حرشفيات

(تم التحويل من Squamata)
الزواحف الحرشفية
Scaled reptiles
Temporal range: الجوراسي-الحاضر
Blue-toungued skink444.jpg
سحلية زرقاء اللسان شرقية
التصنيف العلمي
مملكة: الحيوان
Phylum: الحبليات
Class: الزواحف
Order: الحرشفيات Squamata
اوپل، 1811
تحت الرتب

طالع النص

World.distribution.sauria.1.png
اللون الأسود: نطاق الحرشفيات

الحرشفيات بالإنگليزية: Squamata تشمل رتبة الحرشفيات أكثر الزواحف انتشاراً حيث تشكل أنواعها 59% من الزواحف حيث تعيش في جميع أنحاء العالم ما عدا المناطق الباردة وتتكاثر معظم أنواعها بالبيوض والقليل منها يحتفظ بالبيض داخل الجسم حتى يفقس، ويغطي جلدها حراشف تتجدد بشكل دوري.

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التطور

التكاثر

Trachylepis maculilabris, skinks mating

تطور الذيفان venom

البشر والحرشفيات

العض والوفاة

خريطة تبين التوزيع العالمي لقتلى عضة الثعبان.


جهود الحفاظ

التصنيف العلمي

تقليدياً، كانت الرتبة تنقسم إلى ثلاث تحت-رتب:

Of these, the lizards form a paraphyletic group (since "lizards" excludes the sub-clade of snakes). In newer classifications the name Sauria is used for reptiles and birds in general, and the Squamata are divided differently:

The relationships between these suborders is not yet certain, though recent research[1] suggests that several families may form a hypothetical venom clade which encompasses a majority (nearly 60%) of Squamate species. Named Toxicofera, it combines the following groups from traditional classification[1]:

  • Suborder Serpentes (الثعابين)
  • Suborder Iguania (agamids, chameleons, iguanids, etc.)
  • Infraorder Anguimorpha, consisting of:
    • Family Varanidae (monitor lizards, including the Komodo dragon)
    • Family Anguidae (alligator lizards, glass lizards, etc.)
    • Family Helodermatidae (Gila monster and Mexican beaded lizard)


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قائمة الفصائل

Amphisbaenia
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Amphisbaenidae
Gray, 1865
Tropical worm lizards Darwin's worm lizard (Amphisbaena darwinii) -
Bipedidae
Taylor, 1951
Bipes worm lizards Mexican mole lizard (Bipes biporus) -
Rhineuridae
Vanzolini, 1951
North American worm lizards North American worm lizard (Rhineura floridana) Amphisbaenia 1.jpg
Trogonophidae
Gray, 1865
Palearctic worm lizards Checkerboard worm lizard (Trogonophis wiegmanni) -
Anguoidea or Diploglossa
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Anguidae
Oppel, 1811
Glass lizards Slow worm (Anguis fragilis) Anguidae.jpg
Anniellidae
Gray, 1852
American legless lizards California legless lizard (Anniella pulchra) Anniella pulchra.jpg
Xenosauridae
Cope, 1866
Knob-scaled lizards Chinese crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus) Chin-krokodilschwanzechse-01.jpg
Gekkota
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Dibamidae
Boulenger, 1884
Blind lizards Dibamus nicobaricum -
Gekkonidae
Gray, 1825
Geckos Thick-tailed gecko (Underwoodisaurus milii) Underwoodisaurus milii.jpg
Pygopodidae
Boulenger, 1884
Legless lizards Burton's snake lizard (Lialis burtonis) -
Iguania
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Agamidae
Spix, 1825
Agamas Eastern bearded dragon (Pogona barbata) Bearded dragon04.jpg
Chamaeleonidae
Gray, 1825
Chameleons Veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Chamaelio calyptratus.jpg
Corytophanidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Casquehead lizards Plumed basilisk (Basiliscus plumifrons) Plumedbasiliskcele4 edit.jpg
Crotaphytidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Collared and leopard lizards Common collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris)
خطأ في إنشاء صورة مصغرة: الملف مفقود
Hoplocercidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Wood lizards or clubtails Club-tail iguana (Hoplocercus spinosus) -
Iguanidae Iguanas Marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) Marineiguana03.jpg
Leiosauridae
Frost et al., 2001
- Darwin's iguana (Diplolaemus darwinii) -
Opluridae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Madagascan iguanas Chalarodon (Chalarodon madagascariensis) -
Phrynosomatidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Earless, spiny, tree, side-blotched and horned lizards Greater earless lizard (Cophosaurus texanus) Reptile tx usa.jpg
Polychrotidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Anoles Carolina anole (Anolis carolinensis) Anolis carolinensis.jpg
Tropiduridae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Neotropical ground lizards (Microlophus peruvianus) Mperuvianus.jpg
Platynota or Varanoidea
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Helodermatidae Gila monsters Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) Gila.monster.arp.jpg
Lanthanotidae Earless monitor Earless monitor (Lanthanotus borneensis) -
Varanidae Monitor lizards Perentie (Varanus giganteus) Perentie Lizard Perth Zoo SMC Spet 2005.jpg
Scincomorpha
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Cordylidae Spinytail lizards Girdle-tailed lizard (Cordylus warreni) Cordylus breyeri1.jpg
Gerrhosauridae Plated lizards Sudan plated lizard (Gerrhosaurus major) Gerrhosaurus major.jpg
Gymnophthalmidae Spectacled lizards - -
Lacertidae
Oppel, 1811
Wall or true lizards Ocellated lizard (Lacerta lepida) Perleidechse-20.jpg
Scincidae
Oppel, 1811
Skinks Western blue-tongued skink (Tiliqua occipitalis) Tiliqua occipitalis.jpg
Teiidae Tegus or whiptails Blue tegu (Tupinambis teguixin) Goldteju Tupinambis teguixin.jpg
Xantusiidae Night lizards Granite night lizard (Xantusia henshawi) Xantusia henshawi.jpg
Alethinophidia
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Acrochordidae
Bonaparte, 1831[2]
File snakes Marine file snake (Acrochordus granulatus) Wart snake 1.jpg
Aniliidae
Stejneger, 1907[3]
Coral pipe snakes Burrowing false coral (Anilius scytale)
Anomochilidae
Cundall, Wallach and Rossman, 1993.[4]
Dwarf pipe snakes Leonard's pipe snake, (Anomochilus leonardi)
Atractaspididae
Günther, 1858[5]
Mole vipers Bibron's burrowing asp (Atractaspis bibroni)
Boidae
Gray, 1825[2]
Boas Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus) Corallushortulanus.png
Bolyeriidae
Hoffstetter, 1946
Round Island boas Round Island burrowing boa (Bolyeria multocarinata)
Colubridae
Oppel, 1811[2]
Colubrids Grass snake (Natrix natrix) Natrix natrix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
Cylindrophiidae
Fitzinger, 1843
Asian pipe snakes Red-tailed pipe snake (Cylindrophis ruffus) Cylindrophis rufus.jpg
Elapidae
Boie, 1827[2]
Cobras, coral snakes, mambas, kraits, sea snakes, sea kraits, Australian elapids King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Ophiophagus hannah2.jpg
Loxocemidae
Cope, 1861
Mexican burrowing snakes Mexican burrowing snake (Loxocemus bicolor) Loxocemus bicolor.jpg
Pythonidae
Fitzinger, 1826
Pythons Ball python (Python regius) Ball python lucy.JPG
Tropidophiidae
Brongersma, 1951
Dwarf boas Northern eyelash boa (Trachyboa boulengeri)
Uropeltidae
Müller, 1832
Shield-tailed snakes, short-tailed snakes Cuvier's shieldtail (Uropeltis ceylanica) Silybura shortii.jpg
Viperidae
Oppel, 1811[2]
Vipers, pitvipers, rattlesnakes European asp (Vipera aspis) Vipera-aspis-aspis-1.jpg
Xenopeltidae
Bonaparte, 1845
Sunbeam snakes Sunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor) XenopeltisUnicolorRooij.jpg
Scolecophidia
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Anomalepidae
Taylor, 1939[2]
Dawn blind snakes Dawn blind snake (Liotyphlops beui)
Leptotyphlopidae
Stejneger, 1892[2]
Slender blind snakes Texas blind snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis) Leptotyphlops dulcis.jpg
Typhlopidae
Merrem, 1820[6]
Blind snakes Black blind snake (Typhlops reticulatus)


