حوت قاتل

(تم التحويل من Killer whale)
"حوت اوركا" تحوّل إلى هنا. لمطالعة استخدامات أخرى، انظر حوت اوركا (توضيح).
الحوت القاتل
Killer whale[1]
Two killer whales jump above the sea surface, showing their black, white and grey colouration. The closer whale is upright and viewed from the side, while the other whale is arching backwards to display its underside.
Transient killer whales near Unimak Island, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska
Conservation status
التصنيف العلمي
مملكة: الحيوانية
Phylum: الحبليات
Class: الثدييات
Order: حيتانيات
Suborder: Odontoceti
Family: Delphinidae
Genus: ''Orcinus''
Species: ''O. orca''
Binomial name
Orcinus orca
Linnaeus, 1758
A world map shows killer whales are found throughout every ocean, except parts of the Arctic. They are also absent from the Black and Baltic Seas.
Orcinus orca range (in blue)
Synonyms

Orca gladiator

Diagram showing a killer whale and scuba diver from the side. The whale is about four times longer than the person, who is roughly as long as the whale's dorsal fin.
Size comparison to an average human

الحوت القاتل (Orcinus orca)، ويشار إليه عادة باسم اوركا، أو السمكة السوداء، هو أكبر أنواع عائلة الدلافين. وينتشر في جميع محيطات العالم، من المنطقة المتجمدة في القطب الشمالي إلى أنتاركتيكا حتى البحار الاستوائية. وللحيتان القاتلة أنظمة غذائية متنوعة، على الرغم من أن كل مجموعة تتخصص في نوع معين من الغذاء. ويعتمد بعضها على الأسماك، وبخاصة سمك السلمون، وبعض الأنواع الأخرى تتغذى على الثدييات البحرية وأسود البحر، عجول البحر، الفظ، أو حتى على الحيتان الكبيرة. Killer whales are regarded as an apex predator as they have no natural predators.


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التصنيف والتطور

الأسماء الشائعة

الأنواع

Killer whale mother and calf extending their bodies above the water surface, from pectoral fins forward, with ice-pack in background
Type C killer whales in the Ross Sea. The eye patch slants forward.


الوصف

Killer whale with only top of back and dorsal fin visible above water surface. The dorsal fin curves backward at the tip.
The dorsal fin and saddle patch of a resident killer whale in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It may be either an adult female, or a juvenile of either sex.

يتراوح طول حوت اوركا بين 6 و9م، ويزن من 3 إلى 9 أطنان. وله ظهر أسود لامع. ويتراوح عدد أسنانه ما بين 40 و48 سنًا. وتتوزع مابين 10 و12 سنًا على كل جانب من الفك الواحد. ويسبح عادة في جماعات يتراوح عددها بين اثنين ومجموعات كبيرة. ويمكنه السباحة بسرعة تصل إلى ما يوازي 40كم/ الساعة. وتلك هي سرعة الحوت الأزرق. ولكنه لا يستطيع الاحتفاظ بتلك السرعة لمدة طويلة. [3]

ويتغذى بأسماك السالمون وغيرها من الأسماك الكبيرة. ويهاجم الدلافين الصغيرة وكلاب البحر والفقمة أيضًا. ولم يُعرف عنه مهاجمته للبشر، ويوجد في جميع المحيطات، ولكن بصفة خاصة في المناطق الباردة.

دورة الحياة

Back and dorsal fin of killer whale projecting above the sea surface, including the grey saddle patch and part of the white eye patch. The dorsal fin rises steeply to a rounded point.
An adult male killer whale with its characteristic tall dorsal fin swims in the waters near Tysfjord, Norway


الانتشار

A killer whale bursts forward out of the water. Its head is just starting to point downward, and is about a body width above the surface.
To travel quickly, killer whales leap out of the water when swimming—a behavior known as porpoising


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التغذية

Skeleton suspended on metal framework, which incorporates an outline of the soft tissue along a median cross-section of the animal. The jaws host many sharp teeth, and pectoral fin bones are attached to the lower ribs. The backbone stretches away out of frame; no hind limb bones can be seen. The outline includes an upright dorsal fin and rounded forehead.
A killer whale skull


الفرائس من الأسماك وذوات الدم البارد الأخرى

A group of killer whales have surfaced. Four dorsal fins are visible, three of which curve backward at the tip.
Resident (fish-eating) killer whales. The curved dorsal fins are typical of resident females.



الفرائس من الثدييات

A pod of at least a dozen sea lions, swimming underwater
California sea lions are common prey for killer whales on the west coast of North America.


Three killer whales swim along beside a large iceberg. Over 15 penguins stand on the berg; most of them are on the edge nearest the whales, and are looking towards them.
Killer whales swim by an iceberg with Adélie penguins in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Drygalski Ice Tongue is in the background.


