy 1950–2010[26]
Global commercial capture of anchovy in million tonnes 1950–2010[26]


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الهامش

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Engraulidae" in FishBase. December 2008 version.
  2. ^ Nelson, Gareth (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-0-12-547665-2.
  3. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Alboran Sea. eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  4. ^ Anderson, Daniel W.; Gress, Franklin; Mais, Kenneth F.; Kelly, Paul R. (1980). North, Nance (ed.). "Brown pelicans as anchovy stock indicators and their relationships to commercial fishing" (PDF). CalCOFIs Reports. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations. 21: 55. Pelican reproductive rate ... depends largely on levels of anchovy abundance and availability.
  5. ^ Bone, Q., & Marshall, N. (1982). Biology of fishes. Glasgow: Blackie.
  6. ^ قالب:FishBase
  7. ^ Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  8. ^ Engraulis encrasicolus (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  9. ^ قالب:FishBase
  10. ^ Engraulis anchoita (Hubbs & Marini, 1935) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  11. ^ Engraulis anchoita (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  12. ^ قالب:FishBase
  13. ^ Engraulis mordax (Girard, 1856) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  14. ^ Engraulis mordax (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  15. ^ Iwamoto, T.; Eschmeyer, W. & Alvarado, J. (2010). "Engraulis mordax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T183856A8189272. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T183856A8189272.en. Cite uses deprecated parameter |last-author-amp= (help)
  16. ^ قالب:FishBase
  17. ^ Engraulis japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  18. ^ Engraulis japonicus (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  19. ^ قالب:FishBase
  20. ^ Engraulis ringens (Jenyns, 1842) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  21. ^ Engraulis ringens (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  22. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W, Alvarado J (2010). "Engraulis ringens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  23. ^ قالب:FishBase
  24. ^ Engraulis capensis (Gilchrist, 1913) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  25. ^ Engraulis capensis (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  26. ^ أ ب ت ث Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets

المصادر

وصلات خارجية