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الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب Fry, B.; et al. (2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes" (PDF). Nature. 439 (7076): 584–588. doi:10.1038/nature04328. PMID 16292255. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ Cogger(1991), p.23
  3. ^ Aniliidae (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  4. ^ Anomochilidae (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  5. ^ Atractaspididae (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  6. ^ Typhlopidae (TSN {{{ID}}}). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.

الهامش

  • Bebler, John L.; King, F. Wayne (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of North America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 581. ISBN  0394508246 .
  • Capula, Massimo (1989). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. نيويورك: Simon & Schuster. ISBN  0671690981 . Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Cogger, Harold; Zweifel, Richard (1992). Reptiles & Amphibians. Sydney, Australia: Weldon Owen. ISBN  0831727861 .
  • Conant, Roger; Collins, Joseph (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern/Central North America. Boston, مساتشوستس: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN  0395583896 .
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1933). Reptiles of the World: The Crocodilians, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Tortoises of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. نيويورك: Macmillian. p. 321.
  • Evans SE. 2003. At the feet of the dinosaurs: the origin, evolution and early diversification of squamate reptiles (Lepidosauria: Diapsida). Biological Reviews, Cambridge 78: 513–551. DOI: 10.1017/S1464793103006134
  • Evans SE. 2008. The skull of lizards and tuatara. In Biology of the Reptilia, Vol.20, Morphology H: the skull of Lepidosauria, Gans C, Gaunt A S, Adler K. (eds). Ithica, New York, Society for the study of Amphibians and Reptiles. pp1–344. Weblink to purchase
  • Evans SE, Jones MEH. 2010. The origin, early history and diversification of lepidosauromorph reptiles. In Bandyopadhyay S. (ed.), New Aspects of Mesozoic Biodiversity, 27 Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 132, 27-44. DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-10311-7_2
  • Freiberg, Dr. Marcos; Walls, Jerry (1984). The World of Venomous Animals. نيوجرزي: TFH Publications. ISBN  0876665679 .
  • Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Gibbons, Whit (1983). Their Blood Runs Cold: Adventures With Reptiles and Amphibians. Alabama: University of Alabama Press. p. 164. ISBN  978-0817301354 .
  • McDiarmid, RW; Campbell, JA; Touré, T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 1. Herpetologists' League. p. 511. ISBN  1893777006 .
  • Mehrtens, John (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. نيويورك: Sterling. ISBN  0806964618 .
  • Rosenfeld, Arthur (1989). Exotic Pets. نيويورك: Simon & Schuster. p. 293. ISBN  067147654 Check |isbn= value: length (help).

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