الطيور

السوك

The front half of a killer whale projects vertically out of the water, in a hole surrounded by the ice pack. The water surface is disturbed only by relatively small ripples.
Killer whales often raise their bodies out of the water in a behaviour called spyhopping.



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التركيب الاجتماعي

A killer whale leaping out of the water is about to land on its back.
Killer whales, like this one spotted near Alaska, commonly breach, often lifting their entire bodies out of the water.

الألفاظ

Multimedia relating to the Orca
انظر أيضاً: Whale song


name="NMFS 2005, pp. 15-16"/>

الذكاء

المقالة الرئيسية: ذكاء الحيتان


الحفاظ عليه

Killer whale forges through small ice floes. Its back is dark from the head to just behind the dorsal fin, where there is a light grey saddle patch. Behind this, and on its lower side, its skin is an intermediate shade.
The Type C killer whale has two-toned gray colouring, including a dark "dorsal cape," in body areas where most killer whales have solid black colouring. Research is ongoing into whether one or more killer whale types is a distinct species in need of protection.


Two killer whales, one large and one small, swim close together. Their dorsal fins curve backward.
An adult female and her calf


A Killer whale with a tall, sharply pointed dorsal fin. Its saddle and eye patches are dark grey.
The last known AT1 pod offspring, AT3, swimming in Resurrection Bay.


علاقاته بالإنسان

ثقافات السكان الأصليين

Jade carving of a killer whale with exaggerated fins and bared teeth. Its body and fins are engraved with nested ovals and other patterns.
Haida sculpture by Bill Reid


"Killer" stereotype

Killer whale silhouette, with two projections above shown above the blowhole
Male killer whale depicted in St Mary's in Greifswald, ألمانيا, 1545.[4]



السلوك الغربي الحديث

Killer whale wrapped in white cloth on a boat, surrounded by four people. A board braces its dorsal fin.
In 2002, the orphan Springer was successfully returned to her family.



صيد الحيتان

A killer whale swims alongside a whaling boat, with a smaller whale in between. Two men are standing, the harpooner in the bow and another manning the aft rudder, while four oarsmen are seated.
The killer whale named Old Tom swims alongside a whaling boat, flanking a whale calf. The boat is being towed by a harpooned whale (not visible here).


الأسر

المقالة الرئيسية: أسر الحوت القاتل
Lolita, performing at the Miami Seaquarium. She is one of the oldest and most hotly debated captive orca.

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معرض الصور

صور

عروض

رسومات توضيحية

خرائط

متنوعات

مرئيات/صوتيات



المصادر

  1. ^ قالب:MSW3 Cetacea
  2. ^ Taylor, B.L., Baird, R., Barlow, J., Dawson, S.M., Ford, J., Mead, J.G., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Wade, P. & Pitman, R.L. (2008). Orcinus Orca. القائمة الحمراء للأنواع المهددة بالانقراض 2008. IUCN سنة 2008. تم استرجاعها في 1 January 2009.
  3. ^ الموسوعة المعرفية الشاملة
  4. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Greifswald church
مصادر عامة
  • Orcinus orca (TSN 180469). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 18 March 2006.
  • Baird, Robin W.: Killer Whales of the World Voyageur Press, Stillwater, MN, 2002.
  • Ford, John K.B. 2002. "Killer Whale", pp. 669–675 in the Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-551340-2
  • Ford, John K.B., Ellis, Graeme M. and Balcomb, Kenneth C. (2000). Killer Whales, Second Edition. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-0800-4. 
  • خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  • Hoyt, Erich. 1998. Orca: The Whale Called Killer, Camden House Publishing, ISBN 9780920656259
  • خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  • Klinowska, Margaret (1991). The IUCN Red Data Book: Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World. IUCN. ISBN 2880329361. 
  • Menoščikov, G. A.: "Popular Conceptions, Religious Beliefs and Rites of the Asiatic Eskimoes". Published in Diószegi, Vilmos and Hoppál, Mihály: Folk Beliefs and Shamanistic Traditions in Siberia. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1968, 1996.
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Regional Office (2005) "Conservation Plan for Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) " Seattle, U.S.A. Retrieved on January 2, 2009
  • خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  • Reeves, Stewart and Clapham and Powell, Alfred A. Knopf. 2002. National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World ISBN 0-375-41141-0
  • خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  • Shevchenko, I.V. "Kharakter vzaimootnoshenii kasatok i drugikh kitoobraznykh'" in Morskie mlekopitayushchie (in Russian, transliterations vary). "The nature of interrelationships between Killer Whales and Other Cetaceans", 1975, pp. 173–175. The author describes his discovery of Orca cannibalism.

وصلات خارجية

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